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Part I. 









mi:rray'9 handbooks mat be ODTAIMED 01 
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( 4 ) 


The Publisher of the * Handbook for Travellers in Spain * requests, that 
traveliers who may, in the use of the Work, detect any faults or omissions 
which they can correct from personal knowledge, will have the kindness to 
mark them down on the spot, and forward such notes, favouring him at the 
same time with their names — addressed to Mr. Murray, Albemarle Street. 
They may be reminded that by such communications they are not merely 
furnishing the means of improving the Handbook, but are contributing to 
the benefit, information, and comfort of future travellers in regard to a 
country, which is in a state of considerable change and progress. 

*♦* No attention can be paid to letters from innkeepers in praise of their 
own houses ; and the postage of them is so onerous that they cannot be 

Caution to Travellebs.— By a recent Act of Parliament the intro- 
duction into England of foreign pirated Editions of the works of British 
authors, in which the copyright subsists, is totally prohibited. Travellers 
will therefore bear in mind that even a single copy is contraband, and is 
liable to seizure at the English Custom-house. 

Caution to Innkeepers and others. — The Publisher of the Handbooks 
has learned from various quarters that a person or persons have of late been 
extorting money from innkeepers, tradespeople, artists, and others on the 
Continent, under pretext of procuring recommendations and favourable 
notices of them and their establishments in the Handbooks for Travellers. 
The Publisher, therefore, thinks proper to warn all whom it may concern, 
that recommendations in the Handbooks are not to be obtained by purchase, 
and that the persons alluded to are not only unauthorised by him, but are 
totally unknown to him. All those, therefore, who put confidence in such 
promises may rest assured that they will be defVauded of their money without 
attaining their object. — 1855. 

( 5 ) 


The rapid exhaustion of two large editions of this ' Handbook for 
Spain,' a country hitherto little known and less visited, proves that the 
Pyrenees have ceased to bar out travellers from England, to whose 
especial nse this work is destined. 

Of the many misrepresentations regarding the Peninsula, few had 
been previously more systematically circulated, than the dangers and 
difficulties. It was our office to show, that this, the most romantic and 
XJeculiar country in Europe, might in reality be visited throughout its 
length and breadth, with ease and safety, — ^that travelling there was no 
worse than it was in most parts of the continent in 1814, before English 
example forced improvements. The greatest desideratum was a practical 
Handbook, since the national Ontas are scanty and unsatisfactory, as 
few Spaniards travel in their own country, and fewer travel out of it ; 
thus, with limited means of comparison, they cannot appreciate diffe- 
rences, or know what are the wants and wishes of a foreigner. Ac- 
cordingly, in their Guides, usages, ceremonies, &c. which are familiar 
to themselves from childhood, are often passed over without notice, 
although, from their novelty to the stranger, they are exactly what he 
most desires to have pointed out and explained. Nay, the natives 
frequently despise, or feel ashamed, from a sensitiveness of being thought 
** picturesque barbarians," of those very things which the most interest 
and charm the foreigner, for whose observation they select the new 
rather than the old, and point out their poor pale copies of Europe, in pre- 
ference to their own rich and racy originals. Again, the oral information 
to be obtained on the spot is generally meagre ; as these incurious semi- 
orientals look with jealousy on the foreigner who observes or questions, 
they either fence with him in their answers, raise difficulties, or, being 
creatures of self-esteem and imagination, magnify or diminish everything 
as best suits their own objects and suspicions. The national expres- 
sions " Quien sale f nose sabe,** — " who knows ? I do not know," will 
often be the prelude to'^No sepuedCf** — " it can't be done." 

This Handbook endeavours to show what might be known and what 
may be done in Spain, with the least difficulty and the greatest satis- 
faction. With this view, the different modes of travelling by land or 
water, and the precautions necessary to be taken to insure comfort a' 


security, are first pointed out in the Introduction. The Provinces are 
then described one after another. The principal lines of high roads, 
cross-communications, names of inns, and quality of accommodation, 
are detailed, and the best seasons of the year for exploring each route 
suggested. Plans of tours are drawn up, and the best lines laid down 
for specific and specified objects. The peculiarities of districts and 
towns are noticed, and a short account given of the local antiquities, 
religion, art, scenery, and manners. This work, the fruit of many 
years' wandering in the Peninsula, is an humble attempt to furnish in 
the smallest compass, the greatest quantity of useful and entertaining 
information. Those things which every one, when on the spot, can see 
with his own eyes, are seldom described minutely ; stress is laid upon 
what to observe^ leaving it to the spectator to draw his own conclusions ; 
nor is everything that can be seen set down, but only what is really 
worth seeing, — ^nec omnia dicentur (as Pliny says, * Nat. Hist.,' x.iv. 2), 
sed maxime insignia ; and how often does the wearied traveller rejoice 
when no more is to be *' done ;" and how does he thank the faithful 
pioneer, who, by having himself toiled to see some " local lion," has 
saved others the tiresome task, by his assurance that it is not worth the 
time or trouble. 

The philosophy of Spain and Spaniards, and things to be known, 
not seen, have never been neglected; therefore dates, names, facts, 
and matters are mentioned by which local interest may be enhanced. 
Curiosity is awakened, rather than exhausted ; for to do that would 
require many more such volumes as this. But as next to knowing a 
thing oneself, is the knowing where to find it, sources of fuller informa- 
tion are cited, from whence this skeleton framework may be filled 
up, whilst such a reference to the best authorities on nice occasions, 
offers a better guarantee than any mere unsupported statement ; and 
the author whose object is tnUh, and whose wish is to have his views 
disseminated, must feel much flattered to find the good use his pages 
have been of to many authors, gentlemen and ladies too. 

In Spain, a few larger cities excepted, libraries, newspapers, cicerones, 
and those resources which so much assist the traveller in other countries 
of Europe, are among the things that are not : therefore the provident 
traveller should carry in his saddle-bags food both for mind and body, 
some supply of what he can read and eat, in this hungry land of the un- 
informed. A little more is now aimed at than a mere book of roads, or 
description of the husk of the country. To see the cities, and knoio the 
minds of men, has been, since the days of the Odyssey, the object of 
travel : but how ** difiBcult is it," in the words of the Great Duke 
(Disp., Dec. 13, 1810), " to understand the Spaniards exactly !" Made 
up of contradictions, they dwell in the land of the unexpected, lepays de 


VimprevUf where exception is the rule ; where accide&t and the impulse 
of the moment are the moving powers ; a land where men, especially in 
their collective capacity, act like women and children ; where a spark, a 
trifle, sets the impressionahle masses in action, and where no one can 
foresee the commonest events, which hafiQe the most rational and well* 
founded speculations. An explosion may occur at any moment ; nor 
does any Spaniard ever attempt to guess beyond la situacion actual, or to 
foretell what the morrow will bring : that he leaves to the foreigner, 
who does not understand him — accordingly, sufficient for the day is 
the evil thereof. Faciencia y harajar is his motto, and he waits 
patiently to see what next will turn up after another sunrise and shuffle* 
His creed and practice are " Resignation/' the Islam of the Oriental; 
for this singular people is scarcely yet European; this Berhei^ia 
Cristiana is at least a neutral ground between the hat and the turban, 
and many still contend that Africa begins at the Pyrenees. 

Be that as it may, Spain,- first civilized by the Phoenicians, and long 
possessed by the Moors, has indelibly retained many of the original 
impressions. Test her, therefore, and her natives by an Oriental 
standard, — decypher her by that key, — ^how analogous will much 
appear, that seems strange and repugnant, when compared with Euro- 
pean usages ! This land and people of routine and habit are potted for 
antiquarians, for here Pagan, Roman, and Eastern customs, long obsolete 
elsewhere, turn up at eveiy step in church and house, in cabinet and 
campaign. In this age of practical investigation, the physical features 
of Spain, her mighty mountain ranges and rivers, her wealth above and 
below ground, her vegetation and mines, offer a wide and almost new 
field to our naturalists and men of science. 

Again, to those of a less utilitarian turn, here are those seas which 
reflect the glories of Drake, Blake, . and Nelson, and those plains 
that are hallowed by the victories of the Black Prince, Stanhope, 
and Wellington; and what English pilgrim will fail to visit such 
sites, or be dead to the religio loci which they inspire ? And where 
better than on the sites themselves, can be read the great deeds 
of our soldiers and sailors, their gallantry and good conduct, the 
genius, mercy, and integrity of their immortal chiefs, which will 
be here faithfully yet not boastingly recorded? While every lie 
and libel is circulated on each side of the Pyrenees, is, forsooth, the 
truth to be altogether withheld in pages destined especially for their 
countrymen ? Is their history to be treated as an old almanack, in 
order in false or cowardly delicacy, to curry favour with unprincipled 
vanity writhing under defeat, or with impotent pride resenting benefits 
which imply inferiority ? The mirror that shall truly reflect Spain 
and her things, her glories and shame, must disclose a chequered pictur 


in which black spots will contrast with bright lights, and the evil 
clash with the good ; sad indeed will be many a page ; alas ! for the 
works of ages of piety, science, and fine art, trampled down by the 
Vandal heel of destroyers, foreign and domestic, who have left a deep 
footprint, and set " the mark of the beast," which will pain the 
scholar, the artist, and the philanthropist. If, however, such crimes 
and culprits come like dark shadows (for not one tithe of the full 
substance of crime will be set down), it must never be forgotten that 
these verdicts of guilty refer to jparticular individuals and periods, and 
not to any nation in general or to all times. And far more pleasant 
has been the duty of dwelling on deeds of skill and valour performed 
on the peninsular arena by native or foreigner, by friend or foe, and of 
pointing out the excellences of this favoured land of Spain, and of 
enlarging on the generous, manly, independent, and picturesque 
People, whose best energies in peace and war have been too often 
depressed by misgovemment in Church and State. 

However it may be the bounden duty of an honest guide to put 
English travellers in possession of the truth as regards many things, 
facts and persons, and thus to guard them against misrepresentations, 
our readers need by no means, on crossing the Channel, blurt out all 
they know of these truths, often the worst of libels. These double- 
edged weapons may be kept undrawn until necessary for self-defence. 
Gratuitously to wound a sensitive kindly people, is neither polite or 
friendly in the stranger, who is their guest — who will pass more quietly 
through the land by making things pleasant to the natives, and if 
speech be silver, silence is often gold. 

" HaBC studia adolescentiam agunt, senectutem oblectant, secundas 
res omant, adversis perfugium ac solatium praebent ; delectant domi, non 
impediunt foris ; pemoctant nobiscum, perigrinantur, rusticantur." — 
Cicero, pro Arch, 7. 

( 9 ) 



Pbeface ••••••••••••• 5 


Public ConTeyances and Steamers ••• 11 

Tours in Spain — General Notices •••••••••••34 

Skeleton Tours ••••41 

Section H.— ANDALUCIA. 

Introductory Information 126 

Routes .126 

Section in.— RONDA AND GRANADA. 

Introductory Sketch of the Country and Natives : Routes • • • .251 
Kingdom of Granada •••••• 291 


General View of the Country and its Productions : Routes • • • 338 
Mines • •••••••• 339 

Section V.— VALENCIA. 

General Account of the Country, Natiyes, and Agriculture • • . 360 

Routes 360 

Valencia • • • 366 

Section VI.— CATALONIA. 

Character of the Country and Natives — Commerce — Smuggling and 

Routes • * 391 

Barcelona and its History •••••• 408 

Index ' 

10 C0NTKNT8, 


Section Vn.— ESTREMADURA. 

General View of the Province — its Merinos, Pigs, and Routes • .461 
Badajoz 466 

Section YIII.— LEON. 

Introductory Remarks on the Province and Natives, and Routes • 504 

Salamanca 514 

ElVierzo 539 

YaUadolid 566 


Introductory Sketches of the Country, People, Production, and Routes 587 
Santiago 601 

Section X.— THE ASTURIAS. 

General View of the Principality, Early History, Natives, and Routes 631 
Oviedo and Coal Mines < •• 635 


General Account of the Country, Natives, and Routes 652 

Madrid 663 

Escorial • 750 

Toledo 774 


The Fueros, Character of Country and Natives, Manners, Language, 872 
and Routes • 903 


Constitutional History, Character of Country and People • • • . 906 
Zaragoza ••••• 948 


The (Dountry, Natives; and Routes ••••....•• 952 
Pamplona .•••...•.. 

Index ; To which the reader is particularly requested to refer, when 
any word or feet seems to require explanation 963 

Spain. { 11 ) 


I. Spam and Spaniards ; National CkaractertsiicB, — II, FoMports,'-^ 
III. CustoTTirhotuse Officers; Prohibited Articles, — IV. Spanish 
Money, '-^Y, Steam Communications, ^-"'^ I, TraveUing by Land; 
Hoods ; Posting Begulations and Charges ; Post-office and Letters ; 
Mail-coaches; Diligences; Muleteers; Riding Tours, — VII. Inns, 
— Vni. Robbers, — IX. Geography of Spain; Provinces and Climate; 
what to observe ; Tours in Spain ; Tour for the Idler ; the Grand 
Tour ; Hints to Invalids ; a Ruling Tour ; Mineral Baths, —-'K, SkeU" 
ton Tours: — 1. Roman Antiquarian Tour; 2. Moorish Tour; 3. 
Oedogical and Mineralogical Tour ; 4. Tour over the Cream of Spain ; 
5. A Summer Tour in the North of Spain ; 6. A Central Tour round 
Madrid ; 7, An Artistical Tour ; 8. A Military and Naval Tour ; 
9. Shooting and Fishing Tours; 10. DiUetante Tours: Spanisli 
Sculpture, its varieties ; Pasos ; List of Sculptors ; 11. DiUetante 
Tours: Painting ; Spanish Painting and its Characteristics ; Cautions 
to Purchasers ; List of Painters ; 12. Spanish Architecture ; its varieties 
and periods ; List of Architects ; 13. Ecdesiciogical Tour ; Spanish 
Cathedrals; Disposition and Technical Terms, — XI. Religious Fes^ 
tivals Tour, — XII. Kings of Spain. — XIII. Tahle of Contemporary 
Sovereigns. — XIV. Royal Arms of Spain, — XV. The Era and New 
Style. — XVI. Spanish Language and P^rowes. — XVII. Relative 
Scales of Spanish and Fngli^ Weights^ Distances, and Measures. — 
XVIII. Authorities quoted: — 1. Historical and Artistical; 2. Re- 
ligious; S. Military ; French, Spanish, and English; 4. Miscellaneous 
Books, — XIX. A Word to Book Collectors. — XX. Hints to Authors. 
*-XXI. The BuU-fight. — XKlI. The S^nish Theatre: Dances, 
Music, — XXin. Spanish Cigars. — XaIV. Spanish Costume ; 
Mantilla and Cloak. — XXV. General Hints and Advice on Conduct. 

I. — Spain and Spaniards. 

Singe Spain appears, on the map, to be a square and most compact 
kingdom, politicians and geographers have treated it and its inhabitants 
as one and the same ; practically, however, this is almost a geographical 
expression, as the earth, air, and mortals, of the different portions 
of this conventional whole, are altogether heterogeneous. Peninsular 
man has followed the nature by which he is surrounded ; mountains 
and rivers have walled, and moated the dislocated land ; mists and 
gleams have diversified the heaven ; and differing like soil and sky, 
the people, in each of the once independent provinces now loosely 
bound together by one golden hoop, the Crown, has its own par- 
ticular character. To hate his neighbour is a second nature to ♦ 
Spaniard ; no spick and span constitution, be it printed on parchmei 



calico, can at once efTace traditions and antipathies of a thousand years ; 
the accidents of localities and provincial nationalities, out of which they 
have sprung, remain too deeply dyed to be forthwith discharged by 
theorists, llie climate and productions vary no less than do language, 
costume, and manners ; and so division and localism have, from time 
immemorial, formed a marked national feature. Spaniards may talk 
and boast of their country, of their Patrta, as is done by the similarly 
circumstanced Italians, but like them and the Germans, they have the 
fallacy, but no real Fatherland ; it is an aggregation rather than an 
amalgamation, — every single individual in his heart really only loving 
his native province, and only considering as his fellow-countryman, 
8u paisano — a most binding and endearing word— one born in the same 
locality as himself : hence it is not easy to predicate much in regard 
to " the Spains " and Spaniards in general, which will hold quite good 
as to each particular portion ruled by the sovereign of Las Espanas, the 
plural title given to the chief of the federal union of this really little 
united kingdom. Espanolismo may, however, be said to consist in a 
love for a common faith and king, and in a coincidence of resistance 
to all foreign dictation. The deep sentiments of religion, loyalty, and 
independence, noble characteristics indeed, have been sapped in our 
times by the influence of transpyrenean revolutions. 

In order to assist strangers in understanding the Peninsula and its 
people, some preliminary remarks are prefixed to each section or pro- 
vince, in which the leading characteristics of nature and man are 
pointed out. T^5^o general observations may be premised. First. The 
People of Spain, the so-called Lower Orders, are superior to those who 
arrogate to themselves the title of being their Betters, and in most 
respects are more interesting. The masses, the least spoilt and the 
most national, stand like pillars amid ruins, and on them the edifice of 
Spain's greatness is — ^if ever — to be reconstructed. This may have 
arisen, in this land of anomalies, from the peculiar policy of government 
in church and state, where the possessors of religious and civil mono- 
polies who dreaded knowledge as power, pressed heavily on the noble 
and rich, dwarfing down their bodies by intermarriages, and all but 
extinguishing their minds by Inquisitions; while the People, over- 
looked in the obscurity of poverty, were allowed to grow out to their 
ifull growth like wild weeds of a rich soil. They, in fact, have long 
enjoyed under despotisms of church and state, a practical and personal 
independence, the good results of which are evident in their stalwart 
frames and manly bearing. 

Secondly, A distinction must ever be made between the Spaniard 
in his individtidl and in his collective capacity, and still more in 
an official one : taken by himself, he is true and valiant : the nicety 
of his Pundonory or point of personal honour, is proverbial ; to him 
as an individual, you may safely trust your life, fair fame, and purse. 
Yet history, treating of these individuals in the collective, juntados, 
presents the foulest examples of misbehaviour in the field, of Punic bad 
faith in the cabinet, of bankruptcy and repudiation on the exchange. 
This may be also much ascribed to the deteriorating influence of bad 
government, by which the individual Spaniard, like the monk in a 

-i.vent, becomes fused into the corporate. The atmosphere is too 

Spain. u. passports. 13 

infectious to avoid some comiption, and while the Spaniard feels that 
his character is only in safe keeping when in his own hands, and no roan 
of any nation knows better then how to uphold it, when linked with 
others, his self-pride, impatient of any superior, lends itself readily to 
feelings of mistrust, until self-interest and preservation become upper* 
most. From suspecting that he will be sold and sacrificed by others, 
he ends by floating down the turbid stream like the rest : yet even 
official employment does not quite destroy all private good qualities, and 
the empleado may be appealed to as an individual, 

II. — Pasbpobts. 

A Passport — that curse of continental travelling, and still essential 
in Spain — may be obtained at the Foreign-office, Downing-street, 
for Is, Qd,, by any British subject, backed with the recommendation of 
a banker. It had better be vis^ by the Spanish Ambassador in Lon- 
don. As this Refrendacion is expressed in the Spanish language, the 
import of a foreign passport becomes intelligible in Spain, where, out of 
the large towns, few persons understand either English or French. ITie 
essence of a passport is the name and country of the bearer ; all the rest 
is leather and prunella and red-tapeism. 

Travellers who propose taking Portugal in their way to Spain, may 
obtain a passport from the Portuguese consul, at No. 5, Jeffreys-square, 
St. Mary Axe ; the fee is five shillings. It must be vis^d at Lisbon by 
the English and Spanish Ambassadors previously to entering Spain. 
Those who enter Spain from France must have their passports vis^d at 
Paris by the Spanish Ambassador, and at Bayonne by the Spanish and 
English Consuls ; the latter demanding a fee, '* according to Act of 

At the principal sea-ports of Spain, foreigners are constantly arriving 
in the steamers without passports, who, if they wish to travel into the 
interior, obtain one from the local authorities, which is never refused 
when applied for by the English Consul. This especially holds good 
with regard to those who visit the coast in their yachts, or in ships of 
war. Those English who go directly to Gibraltar require no passport ; 
and when starting for Spain they can obtain one either from the English 
Governor or from the Spanish Governor of Algeciras : both of these 
require to be vis^d by the Spanish Consul at Gibraltar, who demands a 
trifling fee. 

Although in peaceful times, and since the decree on this subject 
of February 15, 1854, many rigid rules are relaxed, yet as they may 
be put in force, ultra-prudent travellers who intend travelling with 
fire-arms, (which on the whole had better be avoided, a pocket revolver 
perhaps excepted,) should have the circumstance mentioned on their 
passport by the Spanish official at starting, when it is first refrendado. 
And it is not amiss to have specified the particular objects of travel, 
such as botanising, geologizing, sketching, &c. In our and in all 
troublesome times a stranger making drawings or writing down notes 
in a book, " mcando pianos,^* ** taking plans," " mapeando el pais,^* 
" mapping the country," — for such are the expressions for the simplest 
pencil sketch — ^was liable to become an object of suspicion in out-of-the 
way places, and was thought to be an engineer, a spy, and at all even 

14 u* PASSPORTS* Sect. I. 

about no good. This Oriental dislike to the impertinente curioso tribe 
dates from the French having, previously to Buonaparte's invasion, 
sent emissaries in the guise of travellers, to obtain such information as 
afterwards facilitated their obtaining possession of the citadels, treasures, 
and pictures of their deceived ally. Matters are, we are told, much 
mended ; but let artists remember that Hogarth and Wilkie were arrested 
for even sketching Calais, and it is always best to be on the safe side. 

All persons, moreover, had better avoid evincing particular curiosity 
in regard to military matters, fortresses, arsenals, barracks, &c. ; and 
should refrain from sketching them, which, in the Draco laws of Spain, 
is of itself a serious offence ; nor indeed are these objects deserving of 
notice, being mostly hors-de-combat, after the Oriental fashion, and, as 
the Duke said, " wanting in everything, and at the critical moment.'* 

Our own system, which answered perfectly when Ferdinand VII. was 
king, and may again, was, not only to have the object of travelling and 
inquiries clearly explained on our passport, but on arrival at any town, 
to communicate intention of drawing, or anything else, to the proper 
authority, and obtain his sanction. We always travelled with a captain- 
generaPs passport, a most desirable document, as it is expressed in the 
Spanish language, which everybody understands, and which rouses no 
suspicions like one couched in a foreign tongue; it is the military 
document of the great military officer, under whose especial protection 
all foreigners are placed. Again, it is a sort of letter of recommenda- 
tion to all other officers in command on the line of route, on whom the 
bearer should call the first thing, as when once a Spaniard's suspicions 
are disarmed, no person can be more courteous or attentive. 

In whatever language his passport be couched, let every Englishman, 
like good old George III., glory everywhere in his British birthright, 
and proclaim it loudly and with thanks to God : Senor^ gracias a Dios, 
soy CabaUero Ingles. Again, as the thing cannot be avoided, the 
traveller should early form the habit, the very first thing on arrival, to 
ask the innkeeper what steps are necessary about passports and police — 
which now in some sort represent the Inquisition — and forthwith see that 
he is quite en regie. The habit once established of complying with 
these forms practically gives little trouble, and will obviate a world of 
vexation, inconvenience, and loss of time. The necessary formalities 
are soon done ; and usually great civility is shown by the authorities to 
those travellers who will wait upon them in person, which is not always 
required, and who do taJ^ off their hats — that outward visible sign of 
good breeding and good intentions on the continent, which is so fre- 
quently disregarded by our cool, curt, and catch-cold countrymen, to 
their infinite cost. The Spaniards, who are not to be driven with a rod 
of iron, may be led by a straw, and in no countiy is more to be obtained 
by the cheap outlay of courtesy in manner and speech ; " cortesia de 
hoca, mucho vale y poco cttesta,^* As a general rule, the utmost care 
should be taken of this odious passport, since the loss of it naturally 
subjects the stranger to every sort of suspicion. It should be carried 
about the person when travelling, as it is liable constantly to be called 
for : to prevent it from being worn out, it is advisable to have it laid down 
''"V Mr. Lee, 440, West Strand, on fine linen, bound into a small pocket- 
)k, with blank leaves attached, on which signatures may be written. 



Akin to the nuisance of passports is that of the Aduaneros, the 
custom-house officers, and of the receivers of the derechoa de puerta, or 
dues levied at city-gates on comesttblea de boca — articles of eating and 
drinking. From the number of the employed it would seem that every 
province and town in Spain was at war with or foreign to its neighbour. 
No prudent traveller will ever risk his ease and security by carrying 
any prohibited goods with him. The objects most searched for, are 
sealed letters and tobacco : if the lover of cigars has a considerable 
stock with him (a pound or so may pass), he is advised to declare it 
at once, pay the duty, and obtain Skguia, or permit, which exempts him 
from further molestation. English fire-arms and gunpowder are 
altogether prohibited. Sportsmen, however, who enter Spain from 
Gibraltar, may manage to introduce their own guns and ammunition. 

As the Be8guardo8f — the custom-^ouse officers and preventive service 
—have a right to examine baggage, it is of no use either to resist 
or lose thus time and temper ; much more may be done by good 
humour, patience, civility, and a cigar: raise therefore no difficulties, 
but ofiFer your keys, and profess the greatest readiness to have every- 
thing examined. Eecent travellers report that bribing is now out of 
fashion in Spain, and that no money should be offered, as is enjoined 
but not practised on our railways. But in our time the grandest 
panacea was cash, the oriental Backshish, and those who preferred peace 
to pesetas, paid with both hands. The official ophthalmia created by 
an apposite sprinkle of gold-dust was marvellous in its rapidity and 
completeness, and the examination ended in being a mere farce. The 
tmpieados, used to be defined as gentlemen, who, under the pretence 
of searching portmanteaus, took money on the highway without incur- 
ring the disgrace of begging, or the danger of robbing. The bribe, if 
given, must be administered with some tact, as a ** propina para echar 
un trojgV'ito^^ a something to drink your health with, &c. However, 
there is no great difficulty in the matter, for where there is a will on 
one side to give, there is a reciprocal desire on the other to receive, 
and the itching palm expands and contracts by instinct to the soothing 
and sovereign ointment. These things may be changed, but the tra- 
veller will soon see how the wind lies, and judge whether he should 
bribe or not. 

rV. — Spanish Mokey. 

Our advice coincides with that of the roguish Ventero to Don Quixote 
and of honest lago in Othello — ^' put money in thy purse," as it is the 
primum mobile in all cosas de Espana. " The first thing they (the 
Spaniards) invariably want," as the Duke said, "is money :" their para- 
mount worship of the Virgin is secondary to the adoration of Mammon. 

With few exceptions, the currency consists of specie— copper, silver, 
and gold. Accounts are usually kept in reals, reaUs de veUon. 

Copper Moneys — " Monedas de CdbreJ'^ — ^The lowest in denomination 
is the ancient Truiravedi, now an imaginary coin, on whose former value 
treatises have been written by Saez and others, and which still forms 
numismatic bone of contention. At present 34 make a Spanish real, 











The current copper coins are — 

Ochavo = 2 maravedis, 

Cuarto = 4 „ 

Dos cuartos = 8 „ 

For a general rule, the traveller may consider the ^* ctioHo^^ as equi- 
valent to a French sou, something less than our English halfpenny, 
and as the smallest coin likely to come much under his observation. 
Those below it, fractions of farthings, have hardly any defined form ; 
indeed, among the lower classes every bit of copper in the shape of a 
coin passes for money. 

Silver Coins — " Monedas de Plata " — are 

The Real I 2 4 

Dos reales 1 2 

Peseta I 

Medio Duro 

The real is worth somewhat more than 2Jc?. ; the dos reales, or 2 
reals, somewhat less than 5eZ., and may be considered as equivalent to 
the half-franc, and representing in Spain the sixpence in England. 
The peseta comes very nearly to the French franc. Of these and the 
" dos reales " the traveller should always take a good supply, for, as 
the Scotchman said of sixpences, " they are canny little dogs, and 
often do the work of shillings." The half-dollar varies, according to 
the exchange, between two shillings and half a crown. 

The dollar of Spain, so well known all over the world, is the Italian 
" colonato," so called because the arms of Spain are supported between 
the two pillars of Hercules. The ordinary Spanish name is " duro,^* 
They are often, however, termed in banking and mercantile transactions 
*' pesos fttertesj^^ to distinguish them from the imaginary ^*peso** or 
smaller dollar of 15 reals only, of which the peseta is the diminutive. 

The " duro " in the last century was coined into half-dollars, quarter- 
dollars, and half-quarter dollars. The two latter do not often occur ; 
they may be distinguished from the '^peseta" and *^ dos reales ^^hy 
having the arms of Spain stamped between the two piUarSy which have 
been omitted in recent coinages ; their fractional value renders them in- 
convenient to the traveller until perfectly familiar with Spanish money. 
The quarter-dollar is worth 5 reals, while the peseta is only worth 4 ; 
the half-quarter dollar is worth 2^ reals, while the dos reales is only 
worth 2. The duro in accounts is genemlly marked thus %. This 
coin is now getting scarce, having been much melted down abroad, and 
is nearly superseded in Spain by the French pieces de cinq fraricSy 
here called Napdeones, and these are the best coins a traveller can take, 
as each is current everywhere for 19 reals. 

The Odd Coiruige consists of the 

Duro 12 4 

Dos duros 1 2 

DMm 1 


Onza . 

The new coin, the Isahdino, the Spanish sovereign, is worth 5 duros, 
100 reals. The ounce, when of full weight, is worth sixteen 












dollars ; the exact value, however, is uncertain, since these large 
coins, are much worn by time, and the sweating by the fraudulent, 
and seldom have preserved their legal weight and value. Those thuB 
deficient ought to be accompanied with a certificate, wherein is stated 
their exact diminished weight and value. This certificate may be 
obtained in the principal towns from the ** contraHe,** or **y?eZ 
Tnedidor,^^ the person who is legally authorized to weigh gold coins 
supposed to be lights and his place of abode is well known. All 
this, however, leads to constant disputes and delays, and the 
stranger must take care when he receives onzas, except from first-rate 
Spanish bankers or merchants, to see that these great coins are of cor- 
rect weight : two grains are generally allowed for wear. It is better, 
except when residing in large towns, only to take the smaller gold 
coins, to which objections are seldom raised. The traveller who is 
about to leave the high road and visit the more rarely frequented dis- 
tricts and towns, should have nothing to do with any onzas whatever ; 
for, when these broad pieces are offered for payment in a small village, 
they are apt to be viewed with distrust, and are diflBcult to be changed, 
while with the smaller ones nothing of the kind occurs. 

Some gold coins have a narrow thread or cord stamped round them, 
and are then termed " de premio" They have a small additional value 
— the gold duro, for instance, circulating for 21 reales 2 cuartos — but 
they should be avoided by the traveller, as he will seldom be reminded 
when paying them away, that he is giving more than he ought. These 
coins, in common with all which are not the simplest and best known, 
only entail on him probable loss and certain trouble in adding up 
accounts and making payments. 

There are two imaginary coins with which old-fashioned Spaniards 
perplex strangers when naming prices or talking of values, just as is 
done with our obsolete guinea : one is the " ducado,^ worth 11 reals, 
or about half our crown ; the other is the ^^peao,* the piastre, worth 
15 reals, and by which, although imaginary, tne exchange on England 
is still regulated : thus so many pence, more or less, as the rate may 
be high or low, are reckoned as equivalent to this " peso :" the exchange 
on the principal cities of Europe is generally published in all Spanish 
newspapers. 36 pence is considered to be par, or 48 for the dollar, or 
^^pesofv^rte,^^ as it is called, to distinguish the whole piece from the 
smaller one. The traveller may calculate by this simple rule how 
much he ought to got for his pound sterling. If 36 pence vAW. produce 
15 reals, how many reals will 240 pence give ? — the answer is 100. 
This being a round number, will form a sufficient basis for one newly 
arrived in Spain to regulate his financial computation : he may take a 
hundred reals as equivalent to a pound sterling^ although he will be 
most fortunate if ever he gets it— or even 95, the practical par — ^after 
all the etceteras of exchange, commission, and money-scrivening, are 
deducted. The usual mode of drawing on England is by bills at 90 
days after sight, at a usance and half, 60 days being the usance. The 
traveller who draws at sight, " corto^'* or at shorter dates, or ** a treinta 
didSy^ at 30 days, ought in consequence to obtain a more favourable 
rate of exchange. 
• In the passive commerce of SiJain the infant trade of banking v 


seldom separated from the general business of a merchant, except in 
the chief towns ; among these the circular notes of Messrs. Herries and 
Farquhar, and others, are tolerably negociable. 

The traveller, on arriving at the first principal city on his projected 
line of tour, if it be one at all out of the beaten line, should draw a sum 
sufficient to carry him to the next point, where he can obtain a fresh 
supply : and, in order to prevent accidents on the road, the first banker 
or merchant should be desired to furnish smaller letters of credit on 
the intermediate towns. Those acquainted with the mysteries of bills 
and exchanges in London may frequently obtain paper on Spain here, 
by which a considerable turn of the market may be made. Of foreign 
coins, the English sovereign is worth 95 reals, the French napoleon 75. 

It is needless to trouble the traveller with the infinite local coins 
which circulate in the different provinces, remnants of their former 
independence, and the more as a scheme is in contemplation of reducing 
the varied monies of Spain to the decimal system of France— from cen- 
tigranos copper, to Itabeiinos in gold, to be worth 100 reals. 

V. — Steam Ck)MMnNiCATioy8. 

The whole line of coast, an extent of nearly 600 leagues, is provided 
with steamers. The Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Com- 
pany, which takes her Majesty's mails on to Malta and Alexandria, 
offers a regular convevance from London to Gibraltar. To secure pas-* 
sages and to obtain mformation of every kind, applications may be, 
made at the Company's office. No. 122, Leadenhall Street, or at 
Oriental Place, Southampton. The Company publishes a little Band" 
hook, which contains everything necessary to be known, as to days of 
departure, fares, &c. As these are liable to annual changes, travellers 
should apply personally or by letter to the secretary, Mr. Howell, and 
may be assured that they will meet with great civility and attention. 
The Companv has agents in the principal seaports abroad, of whom all 
necessary inu>rmation can be obtained on the spot. 

The average fares may be thus stated : — 

Firat Class. 

Second Class. 

£. 8. i. 

£. s. d. 

To Vigo . • 

• 8 


Oporto • 

• 9 


Lisbon • 

. 10 

7 10 

Cadiz • • 

• 12 10 


Gibraltar • 

• 13 

9 10 

Children under 10 years of age, if with the parent, are charged half the 
above rates ; under 3 years of age, free. The fares include a liberal 
table, and wines, for first-cabin passengers ; and for second-oabin pas* 
sengers, provisions without wines. 

Baggage, — ^First-class passengers are allowed each 2 cwt. of personal 
bi^gage ; all above that quantity will be charged at the rate of Is. per 
cubic foot. Each vessel carries a medical officer approved of by govern- 
ment. Experienced and respectable female attendants for the ladies' 
cabin. Private family cabins for passengers, if required. The average 
"passages may be taken as follows : — 







• • 96 to 105 


• • 8to 9 


. . 18 to 19 


. . 27 to 31 


• . 7 to 10 



Southampton to Vigo • 
Vigo to Oporto . • 
Oporto to Lisbon • • 
Lisbon to Cadis • • 
Cadiz to Gibraltar • « 

The vessels generally remain about 3 hours at VCgo^ 1^ off Oporto^ 
12 at Lisbon, and 3 at C<idiz ; Oihrcdtar is usually reached the 8th 
day. The direct passage is accomplished in 5^ days. A new Screw 
Steam Shipping Company was contemplated iu 1854, to run 
weekly between London and the South of Spain. Fares, to Cadis 
or Gibraltar, chief cabin, 101, 10«. ; 2nd cabin, 6/. 10«. The steamers 
on their arrival at Spanish ports are soon surrounded with boats to convey 
passengers on shore, the demands of the unconscionable crews rising 
with tlie winds and waves. The proper charges per tarif are a peaeta 
per person, itvo reals per portmanteau, and one for each smaller package ; 
a passenger without luggage has to pay tioo reals for being landed, or 
put on board. The word ** tari/a " itself generally settles disputes. 

The foreign steamers are neither such g<x)d sea boats, nor so regular 
or well manned as their English competitors. From La Teste^ near 
Bordeaux, one runs to San Sebastian and Conmna ; another touches 
at the ports between San Sebastian and Malaga, There is regular 
communication between Cadiz and Marseilles, The steamers usually 
remain about half a day at Algeciras, a whole one at Malaga, a few 
hours at Almeria, half a day each at Cartagena and Alicante ; a whole 
one at Valenciay a few hours occasionally at Tarragona, two days at 
Barcelona, and half a one at Fort Vendres. The exact particulars, 
times of sailing, fares, &c. are to be seen in every inn on the coast, or 
may be ascertained from the local agents. Remember, if you wish to 
forward baggage or packages by these steamers, to have them very 
carefully directed to the person to whom they are consigned, and to 
take a receipt for them and forward it per post to your correspondent, 
desiring him to send for the articles the moment the steamer arrives, 
or they will either be left on board, or lost, after the usual fashion of 
the unbusinesslike, pococurante Mediterraneans. 

VI. — Travelling by Land— Roads — ^Posting — ^PosT-OrncK — ^Mail- 
Coaches — Diligences — Coches db Collebas — Muleteees — 
Riding Toitbs. 

The railroad is in its infancy. Spain, a jumble of mountains, with 
few large cities, and those far between, with an unvisited, unvisiting 
population, and a petty passive commerce, is admirably suited for the 
time*hononred national locomotive, the ass and mule. There has, how- 
ever, been much talk of the Ferro Carril system, which is to cover the 
Peninsula with an iron net-work of communications, level the sierras, 
and pay 20 per cent., &c. TTiis is proposed to be done chiefly by 
English gold and Navvies. A comedy or tragedy might be written on 
the plausible schemes by which the gullability of John Bull has been 
tickled and his pockets lightened. Hitherto the «* Powers that be " in 
Sijain have scarcely settled the sine qud non preliminary step, i, c. thf 


division among each other of the plunder in granting " concessions," 
&c. Permissions, forsooth, for silly foreigners to be allowed as a 
favour to do the work — throw away time and cash, in order to be 
laughed at, insulted, and ultimately cheated for their pains. 

Meantime there are eight royal roads, caminos reales — carretei^ast 
generdkSf which branch forth from the capital like spokes of a wheel, 
and run to Irurij to Barcelona by Valencia, to Cadiz by Seville, to 
Granada, to La Junqv^era by Zaragoza, to Corunna, Oviedo, and to 
Porttigal by Badajoz. These first-class roads are also called Arrecifes, 
from the Arabic word 'for chauss^es, causeways : they are made on the 
Macadam system, admirably engineered, and kept in infamous neglect. 
The wear and tear of traffic and weather has destroyed the surface 
material, forming holes, and malos pasos, \>y which coach-springs are 
cracked and travellers' bones dislocated : nevertheless, heavy turnpike 
and ferry tolls are raised at the portazgos y harcas ; recently some stir of 
improvement is visible both in the repair of the older roads, and in the 
construction of new ones ; ordinary but carriageable roads are called 
caminos carreteros, caminos de carruage, de carretera, and are just prac- 
ticable : bridle-roads are called caminos de herradura. Bye-ways and 
short cuts are tenned trochas, travesias and caminos de atajo, and 
familiarly and justly called caminos de perdices, roads for partridges ; 
nor should any man in his senses or in a wheel-carriage forget the pro- 
verb no hay atajo, sin ^raZ>a;o— there is no short cut without hard work: 
A ramUa — Arabic^ rarrd — sand, serves the double purpose of a road in 
summer for men and beasts, and a river bed in winter for fish, fools, 
and wild fowl. This term and thing is pretty general in Valencia and 
commercial I Catalonia. 

Internal locomotion has been lately facilitated throughout the Penin- 
sula as regards public conveyances, but the progress is slow ; travelling 
in your own carriage with post horses, changing at each relay, is only 
practicable on the high road from Irun to Madrid, and even then is cer- 
tainly not to be recommended ; nor is it usually done except by Cabinet 
couriers or very great personages. However, by making an arrange- 
ment with the persons who horse the diligences, journeys have been 
performed on the leading roads by persons in their own carriages. The 
* Quia General de Correos,^ by Francisco Xavier de Cabanes, 4to., Mad., 
1830, is useful, since posting, being a royal monopoly, is fettered with 
the usual continental checks and bureaucratic bothers. 

The distances are regulated and paid for — not by posts, but by 
leagues, legtuis, of 20,000 feet, or 20 to a degree of the meridian, and 
somewhat less than three miles and a half English, being the nautical 
league of three geographical miles. The country leagues, especially 
in the wilder and mountainous districts, are calculated more by guess- 
work than measurement. Generally you may reckon by time rather 
than distance, the sure test of slow coaching, and consider the leagtte 
a sort of German stunde, an hotir^s work. The term " legua^^ is modified 
by an explanatory epithet. " Larga,^^ or long, varies from four to five 
miles. " Regular,^* a very Spanish word, is used to express a league, 
or anything else that is neither one thing nor another, something about 
the regular post league. " Corta^^ as it implies, is a short league, 
" ree miles. These leagues, like everything in Spain, vary in the 

Spain. yi. post-office and lettebs. 21 

different proyinces, and it is contemplated, in imitation of the French, 
to introduce one standard ; when Iberian ears will be astounded with 
myriometros y kilometros — ^but this scheme is easier talked about than 
done. Post-horses and mules are paid at the rate of six reals each 
for each post league, and five only when the traveller is on the royal 
service. The number of animals to be paid for is regulated by the 
number of travellers ; more than six, however, are never put on ; if 
the passengers exceed six in number, six reals more are charged, over 
and above the price of the six horses put to, for each traveller exceeding 
the number ; a child under seven years of age is not reckoned as a pas- 
senger ; two children under that age are to be paid for as one grown- 
up person. If the postmaster puts on for his own convenience either 
more or less horses than the tariff expresses, the traveller is only bound 
to pay for the number therein regulated. The ])ostilions are obliged 
to travel two leagues in an hour, but they, if well paid, drive at a 
tremendous pace. They may not change horses with another carriage 
on the road, except with the consent of the traveller. Their strict 
pay is three reals a lesigae ; but the custom is usually to give seven, 
and even eight, if they have behaved well : by law the post-boy can 
insist on driving from the coach-box, " el pescante,** and as nothing of 
that kind is attached to some britchkas and English carriages, an 
additional real is the surest mode of obviating these discussions and 
mounting him on his horse. The postilions, if they infringe any of 
the rules, are liable to lose their ** agvjetas " — their ** proptna " (tt/^o- 
fl-ivctv— -something to drink — pour boire — trink-gelt). The postmaster 
of the next relay is bound to adjudicate on the complaiot of the tra- 
veller, and he Mmself is amenable, if the traveller be dissatisfied with 
his decision, to the director of the superior administration at the next 
town, and he again to the ** superintendencia general,^* the chief 
authority at Madrid. 

As regards post-offices and letters, the general correspondence of 
Spain is tolerably well regulated ; a single letter, una carta 8e7iciUa, 
must not exceed six adarmes, or half an ounce ; the charge for postage 
increases with the weight. The English system has been recently 
introduced ; a uniform charge for postage — by weight — now prevails 
over Spain, irrespective of distance. The stamps are called sellos, 
English newspapers, when not prohibited, are free to Spain ; pamphlets 
and papers fastened like ours, with an open band oxfaja for directing, 
are charged at the rate of four reals the pound. As private letters are 
opened with very little scruple in Spain, correspondents should be 
cautious, especially on political subjects. Letters /row England must 
be prepaid. A traveller may have his addressed to him at the 
|X)8t-office, but it is better to have them directed to some friend or 
banker, to whom subsequent instructions may be given how and where 
to forward them. In the large towns the names of all persons for whom 
any letters may have arrived which are not specially directed to a par- 
ticular address, are copied and exposed on boards called las tahlas at 
the post-offices, in lists arranged alphabetically. The inquirer is thus 
enabled to see at once if there be any one for him by referring to the 
list containing the first letter of his name, and then asking for the letter 
by its number, for one is attached to each according to the order it 


stands in the list. He should also look back into the old lists, for after 
a certain time names are taken from the more recent arrivals and 
placed among those which have remained some weeks on the unclaimed 
board. He should look over the alphabetical classifications of both his 
Christian and surname, as ludicrous mistakes occur from the difficulty 
Spaniards have in reading English handwriting and English names. 
Their post-masters — ^no decypherers of hieroglyphics — are sorely per- 
plexed by our truly Britannic terminal title Esq,: and many a traveller 
gets scheduled away under the letter E. Prudent tourists should urge 
home correspondents, especially their fair ones, to direct simply, and to 
write the surname in large and legible characters. The best mode, 
while travelling in Spain, is to beg them to adopt the Spanish form — 
" SeSor Don Plantagenet Smytheville, Caballero Ingles." This " taUas^ 
system occasions loss of time, temper, and letters^ for any one may ask 
for those of any other person and get it, so few precautions are taken. 
As a rule, Plantagenet Smytheville, Esq., should look if there be a 
letter for him under P. for Plantagenet, and under S. for Smytheville, 
and under E. for Esquire. It is always best to go to the post-office 
and make these inquiries in person, and, when applying for letters, to 
write the name down legibly, and give it to the empkado, rather than 
ask for it viva voce. The traveller should always put his own letters 
into the post-office himself, especially those which require prepayment, 
" qijie deben franqtiearse,** Foreign servants, and still less those hired 
during a few days' stay in a place, do not always resist the temptation 
of first destroying letters, and then charging the postage as paid, and 
pocketing the amount. Travellers, when settled in a town, may, by 
paying a small fixed sum to the post-office clerks, have a separate 
division, "eZ apartado," and an earlier delivery of their letters. 
Letters are generally sent for ; if, however, they be specially directed, 
they are left by a postman, " k cartero,^'* 

Riding post is called, from its expeditious nature, viajar a la ligera ; 
the traveller pays six reals a league for his own, and as much for the 
horse or mule of the postilion who accompanies him ; one real less is 
charged if he be on the royal service. Cabinet couriers, " correos de 
gahmetey*^ have the preference of horses at every relay. The particular 
distances they have to perform are all timed, and so many leagues are 
required to be done in a fixed time ; and, in order to encourage des- 
patch, for every hour gained on the allowed time, an additional sum 
was paid to them : hence the common expression, " ganando hcras,*^ 
gaining hours. These methods are getting obsolete. 

Letters are conveyed on the chief roads in mails, StUas oorreOy Stllas 
de posta ; the carriages take two or three passengers on the road from 
Madrid to Irun. The rate of travelling averages six miles an hour, 
and, as scarcely any stoppages are allowed, a prudent traveller will 
attend to some sort of *' proband," although the less eaten and drank 
on such feverish jaunts the better ; the fares will be learnt at the post- 
offices ; they average about Sd, a mile English. Very little luggage is 
allowed, and extra weight is paid at three reals the pound. No time 
should be lost in securing your place, as these mails are liable to be 
full, especially in the summer time. 

The public coaches or diligencias are based, in form and system, on 

Spain. yi. travelling bt land — ^diligences. 23 

the French diligence, from whence the name is taken ; these copies are 
preferable to their originals, inasmuch as the company who travel by 
them, from the difficulties of travelling with post-horses, is of a superior 
order to those who go by the dilly in France, and the Spaniard is 
essentially much higher bred than his neighbour, and especially as 
regards the fair sex. The Spanish diligences go pretty fast, but the 
stoppages, delays, and '' behind time " are terrible. 

Travelling in the diligenciay odious in itself, is subject to the usual 
continental drags, hiUeiea, and etceteras previously to starting; the 
prices are moderate, and vary according to the places, the rotonda, the 
interior^ the herlinaj and the coup^ ; very little luggage is allowed, and 
a heavy charge made for all extra. Be very careful as to directions on 
your luggage, avoiding the " £'^.," and have it all registered ; and take 
your place in time too, as the dUigendas fill very much, especially during 
summer; the passengers are under the charge of a conductor, the 
mayoral ; meals are provided at the coaches' own baiting inns or para" 
dores^ which are sufficient in quantity, endurable in cookery, and rea- 
souable in charges. 

On those roads where there are no diligences, recourse must be had 
to the original and national modes of travelling. You can hire a coche 
de coHeras, a huge sort of lord mayor's coach, which is drawn by half- 
a-dozen or more mules, and which performs journeys from thirty to 
thirty-five miles a-day, like an Italian vetturino ; this is at once a slow 
and expensive mode of travel, but not unamusing, from the peculiar 
manner in which cattle and carriage are driven. This picturesque turn- 
out, like our '* ooach-and-six " in Pope's time, is fast disappearing. 
Those natives who cannot ajBbrd this luxury resort to the galera, a sort 
of covered waggon without springs, which, beiug of most classical dis- 
comfort, is to be sedulously avoided, qtie diable aUait U fdire dans cette 
galere. Smaller vehicles, such as calesas and tartanaa, are also to be 
occasionally hired for smaller distances. So much for wheels. 

A considerable portion of the Peninsula, and many of the most 
interesting, untrodden, unhacknied localities, can only be visited on the 
back of animals or on one's own feet. As a pedestrian tour for pleasure 
is a thing utterly unknown in Spain, it is not to be thought of for a 
moment, while excursions on horseback are truly national, and bring 
the stranger in close contact with Spanish man and nature. He may 
hire horses and mules at most large cities, or join the caravans of the 
regular muleteers and carriers who ply from fixed places to others. 
These arrieros (arre — arabice "gee up"), cosarios y ordvnarioa, have 
their well-known inns or houses of call and stated days of arrival and 
departure : moderate in their charges, they are seldom molested by rob- 
bers on the road. Those who can only ride on an English saddle should 
procure one before starting, and every man will do well to bring out a 
good pair of English spurs, with some spare sets of rowels, and attend 
to their efficient sharpness, for the hide of a Spanish beast is hard aud 
unimpressionable. Heavy luggage may always be sent from town to 
town by the arrieroSy whose recuas de acemilaSj or droves of baggage- 
mules, do the office of our goods-train. — N.B. Remember to be careful 
in the directions, to take a receipt and forward it per post to the person 
to whom your articles are addressed, desiring him to call for them. 
The muleteers cf Spain form a class of themselves, and are honest, 


trustworthy, and hard-working ; full of songs, yams, lies, and incorrect 
local information. 

It cannot be said that their animals are pleasant to ride, nor indeed 
are the hacks, TiacaSy and cattle usually let for hire much better ; to 
those, therefore, who propose making an extensive riding tour, especially 
in the W. provinces, the better plan is to perform it on their own 
animals, the masters on horses, the attendants on mules. The chief 
points in such journeys are to take as few traps as possible, trunks — r 
the impedimenta of travellers — are thorns in his path, who passes more 
lightly and pleasantly by sending the heavier luggage on from town to 
town ; " attend also to the provend," as the commissariat.^a& ever been 
the difficulty in hungry and thirsty Spain. Each master should have 
his own Alforjas or saddle-bags, in which he will stow aia^ay whatever 
is absolutely necessary to his own immediate wants and comforts, strap-r 
ping his cloak or manta over it. ITie servant should be mounted on^a 
stout mule, and provided with strong and capacious capachos de esparto^' 
or peculiar baskets made of the Spanish rush ; one side maybe dedicated 
to the wardrobe, the other to the larder ; and let neither master nor man 
omit to take a hota or leather wine-bottle or forget to keep it full ; spare 
sets of shoes with nails and hammer are also essential. But when 
once off the beaten tracks, those travellers who make up their minds 
to find nothing on the road but discomfort will be the least likely 
to be disappointed, while by being prepared and forearmed they will 
overcome every difficulty — hombre prevenido, nunca fu vencido, a 
little foresight and provision gives small trouble and ensures great 
comfort. The sooner all who start on riding tours can speak Spanish 
themselves th*l better, as polyglott travelling servants are apt to be 
rogues ; a retired cavalry soldier is a good man to take, as he under- 
stands horses, and knows how to forage in districts where rations are 
rare. Few soldiers are more sober, patient, and enduring of fatigue 
than the Spanish ; six reals a day, food, lodging, and some dress, with 
a tip at the end, will be ample pay. He must be treated with civility, 
and abusive speech avoided. 

VII. — Spanish Inns. 

The increase and improvement of public conveyances, by leading to 
increased travel and traffic, has caused some corresponding change for the 
better in the quantity and quality of the houses destined to the accommo- 
dation of wayfaring men and beasts. As they are constantly changing, 
it is not easy to give their names in every place. These conveniences 
are of varied denominations, degrees, and goodness, or they may be 
divided into the bad, the worse, and the worst — and bad is the best : first 
is the Fonda (the oriental Fundack), which is the assumed equivalent to 
our hotel, as in it lodging and board are furnished ; second is the Posada, 
in which, strictly speaking, only the former is provided ; thirdly comes 
the Venta, which is a sort of inferior posada of the country, as distin- 
guished from the town ; at both Posada and Venta the traveller finds 
the means of cooking whatever provisions he has brought with him, or 
can forage on the spot, and he is charged in the morning a moderate 
sum for the ruido de casa, the noise or row which he is supposed to 
^ave kicked up in the peaceful dwelling. These khans are generally 

derless, although the ventero, as in Don Quixote's time, will answer, 

Spain, viiT. SPANISH bobbers. 25 

when asked what he has got, Ilay de todoy there is everything ; but 
de io que V. irate, " of what yon bring with you," must be understood. 

The traveller, when he arrives at one of these Posadas, especially iu 
rarely visited places, should be courteous and liberal in using little 
conventional terms of civility, and not begin by ordering and hurrying 
people about ; he will thus be met more than half way, and obtain the 
best quarters and accommodation that are to be had. Spaniards, who 
are not to be driven by a rod of iron, may be tickled and led by a 
straw. Treat them as cabaUeroSj and they are of a high caste, and 
they generally behave themselves as such. No man who values a 
night's rest will omit on arrival to look at once after his bed : a cigar for 
the mozo, a compliment to the rmicJiacha, and a tip, una gratificacioncita, 
seldom fail to conciliate, and secure comfort. 

The " ventoTitto " is a minor class of venta, and often nothing more 
than a mere hut, run up with reeds or branches of trees by the rotid- 
side, at which water, bad wine, and worse brandy, aguardiente, true 
aqua ardens, disfavoured with aniseed, are to be sold. In out-of-the- 
way districts the traveller, in the matter of inns, will seldom be per- 
plexed with any difficulty of selection as to the relative goodness ; the 
golden rule will be to go to the one where the diligence puts up— i:.? 
Farador de las Dtligendas. The simple direction, " vamos a Ixi Po- 
sada," let us go to THE inn, will be enough in smaller town^ffor the 
question is rather, Hay posada, y donde estd f Is there an inn, and 
where is it ? than Which is the best inn ? 

2f.B, AH who travel with ladies are advised to write beforehand to 
their banker or friends to secure quarters in some hotel, evpedaUy when 
going to Madrid and the larger cities. 

The char«;es of the native inns are not exorbitant ; generally by a 
dollar to two dollars a-day, bed and board are paid for ; where, however, 
establishments are set up on what is called the English or French system, 
foreign prices are demanded, and very considerable ones, considering 
the poor and copied accommodation. Those who propose remaining any 
time in a large town may make their own bargain with the innkeeper, 
or can go into a boarding-house, " ca>»a de pupilos,^ or ** de huespedes,^ 
where they will have the best opportunity of learning the Spanish lan- 
guage, and obtaining an idea of the national manners and habits. These 
establishments are constantly advertised in the local newspapers, and 
the houses ma^^e known externally by a white paper ticket attached 
to the extremit^^ ',one of the window balconies ; for if the paper be 
placed in the middle, it only means " lodgings to let here." The tra- 
veller will always be able to learn from his banker, or from any respect- 
able inhabitant, which of these boarding-houses enjoys the best reputa- 
tion, or he may himself advertise in the papers for exactly the sort of 
thing he wants. 

Yin. — Spanish Bobbebs. 

Banditti have long been the bugbear of Spain, for a bad name once 
gotten is not easily removed, and still less when the conventional idea 
is kept up by sundry writers in England who instruct the public on the 
things of Spain, where they have never been, and feed foregone conclu- 

Spain.— I. o 


sions. Uudoubtedly on the long highways of a thinly-peopled land 
accidents may occur, as Spanish gentlemen who have met with mis- 
fortunes in troubled times will take to the road. But robbery is the 
exception, rather than the rule, in Spain ; and latterly precautions have 
been so increased that some ingenuity must be displayed in managing 
to get waylaid and pillaged — ^not that to the very ambitious for such 
events, or to the imprudent and incautious, the thing is altogether im- 
possible. The experiment might be tried with prospect of success in 
Andalucia, taking Honda as the centre of a robbing radius. 

Referring to the * Gatherings,' ch. 16, for other details, suffice it here 
to say that the best plan is for the traveller never to trouble his head 
about the matter, nor to frighten himself with shadows of his own 
raising ; let him turn a deaf ear to the yams of muleteers and the posi- 
tive facts of waiters, and ride boldly on ; nevertheless he will do well in 
suspicious places to abjure foolish chattering about his plans, lines of 
route, hours of starting, and so forth, and still more to avoid any exhi- 
bition of cash and attractive items of property, silver dressing-cases, 
and so forth, which often suggest the getting up an extempore bit 
of robbery for his particular benefit, for in Spain, as elsewhere, la ocasion 
Jiace cd ladrcn. Again, should he have the misfortune to fall among 
regular thieves, he ought to be prepared with a sufficient sum about 
his person, say from 5Z. to lOZ., in order to keep them in good humour, 
as they are prone to make an example of the unhappy wight who 
evinces, by empty pockets, the malice prepense of depriving them of 
their just perquisite ; an empty puree is a beggarly companion, and 
they are apt to inflict blows on its proprietor, danddk polos, or to strip 
him to the skin, ecJiandole en cueros, pour encourager les autres. A 
common gilt watch and chain ought not to be omittied. Englishmen, 
except when well armed and travelling in numbers, should never attempt 
resistance against a regular band of Spanish robbers, as it is generally 
useless, and may lead to fatal consequences : whereas a frank, good- 
humoured surrender, presence of miud, and a calm, courteous appeal to 
them as Cahalleros, seldom fails to conciliate the " gentlemen,** and to 
chloroform the discomfort of the operation . The robbers consist of several 
grades. The Ladrones en grande are an organised gang of well-mounted, 
well-armed men from 10 to 14 in number, and commanded by a chief, 
and as they seldom attack travellers except at a great advantage, it is 
better to lose one's dollars than one's life, and to submit with a good 
grace to the polite request of puttinoj your face, mouth downwards, into 
the mud, — the Bqfa abajo, which will take no denial ; in fact, the non- 
compliance is understood to mean resistance ; and cases have occurred 
where foreigners, from not understanding the force of these two words, 
and not having laid themselves down, hive been shot forthwith. 

The next c£ss are the Bateros, the rats. These are not organised 
permanent bodies, but skulking, ill-conditioned footpads, who lurk 
about suspicious ventas, on the look-out for an accidental affair. They 
seldom attack armed and prepared persons, A lower ruffian still is the 
BateriUo, or spiall rat, who is a solitary performer, confining his attacks 
to the utterly defenceless. A revolver is a sure remedy for these 
major and minor rats ; and no bad pocket-companion on the highways 
and byways of Spain, as contributing to a general feeling of confidence. 


The regular and only really formidable robbers have almost disap- 
peared on the high roads, in consequence of the institution of a body 
of mounted and well-armed men, who are stationed in the princi])al 
routes as escorts and patrols. They are called Guardias civileSy to dis- 
tinguish them from military guards. The system was borrowed from 
the gendarmerie of France, whence the troopers were called by the 
people Hijos de Lins-Felipe, sons of Louis- Philippe, or Folizones, a new 
word coined out of the old French Foiissons, Diligences in periods and 
localities of danger are usually provided with guards of their own, and 
there is also in most large towns a body of armed men on foot, called 
Migudites, whose business it is to keep the peace, and by whom convoys 
•ef value and travellers of rank are escorted. They resemble the 
Peelers, the police in Ireland, and are formed of active, excellent men, 
l»rave, temperate, and indefatigable. There are also few places in 
which an extempore protection may not be hired of Esoopeteros^ or men 
^rmed with a gun, which in truth is the definition of half the Iberian 
family when outside a town's walls. Except when ladies are in the 
case, and the localities are notoriously infested for the moment, all 
these precautions are needless. A riding party of armed Englishmen 
may dismiss the bugbear altogether, from the Pyrenees to the Straits 
of Gibraltar. In general Spanish robbers are shy of attacking English" 
men : they have a wholesome fear of the strength of our gunpowder, 
and of our disposition to show fight. 

IX. — The Geography op Spain. 

One glance at a map of Europe will convey a clearer notion of the 
relative position of Spain in regard to other countries than pages d 
letter -press ; an advantage which every school-boy possesses over the 
Plinys and Strabos of antiquity, who were content to compare the i^pe 
of the Peninsula to a bull's hide. This country, placed between the 
latitudes 36^ 57 and 43° 40^ north, extends from longitude 9° 13' west 
to 30^ 15' east: the extreme length has been calculated at about 
200 leagues of 20 to the degree, and the greatest breadth at somewhat 
less tha^ 200 ; and the whole superficies, including Portugal, is stated 
to contain upwards of 19,000 square leagues, of wMch somewhat more 
than 15,500 belong to Spain ; it is thus almost twice as large as the 
British Islands, and only one-tenih smaller than France ; the circum- 
ference or coast-line is estimated at some 750 leagues. This compact 
and isolated territory, inhabited by a hardy, warlike population, ought, 
therefore, to have rivalled France in military power, while its position 
between those two great seas which command the commerce of the old 
and new world, its indented line of coast, abounding in bays and 
harbours, offered every advantage of vying with England in maritime 
enterprise. Nature has provided outlets for the productions of a country 
rich alike in everything that is to be found either on the face, or in the 
bowels of the earth ; the mines and quarries abound with precious 
metals and marbles, from gold to iron, from the agate to coal ; a fertile 
soil and every possible variety of climate admit of unlimited cultivation 
of the natural productions of the temperate or tropical zones : thus in 
the province ot Granada the sugar-cane and cotton-tree luxuriate at the 

c 2 


base of ranges whose tops are covered with eternal snow. The unremit- 
ting bad government of the Gotho-Spaniard has done its worst to neu- 
tralise the advantages of this favoured land, which, while under the 
dominion of the Romans and Moors, resembled an Eden, a garden of 
plenty and delight. Now vast portions of the Peninsula offer a picture 
painful to be contemplated by the philosopher or philanthropist : the 
face of nature and the minds of men, dwarfed and curtailed of their fair 
proportions, have either been neglected and their inherent fertility 
allowed to run into luxuriant wec^ and vice, or their energies misdi- 
rected, and a capability of good converted into an element of disgraceful 
eminence in deeds of evil. 

In geological construction, Spain, almost an agglomeration of moun- 
tains, is raised in a series of elevation terraces on every side from the 
coasts ; the central portions, higher than any other table-lands in Europe, 
range on an average from 2000 to 3000 feet above the level of the sea, 
while from this elevated plain chains of other mountains rise. Madrid, 
placed on this central plateau, is situated about 2000 feet above the 
level of Naples, which lies in the same latitude ; the mean temperature 
of the former is 69°, while that of the latter is 63° 3a ; it is to, this 
difference of elevation that the difference of climate and vegetable 
productions between the two capitals is to be ascribed. 

Fruits which flourish on the coasts of Provence and Genoa, which 
lie 4° more to the north than any xx)rtion of Spain, are rarely to be met 
with in the interior of the elevated Peninsula : on the other hand, the 
low and simny maritime belts abound with productions of an African 
vegetation ; and botany marks climate better than barometers or ther- 
mometers. The mountainous character and general aspect of the coast 
is nearly analogous throughout the circuit which extends from the 
Basque Provinces to Cape Finisterre, and offers a remarkable contract 
to those sunny alluvial plains which extend, more or less, from Cadiz 
to Barcelona, and which closely resemble each other in vegetable pro- 
ductions, such as the fig, orange, pomegranate, aloe, and palm-tree. 
Again, the central table-lands, las Farameras^ equally resemble each 
other in their monotonous denuded aspect, in their scarcity of fruit and 
timber, and their abundance of cereal productions. 

Spanish geographers have divided the Peninsula into seven distinct 
chains of mountains. These cordiUeras arise on each side of intervening 
plains, which once formed the basins of internal lakes, until the accu- 
mulated waters, by bursting through the obstructions by which they 
were dammed up, found a passage to the ocean : the dip or inclination 
of the country lies from the east towards the west, and, accordingly, the 
chief rivers which form the drains of the great leading channels between 
the principal water-sheds flow into the Atlantic : their courses, like the 
basins through which they pass, lie in a transversal and almost a 
parallel direction ; thus the Duero, the Tagus, the Guadiana, and the 
Guadalquivir, all flow into their recipient between their distinct chains 
of mountains. 

The Moorish geographer Alrasi took climate as the rule of dividing 

the Peninsula into distinct portions. The first or norfJiem zone is the 

Oantahrian, the European ; this portion skirts the base of the Pyrenees, 

.^ includes portions of Catalonia, Arragon, and Navarre, the Basque pro- 

Spain. IX. divisions into zones. 29 

viuces, the Asturias, and Gallicia. In this region of humidity the 
winters are long, and the springs and autumns rainy, and it should 
only be visited in the summer. This country of hill and dale is inter- 
sected by streams, which abound in fish, and which irrigate rich 
meadows for pasture. The valleys form the dairy country of Spain, 
while the mountains furnish valuable and available timber. In some 
parts com will scarcely ripen, while in others, in addition to the 
cerealia, cider and an ordinary wine are produced. Inhabited by a 
hardy, independent, and rarely subdued population, these mountainous 
regions offer natural means of defence. It is useless to attempt the 
conquest with a small army, while a large one starves for want of sup- 
port in the hungry localities. The second zone, the Iberian or the 
eastern, in its maritime portions, is more Asiatic than European, the 
inhabitants partake of the Greek and Carthaginian character, being 
false, cruel, and treacherous, yet lively, ingenious, and fond of pleasure : 
this portion commences at Burgos, and is continued through the Sierras 
of Albarracin and Segura to the Cabo de Gata, and includes the southern 
portion of Catalonia and Arragon, with parts of Castile, Valencia, 
and Murcia. The sea-coasts should be visited either in the spring 
or autumn, when they are delicious. ITiey are intensely hot in the 
summer, and infested with myriads of muskitoes. The districts about 
Burgos should be avoided as being cold, except during the summer 
months. Thus the upper valley of the Mino and some of the north- 
w^estern portions of Old Castile and Leon are placed about > 6000 feet 
above the level of the sea, and the frosts often last for three months at 
a time. 

The third zoney the Lusitanian, or western, by far the largest, 
includes the central parts of Spain and all Portugal ; and in the physical 
condition of the soil and the moral qualities of the inhabitants, portions 
present an imfavourable view of the Peninsula: the inland steppes 
are burnt up by summer suns, tempest and wind-rent during winter, 
while the absence of trees exposes them to the violence of the ele- 
ments ; poverty-stricken mud-houses, scattered here and there in the 
desolate extent, afford a wretched home to a poor, proud, and ignorant 
population. These localities, which offer in themselves little pleasure 
or profit to the stranger, contain however many sites and cities of the 
highest interest. Thus New Castile, the sovereign province, besides 
the capital Madrid, comprehends Toledo, the Escorial, Segovia, xVranjuez, 
Avila, Cuenca, which none who wish to understand Spain and the 
genuine old Castilian cities can possibly pass by unnoticed. 

llie more western portions of this Lusitanian zone are much more 
surreeable ; the ilex and chestnut abound in the hills, while the rich 
plains produce com and wine most plentifully, llie entire central 
table-lsmd occupies about 93,000 square miles, and forms nearly one- 
half of the entire area of the Peninsula. The peculiarity of the climate 
is its dryness ; rain is so rare, that the annual quantity on an average 
does not amount to more than 10 inches. The olive, however, is only 
to be met with in a few and favoured localities. The fourth zone^ the 
Boetican, the most southern and African, coasts the Mediterranean, 
basking at the foot of the mountains which rise behind and form the 
mass of the Peninsula; this mural barrier offers a sure protection 


against the cold winds which sweep across the central region. The 
descent from the tahle elevations into these maritime strips is striking ; 
the face of nature is quickly and completely changed, and the traveller 
passes from the climate and vegetation of Europe into that of Africa. 
This region is characterised by a dry burning atmosphere during a part of* 
the year. The winters are short and temperate, the springs and autumns- 
quite delightful. Much of the cultivation depends on artificial 
irrigation, which was carried by the Moors to the highest perfection ; 
indeed water, under this forcing, vivifying sun, is synonymous with 
fertility ; the productions are tropical ; sugar, cotton, rice ; the orange, 
lemon, and date. The algaroha- — ceratonia siliquastrum — and the 
adel/af the oleander, form the boundary marks between this, the tierra 
caliente, and the colder regions by which it is encompassed. Such are 
the geographical divisions of nature with which the vegetable and animal 
productions are closely connected. The Boetican zone, Andalucia,. 
contains in itself many of the most interesting cities, sites, and natural 
beauties of the Peninsula. Cadiz, Gibraltar, Ronda, Malaga, the Alpu- 
jarras, Granada, Cordova, Seville, Xerez, are easy of access, and may be 
visited almost at every portion of the year. The winters may be spent 
at Cadiz, Seville, or Malaga, the summers in the cool mountains of 
Eonda, Aracena, or Granada. April, May, and June, or September, 
October, and November, will, however, be the most preferable. Those 
who go in the spring should reserve June for the mountains ; those who 
go in the autumn should reverse the plan, and commence with Ronda 
and Granada, ending with Malaga, Seville, and Cadiz ; and this region 
will be found by the invalid infinitely superior as a winter residence 
than any portions of the South of France or Italy. 

The internal communication of the Peninsula, thus divided by the 
mountain- walls of CcyrdiUeras, is effected by high roads, carried over the 
most convenient points, where the natural dips are the lowest, and the 
ascents and descents the most practicable. As a general rule, the 
traveller should always cross the mountains by one of these. .The 
goat-paths and smuggler-passes over other portions of the chain are 
difficult and dangerous, and seldom provided with villages or ventas i 
the farthest but fairest way about, will generally be found the best and 
shortest road. These passes are called Ptiertos — ^ortce* — mountain- 
gates : the precise ghaut of the Hindoos. 

The term Sierra, which is commonly applied to these serrated ranges, 
has been derived from the Spanish sierra, a saw ; while others refer it 
to the Arabic Sehrah, an uncultivated tract. Montana means a moun- 
tain ; Cerro a hog-backed hill ; jpico, jpica^iko, a pointed height. Una 
cuesta, a much-used expression, means both an ascent and descent. 
Ctiesta arriba, cuesta abajo, up hill, down hill. There are few of the 
singular-shaped hills which have not some local name, such as Cabeza 
del Moro, the Moor's head ; or something connected with religion, such 
as San Ohristohal, El Fraile, &e. 

There are 6 great rivers in Spain — the arteries which run between 
the 7 mountain-chains, the vertebrae of the geological skeleton. These 
6 water-sheds are each intersected in their extent by others on a minor 
scale, by valleys and indentations in each of' which runs its own 
Stream. Thus the rains and melted snows are all collected in an infinity 

Spain. IX. RIVERS of SPAIN. 81 

of ramifications, and carried by these tributary conduits into one of the 
6 main trunks, or great rivers : all these, with the exception of the 
Ebro, empty themselves into the Atlantic. The Duero and Tagus, 
nnfortunately for Spain, disembogue in Portugal, thus becoming a 
portion of a foreign dominion exactly where their commercial import- 
ance is the greatest. Philip II. " the prudent," saw the true value of 
the possession of Portugal, which rounded and consolidated Spain, and 
insured to her the possession of these outlets of internal produce, and 
inlets for external commerce. Portugal, that angiUus iste, annexed to 
Spain, gave more real power to his throne than the dominion of entire 
continents across the Atlantic. Kor has the vision of a Peninsular 
union ever faded from the cabinets of Spain. The Mino^ Which is the 
shortest of these rivers, runs through a bosom of fertility. The Tajo^ 
Tagus, which the fancy of poets has sanded with gold and embanked 
wifli roses, tracks its dreary way through rocks and comparative 
barrenness. The Quadiana creeps through lonely Estremadura, in- 
fecting the low plains with miasma and ague. The OuadcUquimr eats 
out its deep banks amid the sunny olive-clad regions of Andalucia. 

Spain abounds with brackish streams, Saladosy and with salt-mines, 
the remnants of the saline deposits, after the evaporation of the sea- 
waters. The central soil, strongly impregnated with saltpetre, and 
always arid, is every day becoming more so, from the Castilian antipathy 
against trees. No skreen checks the power of evaporation ; nothing 
protects or preserves moisture^ The soil, more and more baked and 
calcined, has in some parts almost ceased to be available for cultivation t 
from want of plantations and dykes the slopes are liable to denudation of 
soil after heavy rain. Nothing breaks the descent of the water ; hence 
the naked, barren stone summits of many of the sierras, which, pared 
and peeled of every particle capable of nourishing vegetation, loom 
forth, the skeletons of a land in which life seems extinct ; not only is 
the soil thus lost, but the detritus thus washed down forms bars at the 
mouths of rivers, or chokes up and raises their beds ; thus they are 
rendered liable to overflow their banks, and to convert the adjoining 
plains into i)estilential swamps. The volume of water iu the principal 
rivers of Spain has diminished, .and is diminishing. Kivers which once 
were navigable, are so no longer, while the artificial canals which were to 
have been substituted remain unfinished : the progress of deterioration 
advances, as little is done to counteract or amend what every year 
must render more difficult and expensive, while the means of repair 
and correction will diminish in equal proportion, from the poverty occa- 
sioned by the evil, and by the fearful extent which it will be allowed 
to attain. The majority of Spanish rivers — torrents rather — scanty 
during the summer time, flow away with rapidity when filled by rains 
or melting snow ; they are, moreover, much exhausted by being drained 
off, sangradoy bled, for the pxirposes of artificial irrigation. The scarcity 
of rain in the central table-lands diminishes the regular supply of water 
to the springs of the rivers ; and what falls is soon sucked up by a 
parched, dusty, and thirsty soil, or evaporated by the dryness of the 
atmosphere. An absence of lakes forms another feature in this country 
of mountains. 

These geographical peculiarities of Spain must be remembered by 
tbe traveller, and particularly the existence of the great central elev 


tion, which, when once attained, is apt to be forgotten. The country 
rises in terraces from the coast, and when once the ascent is accom- 
plished, no real descent takes places. The roads indeed apparently ascend 
and descend, but the mean height is seldom diminished, and the in- 
terior hills or plains are merely the undulations of one mountain. 
The traveller is often deceived at the apparent low height of snow- 
, clad ranges, such as the Guadarama, whose coldness will be accounted 
for by adding the elevation of their base above the level of the sea. 
The palace of the Escorial, which is placed at the foot of the Gua- 
darama, and in a seeming plain, stands in reality at 2725 feet above 
Valencia, while the summer residence of the king at La Oranja, in 
the same chain, is 30 feet higher than the summit of Vesuvius. This, 
indeed, is a castle in the air — a chateau en Espagne, and worthy of 
the most German potentate to whom that element belongs. The mean 
temperature on the plateau of Spain is as 15°, while that of the coast 
is as 18^ and 19°, in addition to the protection from northern winds 
which their mountainous backgrounds afford ; nor is the traveller less 
deceived as regards the height of the interior mountains than he is 
with the table-land plains ; his tiye wanders over a vast level extent 
bounded only by the horizon, or a faint blue line of other distant 
sierras ; this space, which appears one level, is intersected with deep 
ravines, harrancos, in which villages lie concealed, and streams, arroyos, 
flow unperceived ; ancfther important effect of this central elevation is 
the searching dryness and rarefication of the air. It is often highly 
prejudicial to strangers : the least exposure, which is very tempting 
under a burning sun, will bring on ophthalmia, irritable colics, and 
inflammatory diseases of the lungs and vital organs. Such are the 
causes of the pulmonia (the endemic disease of Madrid), which carries 
off the invalid in a few days. 

These are the geographical, geological, and natural divisions of the 
Peninsula, throughout which a leading prevailing principle may be 
traced. The artificial, political, and conventional arrangement into 
kingdoms and provinces is so much the work of accident and of absence 
of design ; indeed, one who only looked* at the map might sometimes 
fancy that some of the partitions were expressly devised for the sake of 
being purposely inconvenient and incongruous. 

These provincial divisions were however formed by the gradual union 
* of many smaller and previously independent portions, which have been 
taken into Spain as a whole, just as our inconvenient counties constitute 
the kingdom of England. Long habit has reconciled the inhabitants to 
these divisions, which practically suit them better than any new 
arrangement, however better calculated according lo statistical and 
geographical principles. The French, when they obtained possession of 
the Peninsula, with their fondness for departmentalization, tried to re- 
model and recombine ancient and antipathetic provinces, to carve out 
neatly and apportion districts, a la mode de Paris, in utter disregard 
of the wishes, necessities, and prejudices of the respective natives. No 
sooner was their intrusive rule put to an end, than the Spaniards 
shook off their paper arrangements, and reverted, like the Italians, to 
those which pre-existed, and which, however defective in theory, and 
^ irregular on the map, suited their inveterate habits. In spite of the 

"lure of the French, Spain has been recently re-arranged, and the 

^pain. IX. POPULATION. 33 

people parcelled out like pieces on a chess-Tsoard. It will long, however, 
defy the power of all the reformers, commissioners, of all the doctri- 
naires, of all the cortes, effectually to efface the ancient, deeply-impressed 
divisions, which are engraven on the retentive characters of the inhabi- 
tants of each distinct province, who next to hating their neighbours, 
hate innovations. 

The political divisions of former times consisted of 14 large jirovinces, 
some of which were called kingdoms, as Granada, Seville, Cordova, 
Jaen, Murcia, Valencia, &c. : others principalities, like Asturias : 
others counties, like Barcelona Niebla, &c. : and lastly, others were 
called provinces, like New and Old Castile, Estremadura, &c. : Biscay 
was termed el Senorio, Spain, was then divided by " decree," into 
49 provinces, viz.: Alava, Albacete, Alicante, Almeria, Avila, 
Badajoz, las Baleares, Barcelona, Burgos, Caceres, Cadiz, las Cauarias, 
Castellon de la Plana, Ciudad Real, Cordoba, la Coruiia, Cucnca, 
Gerona, Granada, Guadalajara, Guipuzcoa, Huelva, Huesca, Jaen, Leon, 
Li^rida, Loigrono, Lugo, Madrid, Mali^a, Murcia, Navarra, Oreusc, 
Oviedo, Palencia, Pontevedra, Salamanca, Santander, Segovia, Sevilla, 
Soria, Tarragona, Teruel, Toledo, Valencia, Valladolid, Vizcaya, Zamora, 
Zaragoza. There is now a scheme to reduce these 49 into 20 provinces, in 
the hopes of diminishing departamental expenditure and malversation, 
and to further the centralizing system, which France has made the 

The present population, with a slow tendency to increase, may be 
taken at 13,000,000, although Madoz rates it at 15,000,000. Brought^ 
the great bar to the fertility of soil, also tends to check fertility of women. 
The prevalence, again, of foundling hospitals, and the large number of 
natural children exposed by unnatural parents in these charnel-houses 
to a certain massacre of innocents, and the drain of deadly Madrid on 
the provinces at large, keeps down the scanty population. The revenue 
may be taken at some 12,000,0002. Badly collected, and at a niinous per 
oentage, it is exposed to infinite robbery and jobbery. In Spain a little 
money, like oil, will stick to every finger that handles it. 

Spain, in the time of Ferdinand VJI. one of the most backward 
nations in Europe, has since his death made considerable advance. 
The sleeper has been awakened by the clash of civil wars, and, however 
far the lagging is yet in arrear, a certain social and administrative progress 
is perceptible. The details connected with each ministerial department, 
their separate duties, and what is or ought to be done under each head, 
Justice, Finance, Home, Board of Trade, War, and Marine, are set forth 
in the Spanien und seine fortschreitende Entwickelung, Julius v. 
Minutoli, Berlin, 1852, but the infinite details of the working and social 
life are put by him in too complimentary a style. Most Spanish things 
so tinted d la roee on Am paper appear perfect ; but when tested by prac- 
tice, many a mi^;azine will turn out to be an arsenal (»f empty boxes, and 
many an institution of peace and war be found " wanting in everything 
most essential at the critical moment." A swelling, pompous snow of 
canvas is spread over a battered, unseaworthy hull. The use made of 
our Handbook by this industrious Prussian, and also by his country- 
man Zeigler in his recent Reiae in Spanien, 1852, is flattering. 

Xo doubt Spain has taken part in the general progress of the l»r* 

c 3 


score of years, and a marked improvement is perceptible, especially in 
medical science, and in the national education of the people. While 
in 1803 only 1 in 340 were educated, it is now, we are told, calculated 
that to every 1 in 17 the means of elementary schooling is offered. 
If this be true, then England, the leader of rruyral civilization as France 
is of sensual, may well take a leaf from the hom-book of Spain. 

-TouBS IN Spain. 

However much the Gotho-Spaniards have destroyed, disfigured, and 
ill-appreciated the relics of the Moor — in their eyes an inlidel invader 
and barbarian — the remains'of that elegant and enlightened people will 
always constitute to the rest of mankind some of the foremost objects 
of curiosity in the Peninsula, and are indeed both in number and 
importance quite unequalled in Europe. 

Tour for the Idler and Man of Pleasure. 

Perhaps this class of travellers had better go to Paris or Naples. 

Spain is not a land of fleshly comforts, or of social sensual civilization. 

Oh I dura tellus IhertcB I — God there sends the meat, and the evil one 

cooks : — there are more altars than kitchens — des milliers depreires et 

pas un cuisinier. 

Life in the country, there, is a Bedouin Oriental existence. The inland 
mifrequented towns are dull and poverty-stricken. Bore is the Genius 
Loci. Boasted Madrid itself is but a dear, second-rate, inhospitable city ; 
the maritime seaports, as in the East, from being frequented by the 
foreigner, are more cosmopolitan, more cheerful and amusing. Generally 
speaking, in Spain, as in the East, public amusements are rare. The calm 
contemplation of a cigar, Mass and telling of beads, and a dolce far 
nientey siestose indolence, appear to suffice ; while to some nations it is 
a pain to be out of i)leasure, to the Spaniard it is a pleasure to be out 
of painful exertion : leave me, leave me, to repose and tobacco. When» 
however awake, the Alameda, or church show, and the bull-fight, are 
the chief relaxations. These will be best enjoyed in the Southern pro- 
vinces, the land also of tha song and dance, of bright suns and eyes, 
wholesale love making, and of not the largest female feet in the world. 

Before pointing out other objects to be observed in Spain, and 
there only, it may be as well to mention what is not to be seen, 
as there is no worse loss of time than finding this out oneself, after 
weary chace and wasted hours. Those who expect to find well- 
garnished arsenals, libraries, restaurants, charitable or literary institu- 
tions, canals, railroads, tunnels, suspension-bridges, polytechnic galle- 
ries, pale-ale breweries, and similar appliances and appurtenances of 
a high state of political, social, and commercial ^civilization, had 
better stay at home. In Spain there are few turnpike-trust meetings, 
quarter-sessions, courts of justice, according to the real meaning of that 
word, no tread-mills or boards of guardians, no chairmen, directors, 
masters-extraordinary of the court of chancery, no assistant poor-law 
commissioners. There are no anti-tobacco-teetotal-temperance-meetings, 
no auxiliary missionary propagating societies, no dear drab doves of 
peace societies, or African slave emancipationists, nothing in the blanket 


and lying-in asylum line, little, in short, worth a qnaker's or a revising 
barrister of three years' standing's notice. Spain may perhaps interest a 
political economist, as affording an example of the decline of the wealth of 
nations, and offering a fine example of errors to be avoided, and a grand 
field for theories and experimental plans of reform and amelioration. 
Here is a land where Nature has lavished her prodigality of soil and 
climate, and which man has for the last four centuries been endeavouring 
to counteract. M cieh y suelo es bueno, el entresuelo malo. Here the tenant 
for life and the occupier of the peninsular entresol, abuses, with incurious 
apathy the goods with which the gods have provided him, and *' preserves 
the country " as a terra incognita to naturalists and every branch of 
ists and ologists. All these interesting branches of inquiry, healthful 
and agreeable, as being out-of-door pursuits, and bringing the amateur 
in close contact with nature, ofier to embryo authors, who are ambitious 
to book something new, a more worthy subject than the decies repetita 
descriptions of bull-fights and the natural history of mantillas, ollas, 
and ventas. Those who aspire to the romantic, in short, to any of the 
sublime and beautiful lines (feelings unknown to the natives, and 
brought in by foreigners themselves), will find subjects enough in wan- 
dering with lead-pencil and note-book through this singular country, 
which hovers between Europe and Africa, between civilisation and 
barbarism ; this land of the green valley and ashy mountain, of the 
boundless plain and the broken sierra ; those Elysian gardens of the 
Tine, the olive, the orange, and the aloe ; those trackless, silent, uncul- 
tivated wastes, the heritage of the bustard and bittern; — striking 
indeed and sudden is the change, in flying from the polished monotony 
of England, to the racy freshness of that still original country, where 
antiquity treads on the heels of to-day, where Paganism disputes the 
very altar with Christianity, where indulgence and luxury contend 
with privation and poverty, where a want of much that is generous, 
honest, or merciful is blended with the most devoted heroic virtues, 
-where the cold-blooded cruelty is linked with the fiery passions of Africa, 
where ignorance and erudition stand in violent and striking contrast. 

There let the antiquarian pore over the fossils of thousands of years, 
the vestiges of Phoenician enterprise, of Boman magnificence, of Moorish 
elegance, in that land "potted" for him, that repository of much 
elsewhere long obsolete and forgotten, and compare their massiveness 
and utility with the gossamer Aladdin palaces, the creatures of Oriental 
gorgeousness and imagination, with which Spain alone ctfh enchant the 
European F.S.A. ; how tender the poetry of her envy-disarming decay, 
fallen from her high estate, the dignity of a dethroned monarch, borne 
with unrepining self-respect, the last consolation of the innately noble, 
which no adversity can take away ; how wide and new is the field 
opened here to the lovers of art, amid the masterpieces of Italian genius, 
when Raphael and Titian strove to decorate the palaces of Charles, the 
great emperor of the age of Leo X. Here again is all the living nature 
of Velazquez and Murillo, truly to be seen in Spain alone ; let the 
artist mark well and note the shells in which these pearls of price shine, 
the cathedral, where God is worshipped in a manner as nearly befitting 
his glory as finite man can reach — the Gothic gloom of the cloister, the 
feu&l turret of Avila, the vasty Escorial, the rock-built alcazar of iir 



Sect. I. 

penal Toledo, the sunny towers of stately Seville, the eternal snows and 
lovely vega of Granada ; let the geologist clamber over mountains of 
marble, and metal-pregnant sierras ; let the botanist cull from the wild 
hothouse of nature plants unknown, unnumbered, matchless in colour, 
and breathing the aroma of the sweet south ; let all, learned or unlearned, 
listen to the song, the guitar, the castanet ; mingle with the gay, good- 
humoured, temperate peasantry, free, manly, and independent, yet 
courteous and respectful ; live with the noble, dignified, high-bred, 
self-respecting Spaniard ; share in their easy, courteous society ; let all 
admire their dark-eyed women, to whom ages and nations have con- 
ceded the palm of attraction, to whom Venus has bequeathed her 
girdle of fascination ; let all — sed ohe ! jam satis — enough for 
starting on this expedition, where, as Don Quixote said, there are 
opportunities for what are called adventures elbow-deep. ** Aqui^ 
Hermano Sancho, podemos metir las memos hasta los codos, en esto que 
llaman aventura^,'*^ 

In suggesting lines of Spain, a whole year would gcarcely 
suffice to make the grand and complete tour. It might be performed 
in the following manner ; the letters annexed signify that the means of 
progress can be accomplished S. by steam, C. by public conveyance, 
K, by riding : — 

The Grand Tour. 

Start from England hy the Steam-jacket about the end of March for 

CadiZj and then proceed thus — 

Puerto, by Steam. 

Xerez, Coach. 

Bonanza. July 24. 

Seville, S. 
May 6. Cordova, C. 

Andujar, C. 

Jaen, C. 
May 20. Granada, C. 

Alpujarras, Eide. Aug. 5. 

Berja, R. Aug. 10. 

Motril, R. ' 
June 5. Malaga, li. 

Antequera, R. 

Ronda, R. 

Gaucin, R. 

Gibraltar, R. 

Tarifa, R. or S. 
June 25. Cadiz, R. or S. 

Seville, S. 

Aracena, R. 

Badajoz, R. Aug. 10. 
July 5. Merida, C. R. 

Alcantara, R. 

Coria, R. 
July 16. Plasencia, R. 

Yuste, R. 

Abadia, R. 

Batuecas, R. ' 

Alberca, R. 


Salamanca, R. 

Zamora, R. 

Benaveute, R. 

Astorga, R. 

Pouferrada, R. 

Lugo, R. 

Santiago, R. 

La Coruna or 

Orense, R. 

Tuy, R. 

Vigo, R. 

Santiago, R. 

La Coruna, C. 

Oviedo by the 
coast, R. S., 
or by Cangas 
de Tiueo, R. 

La Coruna. 

Oviedo, R. 

Leon, C. 

Safaagun, R. 

Burgos, R. 

Santander, C. 

Bilbao, R. 

Vitoria, C. 

Sept. Burgos, C. 

Valladolid, C. 

Segovia, R. C. 

Escorial, C. 

Avila, R. 

Madrid, F. 

Toledo, C. 
Oct. Araiguez, C. 

Cuenca, R. 

Madrid (winter), 
or at 

Valencia, C. 

Xativa, C. 

Villena, R. 

Murcia, R. 

Cartagena. C. 

Orihuela, R. 
Spring. Elche, C. 

Alicante, C. 

Ibi, R. 

Alcoy, R. 

Xativa, R. 

Valencia, C. 

Tarragona, C.S. 

Reus, C. 

Poblet, R. 

Cervera, R. 

Jgualada, R. 

*Spain. IX. hints to invalids. 37 

Spnng. Cardona, R. Huesca, C. R. Pamplona, R. C. 

Mooserrat, R. ThePyrenee8,R. Elizondo, R. 

Martopell, R. Tudela, C. Vera, R. 

Barcelona, R. Pamplona, C. Iran, R. ^ 

Zaragoza, C. Summer. Tolosa, C. 
Summer. Jaca, R. Iruu, C. or 

Hints to Invalids. 

The sui^riority of the climate of the South of Spain over all other 
regions of Euroj^e, which was pointed out in our former editions, is now 
ratified in the able and practical treatise of Dr. Francis,* the " Clark of 
Spain," and the first to grapple professionally, after much personal expe- 
rience and examination, with this hygienic subject. Fair Italy, with 
her classical prestige, her Catholic associations, her infinite civilization, 
-and ready access, has long been the land of promise to our travellers 
expatriated in search of health. But the steam and rail of England 
have now annihilated time and space, and her pen has pioneered the 
path to distant Spain, and dissipated the delusions and dangers of 
'banditti and garlic. Independently of a more southern latitude, the 
geometrical configui-ation of Spain is superior ; while the Apennines^ the 
Ixickbone of Italy, stretching N. to S,, offer no barrier to northern cold, 
the sierras of Spain, running E. and W., afford complete shelter to 
the littoral strips: Again, where the skiey influences of Italy are 
enervating and depressing, the climate of the Peninsula is bracing and 
exhilarating. Free as a whole from malaria, dryness is the emphatic 
^juality of the climate. Malaga^ on the whole, may be pronounced 
the most favoured winter residence in Europe, and justly claims to 
"be the real Elysian fields — pace those of Paris and Naples. 

As Spain itself is a conglomeration of elevated mountains, the treeless, 
denuded interior, scorching and calcined in summer, keen, cold and wind- 
blown in winter, is prejudicial to the invalid ; the hygienic charac- 
teristics of the maritime coasts to the W. from Vigo to San-Sebastian, 
are soothing and sedative— a relaxing influence prevailing as the 
French frontier is approached ; the strip to the E., from Barcelona to 
Cadiz, is more bracing and exhilarating ; midway, in Murcia, occur the 
driest regions in Europe, with Malaga for the happy medium. 

The benefits derived by well-timed change of climate in cases of con- 
sumption, dyspepsia, bronchitis, and chronic complaints, the climacteric 
failure oivis vitoBf and the vivifying influence on the health of mind and 
"body — reoxygenated, as it were — Are matters of fact. The stimulus of 
glowing light, and the effect of warm and constant sunshine on sur- 
faces chilled by the wet blanket of fog and cloud, works wonders. The 
insensible transpiration proceeds constantly; the skin then does its 
work to the relief of the internal organs. The water dnmk in Spain, 
•where — in the warmer portions^-diabetes and dropsy are little known, 
is deliciously pure. The wines of the south especially — Malaga and 
Manzanilla — are dry, cheap, and wholesome. The cuisine, in a country 
where people eat to live, not live to eat, will indeed keep body and 
soul t(^ether, but will tempt no weak and wearied " stomach " to re- 

• Cbftnge of Climate, &c, vith an account of the most eligible places of residence for 
UiTalidfl in Spain, Portucat, Algeria, &c., by D. J. T. Francis, M.l\ London. 1868. 


pletion. The peptic benefits of climate on the natives are evident by 
the way they digest an oil, vinegar, and vegetable diet, and survive 
chocolate, sweetmeats, and bile-creating compounds. The sustaining 
effect is proved by the untiring activity of the verj' under-fed masses, 
where many seem to live on air, like chamelions. How strong are 
Spanish lungs — teste their songs — ^and how few are their winter-coughs — 
teste their churches 1 — The brain, again, in a land of No se sale, and 
where there is no reading. public, no hourly penny-post or Times, is left 
in comparative rest — rare boons these for the two organs that have^ 
the least holiday under the mental and physical toil entailed by 
bur over-refined civilization. The .very dullness of Malaga — Prose 
is the tutelar of Spanish towns — benefits the invalid. There are no* 
wearying aesthetic lions to be encountered — ^no Madame Starke to be 
" done** — no marble-floored and peopled Yaticans to be slidden through 
— no cold Coliseums to be sketched — ^no Fountains-of-Egeria picnics — 
no " season " dinnerings and late balls, to excite, fever and freeze by 
turns : at Malaga the invalid leads a quiet life, calm as the climate,^ 
and, blessed with an otiose oriental real ddce-far-niente existence, caix 
leave nature to her full vis medicatrix. To be always able to bask in 
the open air, to throw physic to the dogs, to watch the sun, the 
country, and the people, with the satisfaction of every day getting: 
better, are consolations and occupations sufficient. The invalid will, 
of course, consult his medical adviser on the choice of residence best 
suited to his individual case : and the specialities of each locality are 
given by Dr. Francis with medical detail. The precautions necessary 
to be observed are no less fully set forth by him, and the general 
benefits derived from a riding tour in Spain pressed on the convalescent. 
And we too, who have thus wandered over many a hundred leagues of 
wild and tawny Spain, can fully speak to the relief thus aflbrded to 
severe dyspepsia, and may be permitted to say a little word. 

Cato, a great traveller in ancient Spain, thought it a matter for 
repentance in old age to have gone by sea where he might have gone 
by land. And, touching on the means of locomotion, Eails and Post- 
horses certainly get quicker over a country, but the pleasure of the 
remembrance, and the benefits derived by travel, are commonly in an 
inverse ratio to the ease and rapidity with which the journey is per- 
formed.* In addition to the accurate knowledge which is acquired of the 
country, (for there is no map like this mode of surveying), and of a con- 
siderable and by no means the worst portion of its population, a Biding 
Expedition to a civilian, is almost equivalent to serving a campaign. 
It imparts a new life, which is adopted on the spot, and which soon 
appears quite natural, from being in perfect harmony and fitness ^vith 
everything around, however strange to all previous habits and notions ; 
it takes the conceit out of a man for the rest of his life — ^it makes him 
bear and forbear. There is just a dash of difficulty and danger to give 
dignity to the adventure : but how soon does all that was disagreeable 
fade from the memory, while all that was pleasant alone remains — nay, 
even hardships, when past, become bright passages to the recollection. 
It is a capital practical school of moral discipline, just as the hardiest 

* In the first edition of this Handbook the vhole Babject of a riding tctir, horses, senrants^. 
■^ modut oparcmdi is discussed at much length. 

Spain. IX. RIDING TOUB. 39» 

mariners are nurtured in the roughest seas. Then and there will be 
learnt golden rules of patience, perseverance, good temper, and good 
fellowship : the individual man must come out, for better or worse ; ou 
these occasions, where wealth and rank are stripped of the aids and 
appurtenances of conventional superiority, he will draw more on his 
own resources, moral and physical, than on any letter of credit ; his 
wit will be sharpened by invention-suggesting necessity. Then and 
there, when up, about and abroad, will be shaken off dull sloth. Action I 
will be the watchword. The traveller will blot out from his Spanish 
dictionary the fatal phrase of procrastination — by-and-'hyf a street 
which leads to the house of never, "por la caUe de desnues, se va a la 
casa de nuncaP Reduced to shift for himself, he will see the evil of 
waste, " sal vertida^ nunca hien cogida ;" the folly of improvidence and 
the wisdom of order, ** quien hien ata, hien desata ; " fast bind, fast un- 
bind. He will whistle to the winds the paltry excuse of idleness, the " no 
86 puedey^ the ^^it is impossible " of Spaniards. He will soon learn, by 
grappling with difiSculties, how they are hest to be overcome, — how soft 
as silk becomes the nettle when it is sternly grasped, which would 
sting the tender-handed touch, — how powerful an element of realising 
the object proposed, is indomitable volition, and the moral conviction 
that we can and wUl accomplish it. He will never be scared by shadows 
thin as air! when one door shuts another opens, •* cuando unapuerta ce 
cierra, otra se ahre" and he who pushes on surely arrives, " guien no cansa 
dlcanza" These sorts of independent expeditions are equally conducive 
to health of body : after the first few days of the new fatigue are got 
over, the frame becomes of iron, " hecho de hronce" The living in the 
pure air, the sustaining excitement of novelty, exercise, and constant 
occupation, are all sweetened by the " studio fallente laborem," which 
renders even labour itself a pleasure ; a new and vigorous life is infused 
into every bone and muscle ; early to bed and early to rise, if it does 
not make all brains wise, at least invigorates the gastric juices, makes 
a man forget that he has a liver, that storehouse of mortal misery — 
bile, blue pill, and blue devils. This Tieaith is one of the secrets of 
the amazing charm which seems inherent to this mode of travelling in 
spite of all the apparent hardships with which it is surrounded in the 
abstract. Escaping from the meshes of the west end of London, we 
are transported into a new world ; every day the out-of-door panorama 
is varied ; now the heart is cheered and the countenance made glad by 
gazing on plains overflowing with milk and honey, or laughing with 
oil and wine, where the orange and citron bask in the glorious sun- 
beams. Anon we are lost amid the wild magnificence of Nature, who, 
careless of mortal admiration, lavishes with proud indifference her fairest 
charms where most unseen, her grandest forms where most inaccessible* 
Every day and everywhere we are unconsciously funding a stock of 
treasures and pleasures of memory, to be hived in our bosoms like 
the honey of the bee, to cheer and sweeten our after-life ; which, delight- 
ful even as in the reality, wax stronger as we grow in years, and feel 
that these feats of our youth, like sweet youth itself, can never be our 
portion again. Of one thing the reader may be assured — that dear 
will be to him, as is now to us, the remembrance of these wild and 
joyous rides through tawny Spain, where hardship was forgotten ere 



Sect. I* 

undergone : those sweet-aired hills — those rocky crags and torrents — 
those fresh valleys which communicate their own freshness to the 
heart — that keen relish for hard fare won by hunger — the best of 
sauces — those sound slumbers on harder couch, earned by fatigue, the 
downiest of pillows — the braced nerves — the spirits light, elastic, and 
joyous — that freedom from care — that health of body and soul which 
ever rewards a close communion with Nature — and the shuffling off 
the frets and factitious 'wants of the thick-pent artificial city. 

Mineral Baths. 

These are very numerous, and have always been much frequented. 
In every part of the Peninsula such names as Ccddas, the Eoman 
Oalidas, and Alhama^ the Arabic Al-hdmun, denote the continuance of 
baths, in spite of the changes of nations and language. From Al- 
hamuUf the Hhamman of Cairo, the name of our comfortable Covent 
Garden Hummums is derived ; but very different are the Spanish 
accommodations, which are mostly rude, inadequate, and inconvenient. 
The Junta Suprema de Sanidad, or Official Board of Health, has pub- 
lished a list of the names of the principal baths, and their proper 
seasons. At each a medical superintendent resides, who is appointed 
by government ; and who will swear — if given a double fee — that Aw 
waters in particular will cure every evil under the sun. 

Names of Baths. 



Chiclana .... 
Paterna de la Rivera . 
Arenocillo . . . 



Medina Sidonia. 


Horcajo • • • • 



Alhama .... 



Graena .... 



T^njaron .... 



Sierra Alamilla . • 



Guardavieja . . . 



Marmolejo . • . 



Frailes .... 
Carratraca . . . 



Archena . . . " . 









Villa vieja • . . 



Caldas de Monbuy • 



Olesa y Esparraguera 




June to Oct. 

June to Sept. 
do. do. 
J May to June. 
\ Aug. to Sept. June. 
\Sept. to Oct. 
< May to June. 
(Aug. to Oct. 

May to Sept 

{May to June. 
Sept. to Oct. 
do. do. 
\Sept. to Nov. 
June to Sept. 
do. do. 
Apr. to June. 
Sept. to Oct. 
May to June. 
Sept. to Oct. 
Apr. to June. 
Sept. to Oct. 
|May to July. 
\ Aug. to Sept. 
TMay to July. 
\Sept. to Oct. 
July to Sept. 




Xames of Baths. 




Alhama • • . . 



June to Sept. 

Quinto . • • 



May to Sept. 

Tiermas • • , 



do. do. 

Panticosa • . , 



June to Sept. 

Secara • 



May to Sept. 

Fitero . • . . 



do. do. 

Hervideros . , 

La Mancha. 

Ciadad Real. 

June to Sept. 

Fuencaliente • , 



May to June. 

Solan de Cabras . 

New Castile. 


June to Sept. 

Sacedon • 



do. do. 

TriUo .... 



do. do. 

£1 Molar . . , 



do. do. 

Ledesma • 

Old Castile. 


do. do. 

Amedillo . • 



do. do. 

Alange . . . 



do. do. 

Monte mayor . . 



do. do. 

Arteijo . • 


La Cornna. 

July to Sept. 

JLago .... 



June to Sept. 

Carballino • . 



July to Sept. 

Cortegada . . 



June to Sept. 

Caldas de Reyes « 



July to Sept. 

Caldelas de Tuy , 



do. do. 

Cestona • . < 


. • 

June to Sept. 

La Hermida • . • 



do. do. 

X. — Skeleton Tours. 

Thd Peninsula may also be divided into regions which contain 
peculiar objects of interest. The vestiges of epochs run in strata, 
according to the residence of the different nations who have occupied 
Spain ; thus the Eoman, Moorish, and Gotho-Spaniard periods are 
marked by evidences distinguishing and indelible as fossils. 

No. 1. A Roman Antiquarian Tour. 

Italica, R. 
Rio Tinto, R. 
May. Merida, R. 

Alcantara, R. 
Alconetar, R. 

June. Coria, R. 

Plasencia, R. 
Capara, R. 
Salamanca, R. 
Segovia, R. 
Toledo, C. 

Valencia, C 
Murviedro, C. 
July. Tarragona, C. S. 
Barcelona, C. S. 
Martorell, C. 

No. 2. A Moorish Antiquarian Tour. 
Seville. June. Graoada, C. June. Malaga, R. 

May. Cordova, C. 
Jaen, C. 

Alhama, R. 
Tours for Naturaubts. 

Tari&, R. S. 

The natTlral history of Spain has yet to be really investigated and 
described. This indeed is a subject worthy of all who wish to ** book 
something new," and the soil is almost virgin. The harvest is rich, 
and although labourers have long been wanting, able pioneers have 
broken the ground, and a zealous band is following. The great extent 
and peculiar coi^ormation of the Peninsula offer every possible scoj* 


to the geologist and botanist. The damp valleys of the Asturias and 
the western provinces combine the varieties of Wales and Switzerland ;. 
the central portions contain the finest cereal regions in the world, while 
the mountains of Andalucia, covered with eternal snow, furnish an 
entire botanical range from the hardiest lichen to the sugar-cane 
which flourishes at their bases : vast districts of dehesas, or abandoned 
tracts, bear in spring time the aspect of a hot-house growing wild ; 
such is the profusion of flowers which waste their sweets, noted and 
gathered but imperfectly, in this Paradise of the wild bee, this garden 
of weeds, albeit the Barharies Botanica Hispanica, complained of by 
Linnasus, is now in a fair way to be eradicated, and this very much 
by foreigners, as the Spaniard, like the old Romans and the Oriental, 
is little sensible to the beauties of nature for herself, when unconnected 
with the idea of his pleasure or profit — garden or farm; and an 
antipathy to trees forms quite a second Castilian nature. 

Consult on the Flora Hispanica, the works of Quer Cavanillas and 
those named by Miguel Colmeiro, 8vo. 1846, in his list of Spanish 
botanical books. The botanist and entomologist may peruse with 
advantage the Reise-Erinnerungen aus Spanien, by E. A. Eossmassler, 
2 vols., Leipzig, 1854, especially on the subject of snails. 

Naturalists — ^happy men — for whom Nature spreads a bountiful 
banquet, whose infinite variety neither time nor man can destroy, 
should by all means ride on their excursions. Much of the best giound 
is totally uncarriageable. Remember, above all things, to bring all 
necessary implements and scientific appliances with you from England^ 
as neither they nor their pursuits are things of Spain. 

The eastern and southern portions of Spain should not be visited 
before May, or the northern much before June. ' 

To geology, a new science even in Europe, the Moro-Spaniards are 
only beginning to pay attention — ^mining excepted — and even there again 
theforeigner has dug up his share at least of treasure buried in the native 
napkin. What a new and wide field for the man of the hammer ! 
Here are to be found the marbles with which the Romans decorated 
their temples, the metal-pregnant districts which, in the hands of the 
Carthaginians, rendered Spain the Peru and California of the old world ! 
We are enabled, by the kindness of Sir Roderick Murchison, to 
ofTer the substance of various memoirs and notices on the geological 
structure and sedimentary deposits of Spain, prepared chiefly by Mon- 
sieur de Vemeuil, his intelligent coUaborateur in Russia. The central 
part of Spain is distinguished by 3 chains of mountains which con- 
stitute the skeleton of the country, the Guadarramja, the Monies de 
Toledo, and the Sierra Morena. Having emerged before the secondary 
period, these ridges formed islands, in each of which are traces of 
Silurian or other pabeozoic rocks, and around which were accumulated 
the Jurassic and the cretaceous deposits. 

Primary rocks. — One the highest of these, the Guadarrama, is princi- 
pally composed of granite, gneiss and other crystalline schists. Towards 
the E. these disappear under the sedimentary formations, whilst to the 
W. they proceed to the frontier of Portugal. The primary rocks occur 
in two other and very distant parts of Spain. The province of Gallicia 
'^ principally composed of granite, gneiss and mica- schist, occasionally 

rrounding patches of slate and limestone ; these rocks are of great 


antiqalty, and fonn a sort of expansion of the palasozoic chain of Can- 
tabria. The Sierra Nevada, S. E. of Granada, ofiers an example of a 
great mass of crystalline schists. The abundance of garnets in th& 
mica-schist, the crystalline structure and magnesian condition of the 
thick band of limestone which surroimds the central part, indicate the 
energy of the metamorphic action which has here taken place. 

FcUceozaic rocks. — The Sierra Morena is the tract in which most of 
the Silurian fossils have been discovered. This range is composed of 
slates, psammites, quartzites and sandstones ; the strata often placed 
by violent dislocations in a vertical position. Making a section across 
the chain K. to S., the formations succeed each other in an ascending 
order. The oldest or lowest traces of life, trilobites, occur in black 
shivery slates. The upper Silurian rocks are poorly represented in 
the Sierra Morena, the Devonian rocks more fully. The carboniferous 
deposits, situated towards its southern jjart, contain great masses of lime- 
stone. The two sides of the Sierra Cantabrica in Leon and the Asturias, 
present deposits of Devonian fossils, and offer points of pilgrim- 
age for all palaeontologists. These Devonian rocks constitute the 
axis of the Sierra Cantabrica on its southern side, and are covered in 
the Asturias or on the N. by the richest coal-field of Spain. In general 
the carboniferous strata are vertical ; this disadvantage is lessened by the 
mountainous relief of the country, in some parts of which the beds of 
coal can be worked 1200 or 1300 feet above the level of the streams. 
The depth of the whole group may be estimated at 10,000 or 12,000 feet, 

No fossils of the Permian rocks have ever been found in Spain, but 
the analogy of rocks and stratigraphical indications have referred to that 
formation the red magnesian limestone, and the gypsiferous marls of 
Hon tie], of the lakes of Ruidera, and the famous cave of Montesinos in 
La Mancha. 

Secondary rocks. — The Trias triple may be traced from the Pyrenees 
to the provinces of Santander and Asturias, but it does not contain the 
3 series of rocks from which the name originated ; and the muschel- 
kalk being entirely wanting, it is reduced to marls and sandstones of 
red colour placed between the lias and the carboniferous strata. The 
Jurassic and cretaceous groufis extend over most of the eastern and 
southern part of Spain, covering vast areas in Catalonia, Arragon, 
Valencia, Murcia, Malaga and Eonda ; lying upon the red sandstone,, 
they constitute most of the high lands and mountains which to the E. 
of Madrid make the divortia aquarum between the Atlantic and the 
Mediterranean sea ; they surround the central and more ancient parts ; 
along the Guadarrama the chalk penetrates into the very heart 
of the country. It will prove a hard task to separate the Jurassic 
and cretaceous rocks of Spain ; especially in the S., where the meta- 
morphic action has produced so many alterations in the rocks, and has 
so obliterated the fossils. The districts of Malaga and Eonda seem to- 
possess a geological constitution very analogous to that of the Venetian 
Alps. In effect, beneath the miocene and nummulitic rocks, rises a^ 
compact white limestone not to be distinguished from the Italian scaglia 
and biancone, succeeded near Antequera and other places by a marble 
of reddish colour full of Ammonites, which may be compared to the 
Oxfordian Ammonitico rosso of the Italians. 

In the eastern regions, mountains more than 5000 feet high are com 


posed of triassic, Jurassic, and cretaceous rocks. The greatest part of 
the Jurassic fossils 'belong to the upper lias. The Oxfordian Jura 
occurs at Teruel ; but at present the upper part of the oolitic series, or 
the Fortlandian group, is unknown. The same may be said of the 
Neocomian rocks. The chalk of Spain appears to consist only of the 
hippuritic limestone and seems to correspond with the upper greensand, 
but not with the Neocomian or lower greensand. Above the chalk, 
and, having, apparently been submitted to the same disturbances, lie 
the nummulitic rocks, the true lower and eocene w^ell exposed in the 
province of Santander. At Malaga a great discordance may be observed 
between the nummulitic limestone and the miocene, or younger and 
older tertiary deposits, the first being highly contorted and the second 
slightly inclined. 

The younger tertiary rocks cover vast areas in Spain ; generally 
horizontal and extending in vast plains,.they contrast strongly with the 
secondary and nummulitic, or older tertiary beds, which are always 
contorted and form undulating or mountainous countries. All the great 
valleys of the Ebro, the Douro, the Tagus, the Guadiana and the Gua- 
dalquivir, have been bottoms of seas, estuaries or extensive lakes. The 
purely freshwater deposits cover a larger area than the marine ones, 
extending over Old and New Castile from the Cantabrian chain to the 
Guadarrama, and from the Guadarrama to the Sierra Morena through 
the great plains of the Mancha. In some places these deposits reach 
the altitude of 2500 feet ; thus proving how great elevation Spain has 
undergone even in recent times ; recent in eifect, to judge by the 
freshwater fossil shells, identical with those living 'now, and by the 
bones of great mammoths discovered in the Cerro San IsidrOy near 
Madrid. Most of the marine deposits, and especially those of the 
basin of the Guadalquivir, are miocene, and upon them lie here and 
there some small pliocene, or newer pliocene (naodern) deposits, formed 
on the maritime shore and composed of pebbles and fragments of an 
Ostrea resembling the living species. It was probably in the most 
recent of these periods that the extinct volcanos of the Peninsulabroke out. 
Three foci of eruption are known ; one at the cape of Gata, the other 
in the neighbourhood of CiudadReal, and the third near Olot in Catalonia, 

The geology of Spain is not suflBciently advanced to attempt a classi- 
fication of its mountains considered with respect to their x)eriods of 
elevation. The Sierra Morena is probably the most ancient ; for on both 
its sides the tertiary strata in contact with the old rocks are horizontal. 
Near Cordova, for example, the miocene beds with the huge Clypeaster 
oUus are to be seen in that position, and on the northern side at Santa 
Cruz de Mudela horizontal bands of freshwater limestone loaded with 
Helix, lie upon highly inclined, trilobite Silurian schists. More recent 
movements have taken place in the Guadarrama ; since at the southern 
foot of that high range, and on the road from Madrid to Burgos, the 
same freshwater limestone is slightly elevated. In the Pyrenees, as 
well as in the mountains which rise in the most southern part of Spain, 
the subsoil has been fractured by violent and recent disturbances. Tlie 
tertiary formations of the Ebro, and those of Leon along the Cantabrian 
^hain, are often much elevated. In Leon they are even vertical near 

B chain, but soon resume their horizontality to range over the great 
Ins of Castile. 




No. 3. Geological and Minebalogical Toub. 

Villa Nueva del Rio Coal 
Spring. Rio Tinto . • Copper 
Logrosan.Phosph. of Lime 

Linares • 
Granada • 
Berja . . 

Spring Marbella • 
or Macael . 

Autumn. Cartagena 
Helliu . 
Petrola . 


• Lead 
. Lead 


• Lead 

• Iron 



. Salt 




Teruel • 
Candete . 
Daroca • 
Tortosa . 
Ripoll . 
Bilbao • 
Biscay- • 

. Salt 
. Iron 
. Iron 
. Iron 
. Salt 
. Iron 

• Iron 
. Iron 
. Iron 

• Coal 

No. 4. A Toub of the Cbeam 

May. Cadiz, S. June. Granada, C. or R. 
Xerez, C. Madrid, C. 

Seville, S. Avila, C. 

Cordova, C. Escorial, C. 

Osuna, R. . Segovia, C. 

Konda, R. Toledo, C. 

Gibraltar, R. Aranjuez, C. 

Malaga, S. Joly* Cuenca, R. 

This tour cbmprehendiDg samples of every ci 
the traveller on his return to talk competently 

OF Spain. 

Valencia, C. 
July. Tarragona, C. S. 

Barcelona, C. S. 

Cardona, R. 

Igualada, R. 
Aug. Zaragoza, C. 

Burgos, C. 

Irun, C. 

ty and scene, will enable 
on the things of Spain. 

No. 5. A Summeb's Toub in the Nobth of Spain. 

Iron, C. 
Vitoria, C. 
Jane. Bilbao, C. 

Santander, R. S. 
Burgos, C. 

Jul} . Logrono, C. 
Pamplona, C. 
Pyrenees, R. 
Zaragoza, C. 
Barcelona, C. 

Monserrat, R. 
Aug. CardoDs, R. 
Urgel, R. 
Gerona, R. 
Perpinan, C. 

A pleasant long- vacation trip to the angler and water-colour painter. 

No. 6. A Cbntbal Toub bound Madbid. 

Avila, C. July. Plasencia, R. Aug. Aranjuez, C. 

Aug. Yuste, R. 

Alcantara, R. 

Escorial, C. 
Segovia, C. 
July. Valladolid, R. 
Salamanca, R. 
Ciudad Rodrigo,R. 

Merida, R. 
Talavera, R. 
Toledo, R. 

Sept. Caenca, R. 
Albarracin, R. 
Solan de Cabras, R. 
Guadalajara, C. 
Alcala de Henares,C. 

Batuecas, R. 

This home circuit, which includes some of the nohlest mediaeval and 
truly Spanish cities, some of the most picturesque and historically 
interesting sites, is douhly refreshing to mind and hody after the 
withering, dessicating influence of a residence at Madrid^ 

No. 7. Ak Abtistical Toub — the Pictubesque. 

As Spain, despite of our Roberts and Wests, continues still much in 
the dark ages of Indian-ink in these matters; artists, to whose benefit this 
Handbook aspires, should, before leaving England, lay in a stock of 
materials, such as block-books, liquid water-colours, camel-hair brushes, 
pennanentwhite, and good lead-pencils. — ^N.B. Before using them , attend 




Sect. I. 

to our suggestions at page 14, and prepare for meeting little sympathy 
from the so-called better classes. Often, in truth, will the man of the 
pencil sigh, and say, why will not the people show us themselves, their 
real homes, and ways ? why will they conceal what the rest of the world 
wishes most to see and sketch ? Servile imitators of the foreigner, whom 
they affect to despise, they seem in practice to deny, their fatherland and 
nationality. They bore us with their pale copies of the long-tailed 
•coats of London, and the commonplace columns of the Paris Bourse. 
They deluge us with all we abhor, and hide the attractive panorama 
which Spain presents in her own dear self, when her children, all tag, 
tassel, and filagree, dance under fig-tree and vine, while behind cluster 
Gothic ruins or Moorish arches, scenes and sights ravishing to all eyes 
save those of the Espanol ilustrado ; his newly enlightened and civilized 
vision, blind to all this native beauty, colour, and originality, sees in 
it only the degradation of poverty and decay; nay resenting the 
admiration of the stranger, from which he infers some condescending 
■compliment to picturesque barbarians, he intreats the inspection of his 
paletot, or drags him away to sketch some spick and span academical 
abortion, to i-aise which some gem of ancient art has been levelled. 

Eonda, R. 
Gibraltar, R. 
Malaga, R. 
Granada, R. 
Lanjaron, R. 
Elche, R. 
Cuenca, R. 
Albarracin, R. 
Toledo, C. 

Escorial, C. 
Avila, C. 
Plasencia, R. 

Batuecas, R. 
El Vierzo, R. 
Cangas de Tineo, R. 
Oviedo, R. 
Pajares, C. 

Santander, R. 
Bilbao, R. 
Vera, R. 
Jaca, R. 
Huesca, R. 

S^renees, R. 
anresa^ R. 
Monserrat, R. 
Rosas, R. 

Reinosa, R. 

Military and naval men, and all who take interest (and what 
Englishman does not ?) in the fair fame of our arms, must ever connect 
the Peninsula with one great association, the War of Giants waged 
there by Wellington, and all who desire to know the real rights of it, 
may stow in their saddlebags the well-compiled Annals of the Penvn- 
suLar Campaigns, by Ifamilton, revised by F. Hardman, 1849. Those 
who cannot, will at least find that the author of this Handbook, who has 
performed the pilgrimage to these hallowed sites, has, so far as limited 
space permits, recorded /ac^s.. 

No. 8. A MnjTARY and Naval Tour. 

Cadiz • • • 

Barrosa • • • 

Trafalgar • • 

Tarifa . . • 

Gibraltar • 

Granada . . • 
Navas de Tolosa 

Castalla . . . 

Almansa. • • 

Valencia • 

Murviedro • • 

» Andalucia. 


Burgos . • 

Navarrete • 

Espinosa . • 

Somosierra • 

Rioseco • . 

Benavente • 

Salamanca . 
Cindad Rodrigo 

El Bodon . 

La Coruna . 
San Payo 

Vigo . . . 
Cape Finisterre. 

Old Castile. 




Molins del Rey 
Broch • 
Oerona . 
Lerida • 
Belchite . 
Tadela . 
Vera • 
San Marcial 
The Bidasoa. 
San Sebastian 
Hemani . 
Yitoria • 
Bilbao . 





Arroyo Mollnos 
Almaraz • 
Badajoz • 
Albaera • 
Gevora • 
Madrid . 
Ucles • 
Montiel » 
Ciadad Real 
Sierra Morena 



New Castile. 

La Mancha. 

- Basqae proviDces. 

No. 9. Shooting and Fishing Tours. 

Although game is not preserved in Spain as among ourselves, it is 
abandant ; nature, by covering the earth with aromatic brushwood in 
vast eiLtents of uninhabited, uncultivated land, has afforded excellent 
•cover to the wild beasts of the field and fowls of the air ; they are 
poached and destroyed at all seasons, and in every unfair manner, and 
• more for pot considerations, than sport — especially near the towns. *The 
JercB natures flourish, however, wherever the lords of the creation are rude 
and rare. The game takes care of itself, and is abundant, not from being 
strictly preserved, but from not being destroyed by scientific sportsmen. 
Spain was always the land of the rabbit (c(mejo\ which the Phoenicians 
saw here for the first time, and hence some have traced the origin of the 
name Hispania, to the Sephan, or rabbit of the Hebrew. This animal 
figured on the early coins of the cuniculosce Cdtilberice, (Catullus, xxxv. 
18.) Large ships freighted with them were regularly sent from Cadiz for 
ike supply of Rome (Strabo, iii. 214). The rabbit is still the favourite 
shooting of Spaniards, who look invariably to the liu*der. Pheasants 
are very rare : a bird requiring artificial feeding'- cannot be expected 
to thrive in a country where half the population is underfed. Red- 
legged partridges and hares are most plentiful. The mouths of the 
great rivers swarm with aquatic birds. In Andalucia the multitude 
of bustards and woodcocks is incredible. There is very little diffi- 
culty in procuring leave to shoot in Spain ; a licence to carry a gun 
is required of every native, but it is seldom necessary for an Eng- 
lishman. The moment a Spaniard gets out of town he sboulders 
3, gun, for the custom of going armed is immemorial. Game is 
usually divided into great and small: the Caza mayor includes 
•deer, venadosy wild boars, javalis, and the chamois tribe, cabroi mon- 
taneses : by Caza menor is understood foxes, rabbits, partridges, and 
such like " small deer." Winter fowl is abundant wherever there is 
water, and the flights of quails and woodcocks, codomices y gaUinetaSy 
quite marvellous. The Englishman will find shooting in the neigh- 


bourhood of Seville and Gibraltar. There is some difficulty in intro- 
ducing our guns and ammunition into Spain, even from Gibraltar. 

The lover of the angle will find virgin rivers in Spain, that jumble 
of mountains^ down the bosoms of which they flow ; most of these 
abound in trout, and those which disembogue into the Bay of Biscay 
in salmon. As good tackle is not to be procured in Spain, the angler 
will bring out everything from England. The best localities are Pla- 
sencia, Avila, Cuenca, and the whole country from El Vierzo, Gallicia, 
the Asturias, the Basque provinces, and Pyrenean valleys. 


Seville, S. Madrid, R. Rioseco, R. 

Granada, C. Toledo, C. Valladolid, C. 

Murcia, R. Escorial, C. Barges, C. 

Valencia, R. Avila, R. Zaragoza, C. 

. Caenca, R. Salamanca, R. Huesca, R. 

There is very little good ancient sculpture in Spain, and there never 
was much ; for when the Peninsula became a Roman province, the arts 
of Greece were in the decline, and whatever sculpture was executed here 
was the work either of Romans or Spaniards, who never excelled in that 
art. Again, most of whatever statuary was introduced into the Penin- 
sula by the Trajans and Adrians, was destroyed by the Vandal Goths, 
who, as Christians, abhorred the graven images of pagan gods, and 
hated Rome, its works, and especially those connected with the fine 
artSj to which they attributed degeneracy and effeminacy ; thus, when 
they struck down the world-oppressor, they cast the statues of its chiefs 
from the pedestal, and the idols from the altar. The Goth was sup*- 
planted by the Moor, to whose creed iconoclasm was essential ; he swept 
away whatever had escaped from his predecessor; nay, the pagan 
fragments and papal substitutes were alike treated with studied insult, 
either buried, to prevent resurrection, in the foundations of their build- 
ings, or worked in as base materials for their city walls. The Spaniards 
as a people have no great archaeological tendency. Bom and bred in a 
country whose soil is strewed with the ruins of creeds and dynasties, 
and their edifices, they view the relics with the familiarity and contempt of 
the Bedouin, as old stones, which he neither admires nor preserves; if they 
excavate at all, it is in hopes of finding buried hoards of coin ; accord- 
ingly, whenever mere antique remains are dug up, they have too often 
been reburied, or those which any rare alcalde of taste may have collected, 
are left at his death to chance and decay ; in the provincial towns the 
fragments are lumpei together after the fashion of a mason's stoneyard. 
Classification and arrangement are not Spanish or Oriental qualities. 

The Church, again, almost the sole patron of sculpture, only encou- 
raged that kind which best served its own purpose. She. had little 
feeling for ancient art for itself, which, if over-studied, necessarily 
has a tendency to reproduce a heathen character and anti-Christian. 
Cathedral and convent also, who had their own models of Astartes^ 
Minervas, and Jupiters, in their images of the Virgin and saints, 
abhorred a rival idol. Thus Florez and other antiquarians (the best of 
whom have been clergymen and busied about the archaeology of their 

Spain. X. Spanish sculpture. 49 

own Church and religion constantly apologise for bestowing attention 
on such un- Christian inquiries. 

The historical research of Spaniards has hitherto been seldom critical ; 
they loved to flounder about Tubal and Hercules ; and when peoi)le 
have recourse to mythology, it is clear that history will not serve their 
ends. The discussion and authenticity of a monk's bone have long 
been of more importance than a relic of Phidias. Yet Spain may be 
said to be " potted " for antiquarians, as the conservative climate of 
many portions of the Peninsula rivals even that of Egypt, in the absence 
of damp, " your whoreson destroyer." Thus Roman bridges, aqueducts, 
tanks, and causeways exist in actual use, almost unimpaired ; nay, even 
the fragile Tarkish, the plaster-of-Paris wall-embroidery, the ** diaper, 
or pargetting," of the Moors, often looks, after the lapse of ten centuries, 
wherever man has not destroyed it, almost as fresh and perfect as when 
first put up. The catena of monuments from the cradle of the restored 
monarchy is almost complete ; and, such is the effect of climate, that 
they even disappoint from lacking the venerable aerugo of age to which 
we are accustomed in a less beneficent climate ; so many things in Spain 
look younger by centuries than they really are. 

The best and most national sculpture of Spain is either mediaeval or 
consists of religious subjects, sepulchral monumentfl or graven images ; 
unfortunately many of the former, from being placed in convents founded 
expressly for the burial place of nobles and prelates, were first mutilated 
by the enemy and have perished since the suppression of monasteries. 
The Spanish name for a site or vault destined to many burials of one 
family, is oddly enough termed a Pantheon, Some of the most mag- 
nificent mausoleums were executed by Italian artists from Genoa and 
Florence, to whom several Spaniards proved worthy rivals. .ITiese 
memorials are among the choice things to be observed. The Christian 
sentiment rules impressively in them ; there is no aping the creed or 
costume of Pagan antiquity, — everything speaks of the orthodox faith 
of the period and people ; the prelate and the soldier alike lie stretched 
on the bed of death, and the hands clasped in prayer, now that sword 
and crozier are laid aside, indicate a trust in another life. Emblems of 
human fragility they lay fiat and dead, while faith was alive : but as 
infidelity crept in, worldly pride kept pace, and sepulchral figures began 
to rise, first on elbows, then on seats, to stand boldly bolt upright at 

Many of these fine Spanish sepulchres have been carefully and accu- 
rately drawn by Don Valentin Carderera, to be hereafter, we tnist, 
engraved, and thus in some sort preserved. 

Spanish Sculpture. 

Spanish sculpture is so peculiar in one branch, and has hitherto been 
80 little critically considered, that the attention of the scholar and 
archaeologist may be called to it in a page or two. This branch includes 
the holy images, and these Simvlacros y IrriageneSy are as little changed in 
name and object as the simulacra et imagines of the Pagan Romans. 
Some are destined to be worshiped in niches and on altars, others to 
be carried about in the streets by cof radios, or brotherhoods, for adora- 
tion during religious ceremonies, and especially during passion week, 

Spain.— I. » 


whence such graven figures are called Pasos. They are the identical 
^oava, the eidcaXa, the idols which the lust of the human eye required, 
the doll or cheats of the devil, whence S. Isidore derives the name of 
an invention which nowhere now rules more triumphantly than in his 
own Seville. 

The great demand for these carvings has induced many first-rate 
artists in Spain to devote themselves to this branch of sculpture ; hence 
Cano, Montafies, Roldan, Becerra, Juni, and Fernandez rank exactly 
as Daedalus, Emilis, and others did among the ancients. The fine 
specimens of their works have a startling reality ; the stone statues of 
monks actually seem fossils of a cmce living being ; many others are 
exquisitely conceived and executed ; unfortunately, from the prudery of 
Spanish draperies, much of the anatomical excellence is concealed 
from being dressed and painted ; strictly speaking, they attempt too 
much. The essence of statuary is form, and to clothe a statue, said 
Byron, is like translating Dante : a marble statue never deceives ; the 
colouring it does, and is a device beneath the severity of sculpture. 
The imitation of life may surprise, but, like colossal toys, barbers' 
blocks, and wax-work figures, when bad, it chiefly pleases the ignorant 
and children of a large or small growth, to whom a painted doll gives 
more pleasure than the Apollo Belvidere. The resemblance is obvious, 
and cannot give pleasure, from want of the transparency of skin and 
the absence of life. The imitation, so exact in form and colour, suggests 
the painful idea of a dead body, which a statue does not. Most of 
these images appear to strangers at first revolting or ridiculous; but 
the genius of the Spaniard seeks the material and natural rather than 
spiritual and ideal, and the masses require objects of adoration suited 
to their defective taste and knowledge, so their sapient church has largely 
provided for their cravings — ^hence the legions of tinsel caricatures of 
the human and divine which encumber the houses of God, but which 
delight and afifcct the nation at large, much more than a statue by 
Phidias. The illiterate congregations gaze with a sincere faith ; they 
come to worship, not to criticise, and bow implicitly down, with all 
their bodies and souls, before the stocks and stones set up for them by 
their pastors and masters. The devotional feeling prevails entirely over 
the aesthetic ; and at all events these tangible and bodily representations 
of persons and events connected \vith the Scriptures and church legends, 
realised them to those who could see, but not read, and thus did their 
work well before the schoolmaster was abroad. Now they have served 
their turn, and when the dislocated and desecrated groups are moved from 
the temple to the museum, for which they were never intended — ^when 
they are thus placed in a secular gallery, the original sentiment is lost, 
as well as the fitness and meaning of the rdigio loci. In their original 
chapels they had a speaking reference to the tutelar patron or miracle ; 
but the cheat, of their tinsel colours and clothing, which was concealed 
in the solemn semi>gloom, is revealed in the broad daylight, and they 
look like monks turned out of their convent into the wide world. 
Many of the smaller ^qava are preserved in glass cases, after the 
fashion of surgical preparations. 

The works of the following sculptors are the best deserving of notice ; 
' ey flourished or died about the period affixed to their names, as given 
Cean Bermudez, to whom refer for details : — 



Mateo, El Maestro 1188 
AlemaD, Juan . . • . 1460 
Dancart, El Maestro 1495 
FlorentijQ, Miguel . 1510 
Torrigiano, Pedro* 1520 
iBartolome, £1 

Maestro 1 520 

Forment, Damien . 1525 
Valdelvira, Pedro . 1540 
Copin, Diego and 

Miguel 1540 

Borgona, Felipe de 1543 

Berruguete, Alonso 1545 
Tordesillas, Caspar 

de 1545 

Machuca, Pedro. . . 1545 

Xamete 1550 

Leoni, Leon... . .. 1555 

Villalpando, Franco 1561 
Siloe, £)iegode ... 1562 

Tudelilla 1566 

Morel, Bartolom^ . 1566 
Becerra, Caspar .. 1566 
Ancheta, Miguel de 1575 


Juni, Juan de . • • . 1585 
Trezzo, Jacome . . • 1 589 
Jordan, Esteban . . 1590 
Leoni, Pompeyo . . 1605 
Hernandez, Cre- 

gorio 1635 

Pereyra, Manuel . • 1645 
Montanes, Joan 

Martinez ..••• . 1645 
Cano, Alonso. • . . • 1650 
Roldan, Pedro .... 1 650 

The Spanish painted and dressed images so precisely tally in material, 
form, painting, dressing, and adoration, "with those of Pagan antiquity, 
that the scholar will pardon a few more remarks, which those who will 
Dot, can skip, or turn to the Academic des Inscriptions, zxziv. 35 ; to 
Quatremere de Quincy, Jup. Oly. p. 8, s. 9 ; and particularly to Miiller, 
Hand-buch der Kunst (1830), p. 42 et seq. Statues of marble were a 
late introduction in Italy (Plin. Nat. Hist., xxxiv. 7), and are still 
very rare in Spain. Cedar and the resinous woods were older and 
preferred from the " eternity of the material " (Plin. Nat. Hist., xiii. 6). 
The Cyllenian Mercury was made of the arhor vitce, Ovov, the exact 
Alerce of Spain. When decayed they were replaced. Pliny, jun. (Ep. 
ix. 39), writes to his architect, Mustius, to make or get him a new 
Ceres, as the old one was wearing out. Pausanias (ii. 19. 3) mentions 
the $oavov of Argos, the work of Attains the Athenian, just as Ponz 
would cite the Sau Jeronimo of Montanes at Italica. It is difficult to 
read Pausanias, and his accounts of the statues new and old, th^ temples 
ruined and rebuilt, without feeling how much would suit a Greek hand^ 
hook for Spain, mutatis mutandis, so many objects pointed out to notice 
resemble each other in nature and condition. Some ^ava, as is the 
case in Spain at this moment, were made of baked clay, terra cotta, 
because cheaper. Juvenal (Sat. xi. 116) and Josephus (contr. Ap. ii. 35) 
laugh at these makeshifts. They, however, answered the purposes for 
which they were intended just as well then as now. The ancient ^oava, 
like the SjMuush Fasos, had their prescriptive colours. As Ee of Egypt, 
like Pan, was painted red, Osiris, black and green, the Athena of Skiras, 
white, and Apollo's face was frequently gilded, so in Spain the Virgin 
in her * Purisvma Concepcion^ is always painted in blue and white, 
St. John is always dressed in green, and Judas Iscariot in yellow : " and 
«o intimately," says Blanco White (" Letters," 289), " is this circum- 
stance associated with the idea of the traitor, that it is held in universal 
discredit." Persons taken to execution are clad in yellow serge. That 
colour was also adopted by the Inquisition for their san henito, or dress 
of heresy and infamy. The hair of Judas is always red, or of Rosalind's 
** dissembling colour something browner than Judas's." Athenaeus 

£7), in that most curious account of the procession of the images of 
ccnus, mentions that his ayaX/xa was clad in purple, and that of Nyssa 
in yeUow. Much of this chromatology, no doubt, is based on traditions 
preserved by these rubrical formulae. The ancient temples, like the 
Christian churches in the middle ages, were painted with blue, vermilior 

D 2 


and gilding, and, rightly in an artistical point of view, it became neces- 
sary to dress and colour the images up to the general tone of everything 
around them ; they otherwise would, have had a cold and ineffective 
character. This colouring in Spain was deemed of such importance, 
that Alonso Cano and Montaiies generally stipulated that no one but 
themselves should paint the figures which they carved, or give that 
peculiar surface enameling called el estofar. When properly carved 
and consecrated, these figures were treated by the ancients, and now 
are by the Spaniards, exactly as if they were living deities. Real 
food was provided for them and their chaplains. They were washed 
by attendants of their own sex. In Spain no man is allowed to imdress 
the Paso or sagrada imagen of the Virgin, which is an office of highest 
honour. Some images, like earthly queens, have their camarera major, 
their mistress of the robes. This duty has now devolved on venerable 
single ladies, and thence has become almost a term of reproach, luz 
qvsdado para vestir imagenes,* just as Tumus derides Alecto, when 
disguised as an old woman, " cura tibi effigies Divum, et templa tueri.'* 
The making and embroidering the superb dresses and " Petticoats " of 
the Virgin afford constant occupation to the devout, and is one reason 
why this Moorish manufacture still thrives pre-eminently in Spain. 
Her costume, when the Pasos are borne in triumphal procession through 
the streets, forms the object of envy, critique, and admiration. 

All this dressing is very Pagan and ancient. We have in Callimachus 
the rules for toilette and oiling the hair of the $oavov of Minerva ; any 
man who saw it naked was banished from Argos, a crime punished 
in the myth of Acteon and Diana. The grave charge brought against 
Clodius by Cicero was, that he had profaned the Bona Dea by his 
presence.' The wardrobe of Egyptian Isis was provided at the public 
cost ; and Osiris had his state-dress, Upov Koa-fiov. The Peplum of 
Minerva was the fruit of the five years' work of Athenian matrons 
and virgins. Castas velamina Divae. The Eoman signa were so well 
dressed, that it was considered to be a compliment to compare a fine lady 
to one. Plant. Epid. (v. 1, 18). The ancients paid much more atten- 
tion to the decorum and propriety of costume than the Spaniards. In 
the remote villages and in the mendicant convents the most ridiculous 
masquerades were exhibited, such as' the Saviour in a court-dress, with 
wig and breeches, whereat the Due de St. Simon was so offended 
(xx. 113). The traveller must learn to bear with stranger sights. If 
once a people can be got to hdieve that a manequin is their god, if they 
can get over this first st«p, nothing else ought to create either a smile 
or surprise. These Pasos are brought out on grand occasions, prin- 
cipally during the Holy Week. The expense is great, both in the 
construction and properties of the melo-dramatic machinery, and in 
the number of persons employed in managing and attending the cere- 
monial. The French invasion, the progress of poverty and infidelity, 
has tended to reduce the number of Pasos, which amoimted, previously, 
to more than fifty, for instance, in Seville. Every parish had its own 
figure or group; particular incidents of our Saviour's passion were 
represented by companies, Cof radios, Mermandades, who took the name 

* The idol of Jas^mant, in even British India, had some 641 attendants :~120 cooks» 
"^0 keepers of the wardrobe, and 3 persons to paint the eyebrows. 


from the event: they were the Upfj tOmi of the Bofletta stone, the 
Kafuuruu of Clemens Alex. (Strom, v. 242), the ancient eraipuu^ the 
SodalitcUes, the unions, the Collegia which in Rome were^Bo powerful, 
nmnerous, and well organized that Julius Caesar took care to put them 
down (Suet. 42). The Sovereign of Spain is generally the Hermuno 
Mayor, These guilds, lodges constituted on the masonic principle, 
give an occupation to the memhers, and gratify their personal vanity 
by rank, titles, and personal decorations, banners, emblems, and 
glittering tomfoolery. The expenses are defrayed by a small subscrip- 
tion. The affairs are directed by the Teniente Eermano Mayor nom- 
hrado por 8, M, There is no lack of fine sounding appellations or 
paraphernalia, in which Spaniards delight. 

Seville and Valencia still more, are the head-quarters of these Lectin- 
temia, Anteludia^ and processions. And really when a Protestant scholar 
beholds them, and remembers his classical studies, time and space are 
annihilated, he is carried back to Amobius (lib. vii.), *' Lavatio Dcum 
matris est hodie, Jovis epulum eras est, lectisternium Cereris est idibus 
proximis;" and the newspapers of the day now give just the same 
sort of notices. The images are moved on platforms, Andas, and 
pushed on by men concealed under draperies. The Pasos are quite as 
heavy to the weary as were those of Bel and Nebo (Isaiah xlvi. 1), 
Among the ancients, not only the images of the gods, but the sacred 
boat of Osiris, the shrine of Isis, the ark of the Jews, were borne on 
staves, just as now is done with the custodia in Spain. Those who wish 
to compare the analogy and practice of the ancient and still existing 
proceedings in Spain, are referred to the sixth ctiapter of Baruch, 
wherein he describes the identical scenes .and Babylonian Pasos — their 
dresses, the gilding, the lights, &c.; or to Athenaeus (v. 7) and Apuleius 
(Met. ii. 241), who, mutatis mutandis, have shown " what to observe " 
and describe in Spain, especially as regards the Pasos of the Virgin, 
Thus the Syrian Venus was carried by an inferior order of priests : 
Apuleius calls them Pastoferi, the Spaniards might fairly tenn theirs 
Pasoferi; Paso, strictly speaking, means the figure of the Saviour 
during his passion. The Paso, however, of the Virgin is the most 
popular, and her gold-embroidered and lace pocket handkerchief long 
set the fashion for the season to the Andalucian dandyzettes, as the 
procession of the Long-Champs does at Paris. This is the exact 
Megalesia in honour of the Mother of the Gods, the Great Goddess 
fuyakfi6€osy which took place in April (see Pitiscus, in voce, for the 
singular coincidences) ; and the ^joso of Salambo, the Babylonian Astarte 
Aphrodite (see Hesychius), was carried through Seville with all the 
Phoenician rites even down to the 3rd century, when Santa Rufina and 
Justina, the present patronesses of the cathedral tower, were torn to 
pieces by the populace for insulting the image ; and such would be 
the case should any tract-distributing spinster fly in the face of the 
Sa/grada imagen de la Virgen del mayor dolor y traspasOj whicli is now 
carried at about the same time of the year through the same streets 
and almost precisely in the same manner ; indeed, Florez admits (E. 
S. ix. 3) that this paso of Salambo represented the grief and agony 
felt by Venus for the death of Adonis. A female goddess seems always 
to have been popular among all Southrons and Orientals. Thus Venu-^ 


when carried in pomp round the circus, was hailed with the same 
deafening applause (Ovid. Art. Am. i. 147) as the goddess Doorga, 
when borne ^n her gorgeous throne, draws from the admiring Hindoos- 
at this day (Buchanan's Resear. in Asia, p. 265), or the Virgin's image 
does at Seville. There is little new of anything under the sun, and 
still less in human devices. Many a picturesque Papal superstition 
has been anticipated by Paganism, as almost every bold vj^ary of Pro- 
testant dissent has been by the fanatics of the early ages of the church ; 
whatever is found to have answered at one time will probably answer 
at another, for poor human nature seldom varies in conduct, when 
given circumstances are much the same. 


Seville. Madrid, C. Valencia, C. 

There are three great schools of Spanish painting, Seville, Valencia,, 
and Madrid, and the productions of their chief masters are best to be 
studied in their own localities. Few cities in Spain possess good col- 
lections of pictures, and, with the exception of the capital, those which 
do, are seldom enriched with any specimens oi foreign schools, for such 
is that of Valencia as regards Seville, and vice verm. The Spaniards 
have ever used their art as they do their wines and other gifts of the 
soil ; they just consume what is produced on the spot and is nearest at 
hand, ignorant and indifferent as regards all others, even be they of a 
higher quality. 

The earliest art in Spain, as exemplified in missals, offers no national 
peculiarity. The first influence was produced by the family of the Van 
Eyk's, of whom John visited Portugal in 1428 ; and M. Gachard ha& 
shown that he went on to the Alhambra to paint the Moorish kings.. 
The Flemish element yielded to the Italian in the 16th century, which, 
after a brief period of Spanish nationality, faded into the French school. 
The general character, is Trutli to Spanish nature, expressed in a grave, 
religious, draped, and decent style, marked by a want of the ideal, 
poetical, refined, and imaginative. The naturalistic imitation is carried 
fully out, for the Church, the great patron, neither looked to Apelles or 
Raphael, to Venus or the Graces : she employed painting to decorate 
her churches, not private residences ; to furnish objects of devotion, not 
of beauty or delight ; to provide painted books for those who could see 
and feel, but who could not read ; her aim in art was to disseminate and 
fix on the popular memory, those especial subjects by which her system 
was best supported, Aer purposes answered ; and her Holy Tribunal 
stood sentinel over author and artist : an inspector — censor y veedor — 
was appointed, whose duty it was to visit the studies of sculptors and 
painters, and either to destroy or to paint over the slightest deviation 
from the manner laid down in their rubric for treating sacred subjects : 
for to change traditional form and attribute was a novelty and a heresy, 
in fact a creating new deities. Spanish pictures, on the whole, will, 
at first sight, disappoint aM those whose tastes have been formed 
beyond the Pyrenees ; they improve upon acquaintance while one is 
living in Spain, from the want of anything better : there, however, the 
lore agreeable subjects are seldom to be seen, for these naturally have 


been the first to be secured by foreigners, who have left the gloomy 
and ascetic behind ; thus, in all the Peninsula, not ten ^of Murillo*B 
gipsj and be^ar pictures are to be found, and the style by which he 
is l>est known in England, is that by which he will be perhaps the 
least recc^nised in his native land. 

Our readers are most earnestly cautioned against buying pictures in 
Spain; they will indeed be offered, warranted originals, by Murillo, 
Velazquez, and so forth, more plentifully than blackberries, but caveat 
emptor. The Peninsula has been so plundered of its best specimens by 
the iron of Soults, Sebastianis, and Co. in war, and so stripped in peace 
by the gold of purchasers, that nothing but the veriest dregs remain for 
sale ; the provincial galleries, Seville and Valencia excepted, prove to 
demonstration by their absence of the good, and by the presence of un- 
mitigated rubbish, the extent to which the processes of removal and 
collecting have been carried on. The best Spanish, and the almost 
naturalised Spanish painters may now be named ; the dates indicate 
the epoch alxtut which they flourished or died, as given by Gean Ber- 
mudez and Stirling, to whom refer for details :— - 

Rincon, Antonio . • 1 500 ' 
Fernandez, Alejo .1525 
Gallegos,Femando 1 530 
Campana, Pedro.. 15 52 
Vargas^ Luis de . • 1565 
Coello, Alonso San- 
chez 1565 

Navarrete, Joan 

Fernandez 1 570 

Morales, Lnis de .1575 
Theotocapoli, Do- 

menico, «2 Grecol 57 B 
Pardo, Bias del. . . 1579 
Villegas, Pedro de 1590 
Ribalta, Francisco 1590 
Pantoja de la Cruz, 
Joan 1595 

Cespedes, Pablo <le 1600 
Mascagio, Arsenio 1600 
Joanes, Juan Vi- 
cente 1605 

Orrente, Pedro. . . 1620 
Roelas, Juan de 

las 1625 

Espinosa, Geroni- 

mo Rodriguez . . 1630 
Bisquert, Antonio. 1630 
Diaz, Diego Va- 
lentin • 1640 

Cano, Alonso .... 1645 
Herrera el Viejo. .1655 
Ribera, Josef de . . 1655 
Velazquez, Diego 
Silvade 1659 

Valdez, Sebastian 

de Llanos 1660 

Zurbaran, Fran- 
cisco 1660 

Iriarte, Ignacio ..1660 

Moya, Pedro 1 660 

Arellano, Juan de. 1670 
Bocanegra, Pedro 

Atanasio 1675 

Carrefio, Juan Mi- 
randa de.* 1680 

Mnrillo, Bartolom€ 

EstebjBui 1680 

Herrera, El Mozo.1680 
Cerezo, Mateo. . . .1680 
CoeUo, Claudio ..1680 
Goya 1800 

Spain is no paradise for the Print-collector; calcography never 
flourished on a soil where the graver was too difiBcult for a people who 
bungle when mechanical nicety is requisite. Flemings and foreigners 
were usually employed. The native copper scratchers just supply 
the coarse prints of Madonnas, miracle-working monks, &c. These 
caricatures of art answered admirably as Dii cubiculares, and, hung up 
in bedrooms, allured Morpheus and expelled nightmare ; and now-a- 
days French artists are employed in lithographs, and any works 
requiring skill. 


In despite of the ravages of foreign and domestic Vandals, Spain is still 
extremely rich in edifices, civil and religious, of the highest class ; yet 
our architects and archseologists almost ignore a land, which is inferior 
to none, and superior to many countries in Europe, in variety and map 


nificence of specimens of every period, character, and quality. Moorish 
architecture will be best studied in Andalucia, where noble specimens 
of mosque, palatial fortress, castle, and private dwelling, remain ; suffice 
it to name Seville, Cordova, and Granada. The earliest Spanish build- 
ings will be found in the Asturias, the cradle of the monarchy ; they 
are generally called Obras de los Oodos, works of the Goths — not Gothic, 
or Tedesco, as they long preceded the use of the pointed arch. The 
Komanesque, Byzantine, and in some districts the Norman, succeeded 
and led to this later Gothic, and the examples scattered over the length 
and breadth of the Peninsula are no less varied than splendid ; there are 
specimens of every period and phase of this glorious and most Christian 
style, advancing in fulness of beauty tmtil the beginning of the 16th 
century, when it set at once in all its glory, to be followed by the resto- 
ration of the antique, or, as it is here called, the Chrceco-Bomano style. 
The cinque-cento taste — the exquisite Renaissance^ pace Kuskin — which 
grew out of this, was nowhere carried to more gorgeous profusion than 
in Spain, then the dominant power of Europe. The semi-Moro genius 
of the land lent itself readily to arabesque decoration and surface orna- 
mentation : the native quarries furnished precious materials, while the 
New World lavished gold to defray the cost. This style was exalted 
to its highest grade by a glorious host of Spanish artists, who rivalled 
in marble and metal the Bramantes and Cellinis of Italy ; from its deli- 
cate details, wrought like a finely-chiselled piece of plate, this style is 
called in Spain el Flateresco, and also de Berruguete, from the name of 
the great architect, sculptor, and painter, who carried it out to its full 
perfection, and whose exquisite works are deserving of the closest 

The Plateresque period, which flourished under the Imperial Charles, 
waned under his severe son, Philip II., who introduced the strictly 
classical, and eschewed prodigality of ornament; this style is gene- 
rally known in Spain as that of Herrera, from being sdopted by that 
illustrious man, the builder of the Escorial. Architecture, which grew 
with the monarchy, shared in its decline, and succumbed under the 
influence of Churriguera, whose name, like that of a heresiarch, has 
become synonymous in Spain, with his doctrine and with all that is false 
and vile in taste : thus el Churriguerismo, Ohurrigueresco, is used in 
the sense of Bococo ; marble and wood were then tortured into absurd 
caprice, and gilding plastered on with greater profusion than even in the 
worst period of Louis XIV., when almost everything was a lie. There 
is scarcely a village in Spain whose parish chu'rch has escaped the harpy 
touch of this fatal epoch ; it was succeeded by the Graeco-Romano 
academical style, with all its exclusiveness, pedantry, and prejudice, 
introduced by the Bourbons, and practised at present. Hence the poor 
conventionalities of their modern buildings, without soul, spirit, interest, 
or nationality (Longe fuge !) ; yet these bald veneerings, coldly correct 
and classically dull, are admired by Spaniards, who point them out to 
the stranger's notice, in preference to the nobler examples of the 
Moorish, Gk>thic, and Cinque-cento periods, which too often have served 
as ** quarries," for when jnere fashion rules, the one-idead exclusionists 
"use up" the monuments of better days as materials: the systematic 

ersion to Moorish remains — los resahios de los Moros — which has long 




prevailed in Spsdn, is a remnant of the old leaven of antagonistic races : 
the writings and admiration of foreigners for the relics of these elegant 
Orientals have somewhat stayed the destroyer and pedant purist Iherian. 

The lover of mediaeval architecture will be pained indeed in many 
a city of Spain : her age of religious pomp has passed away, although 
that of railways has scarcely begun. The length and breadth of the 
land is strewed with ruins, the fruits of this century's double visitation, 
when the toe of the modem reformer has trodden on the heel of the 
Gallic invader. Ruin, in this respect the order of the day since the 
Invasion and the Civil Wars, has culminated in the suppression of the 
monastic orders, once the great patrons of the convent and cloister. W hile 
in England the ravages conmiitted at the Keformatiou are mantled with 
ivy and a poetry and picturesqueness added by the gentle hand of Time 
the great healer, in Spain the raw wounds gape bleeding in all their 
recent hideousness. The Spaniard in the mass cares for none of these 
things ; living for himself, and from day to day, he neither respects the 
dead nor their old stones, nor until the mischief was nearly done, was any 
thought given to stay the evil : socorros de Bapaiia, tarda o nunca. The 
Memoria or Report of Valentin Carderera, Madrid, 1845, to the Commis- 
si<mers of Historical and Artistical Monuments, reveals the ravages 
committed by foreign and domestic vandals, the apathy of local autho- 
rities, their ** no will and no way," the want of funds everywhere. 

The Espana Artistica y Monumental, 3 vols, folio, was published at 
Paris, in 1846, by Genaro Perez Villamil, an artist of our Roberts' 
school, having been got up in France, from want in Spain of litho- 
graphic-engravers. The balderdash portions of the letterpress were 
** done " by an Afrancesado, Patricio Escosura. Assuming to be general, 
the work is confined to the particular Castiles ; many of the drawings 
made by Don Valentin Carderera, an accurate and excellent Aragonese 
archaeologist, were so tampered with in the French polishing and 
" cooking," that lie retired from the concern in disgust. (See our 
Review of this subject in the " Quarterly," CLIV. vi.) 

Among the best architects of Spain the following may be mentioned. 
The date marks the epoch about which they flourished or died, as given 
by Cean Bermudez, to whom refer for details : — 

THoda, or Fioda . . 840 
Mateo, Maestro • .1160 

Blay, Pedro 1435 

Colonia, Juan de .1442 
Gumiel, Pedro ... 1492 
Egas, Henrique • . 1494 
Araudia, Juan de . 1499 
Bermguete, AloDso 1 500 
Andino, Cristobal . 1500 
Hodrignez, Alonso 1500 
Gil de HoDtanon, 

Juan 1511 

Covarrubias, Al**. . 1512 

Badajoz, Jaan de .1512 
Machnca, Pedro . . 1520 
Ibarra, Pedro de. .1520 
Ferment, Damien.1520 

Ruiz, Fernan 1520 

Borgona, Felipe • • 1525 
Colouia, Simon de 1525 

Riano, Diego 1 525 

Valdelvira, Pedro. 1525 
Yoli, Gabriel ....1525 

Siloe, Diego 1 525 

Bedel, Pedro 1550 

Ezquerra, Pedro . • 1 550 

Xamete 1550 

Carpintero, Macias 1 560 
Villalpando, Fro. .1560 
Herrera, Juan de .1570 
Theotocapuli,Dom 1 575 
MoDegro, J. B. . .1580 
Mora, Francisco . . 1 596 
Chnrriguera, Jos^l725 
Javara, Felipe . . .1736 
Rodriguez, Ven- 
tura 1750 

Sabatini,Franci8co 1760 

Some of the best works on these dilletante subjects — a prominent 

feature in this book — ^will be found at p. 72. 

D 3 



Seville, S. Madrid, C. Oviedo, R. S. 

Cordova, C* Avila, R. Leon, R. 

Jaen, C. Escorial, R. Burgos, R. 

Granada, C. Segovia, C Zaragoza, C. 

Madrid, C. VaUadolid, R. Huesca, R. 

Toledo, C. Salamanca, R. Barcelona, C. 

Cuenca, R. Zamora, R. Tarragona, C. S» 

Alcaic de Henares, R. Santiago, R. Valencia, C. S. 

The most remarkable churches and cathedrals will be found in this 
route ; the other examples worth observation will be pointed out at 
their respective localities. As a general rule the student should care- 
fully examine the metropolitan cathedral of each see, as it will be 
usually found to furnish the type of the minor collegiate and parochial 
churches within the diocese ; and although a general homogeneous style 
marks architectural periods throughout the Peninsula, yet architecture^ 
like dialects and costume, has its localisms and provincialisms, which are 
very pronoTmced in Spain, itself an aggregate of unamalgamatlng com- 

The stranger may be made acquainted with some of the leading dis- 
positions and technical terms, as regards the Cathedrals of Spain, which 
necessarily form a leading item in the " what to observe " of intelligent 
investigators, and one especial object of this Handbook ; the exteriors 
are often surrounded with a l(mg platform, or lonjaj which, if ascended 
to by steps is called a gradttSy " grees ;" the principal front is fre- 
quently left unfinished, first in order to disarm the evil eye, and next 
to serve as a constant pretext for begging pious contributions for its 
completion. The western entrance commonly presents the chief fapade, 
and is called /achada principal ; the naves, naves, are supported by 
piers, pihnesj from whence springs the roof, hoveda. The side aisles^ 
alas, wings, are called laterales, co-lateraUs ; at the doorways is a pila, 
stoup, or binitier, which contains the agua hendita, or holy water, with 
which, as the devil cannot abide it, every Spaniard crosses him or herself 
on entrance, santigitanse. The quire, coro, is ordinarily placed in the 
centre nave, thus blocking it up and concealing the high altar ; its back, 
which fronts the spectator who enters from the west, is called d 
trascoro ; the lateral sides are called los respaldos del coro, over which 
the organs are usually placed. The quire is lined with stalls, siUas ; 
the seats, siUeria del coro, are generally carved, and often most beauti- 
fully, as are the desks of the quirister's books, los dtriles, and the 
lecterns or facistoHes, 

Opposite to the coro an open space marks the centre of the transept, 
cntcero, over which rises the great dome, el cimhorio ; this space is called 
the "entre los dos coros;" it divides the quire from the high altar ; and is 
usually isolated and fenced off by a reja, " purclose,"^ or railing ; these 
and the canceUi, gratings (whence comes our term chancel), are among 
the most remarkable and artistical peculiarities of Spain, and, from 
being made of iron, have happily escaped the melting-pot. The pulpits, 
pudpitos, cmbones, generally two in number, are {Saced in the angle 
outside- the chancel : they are fixed N.W. and S.W., in order that the 


preaclier may face the congregation, who look towards the high altar, 
without his turning his back to it. Ascending usually by steps is the 
capiUa mayor, el presbiterio, where is the high altar, el altar mayor ^ on 
which is placed a tabernacle, el tahemaGido, or dboriOf under which 
the consecrated wafer is placed in a virU, or open *' monstrance,'' when" 
ever it is displayed, or manifestado. When the wafer is not so ex- 
hibited, it is enclosed in a sagrario, or tabernacle. In some highly 
privileged churches, as at Lugo and Leon, the wafer is continually dis- 
played for public adoration ; in others, only at particular times : but 
generally, in great towns, this privilee;e is conceded to all the churches 
by rotation, and continues during 40 hours, las cuarenta horas, which 
are duly mentioned in almanacs and newspapers. From the high altar 
rises a screen, or reredos, called el retdbHo ; these, often most magnificent, 
are reared high aloft, and crowned with a " holy rood," la' Santa Cruz, 
which is the representation of Christ on the Cross, with St. John and 
the Virgin at his side. The retablos, most elaborately designed, carved, 
painted, and gilt, estofado, are divided into compartments, either by 
niches or intercolumniations ; the spaces are filled with paintings or 
sculpture, generally representing the life of the Virgin, or of the Saviour, 
or subjects taken from the Bible, or from the local legends and tutelars, 
and do the office of books to those who can see, but cannot read. The 
place of honour is usually assigned to la Santisima, the most blessed 
one, the Virgin, the " Queen of Heaven " (Jer. xliv. 17), the real 
goddess, the Isis, Astarte and Great Diana of Spain. The Virgin is 
represented mostly in the attitude of her Conception, Assumption, or 
as bearing the Saviour as either infant or dead — in either case to exalt 
her. To her, indeed, most of the cathedrals of Mariolatrous Spain are 
dedicated, whilst in every church in the Peninsula she has her Lady 

Few Spaniards at any time, when traversing a cathedral, pass the 
high altar without bowing and crossing themselves, since the incarnate 
Host is placed thereon : and in order not to offend the weaker brethren, 
every considerate Protestant should also manifest an outward respect 
for this the Holy of Holies of the natives, and of his Redeemer also. 
Sometimes kings, queens, and princes are buried near the high altar, 
which is then called a capiUa real. The sarcophagus, or bed on which 
the figures representing the deceased kneel or lie, is called uma» 
Spaniards, in designating the right and left of the altar, generally use 
the terms Iddo del JEvangelio, lado de la Epistola : the Oospel side, that 
is the right of the celebrant looking from the altar ; the Epistle side, 
that is tiie left. These are the spots occupied by the minister while 
reading those portions of the service. The altar on grand Occasions is 
decked with superbly embroidered coverlets ; a complete set is called el 
temo. The piers of the nave are then hung with damask or velvet 
hangings, colgaduras ; the back of the altar is called el trasaltar, and 
bere in some cathedrals is el trasparente, a huge pile of elaborately 
worked marble, which is anything but transparent. 

Spanish cathedrals generally have a parish church attached to them, 
la parroquia, and many have a royal chapel, urui capUla real, quite 
distinct from the high altar, in which separate services are performed by 
a separate establishment of clergy. The chapter-houses should alwa' 

60 'X. CHURCH PLATE, Sect. I. 

"be visited. The sola dd cahildoj sala capitulary have frequently aa 
ante-room, antesala, and both generally contain carvings and pictures. 
The sagrario is a term used for the additional chapel which is some- 
times appended to the cathedral, and also for the chamber, d relicario, 
where the relics and sacred vessels of silver and gold are or rather were 
kept, for their portable and ready money value were too evident to 
escape the greedy eye of French invaders and Spanish appropriators ; 
in reality, to plunder church plate was the paramount object of 
almost every Buonapartist Victor ^ to *' faire bien ses affaires," and enrich 
themselves by sacrilege, pillage, and peculation. One of the earliest 
thoughts of the Duke was how " to make the French generals disgorge 
the church plate which they had stolen " (Disp., Aug. 23, 1808) : this 
he settled by English steel purgatives ; indeed, the hope of pillage is 
what endear^ war to the revolutionary upstarts of France, and to which 
they sacrificed every military principle and consideration for the lives of 
their men (Disp. Dec. 29, 1810). The crime entailed the punishment ; 
the impediments of plunder formed a marked feature both at Baylen and 
Yittoria, the first and last blows dealt in Spain to the rapacious Eagle. 
As specimens of church plate worth notice are the altar candlesticks, 
candderoSf hlandones ; the calix, or sacramental cup ; the porta pax, in 
which relics are enclosed, and ofifered to devout osculation ; the cruces^ 
crosses ; hacvlos, croziers ; and the vergers* staves, cetros. The tra- 
veller should always inquire if there be a ciustodia, whether of silver, 
plata, or of silver gilt, sobredorada. They are called custodians because 
in them, on grand festivals, the consecrated Host is kept. The cvstodia, 
containing the wafer, thus guarded, is deposited on Good Friday in the 
sepulchre, el monumento. This temporary monument in some cathedrals 
— Seville, for instance — is of great architectural splendour. 

The vestry is called la sacristia, and its official servant, el sacristan ; 
here the robes and iit^nsils of the officiating ministers are put away. 
These saloons are frequently remarkable for the profusion of mirrors 
which are hung, like pictures, all around over the presses : the looking- 
glasses are slanted forwards, in order that the priest, when arrayed, may 
have a full-length view of himself in these clerical Psyches. The dresses 
and copes of the clergy are magnificently embroidered, for the Spaniards 
excel in this art of working silver and gold, which is Oriental, and in- 
herited from both Phoenician and Moor. 

The painted glass in the windows, las vidrierojs de las ventanas, is 
often most superb, although the Spaniards themselves have produced 
very few artists in this chemical branch, and mostly employed painters 
from Flanders and Germany. 

The chief rejeros or makers of the exquisite purdoses, railings, are 
Francisco de Salamanca, 1533 ; Christobal Andino, 1540 ; Francisco 
de Villalpando, 1561 ; Juan Bautista Celma, 1600. Their works are of 
the highest merit and interest, and quite unrivalled in Europe ; they 
flourished in the gold and silver ages of Spain. The most remarkable 
plateros or workers in silver are the D'Arphe family, 1500 ; Juan Ruiz, 
el Vandolino, 1533 ; and Alonso Beoerril, 1534. Unfortunately the 
value of the mere material has tempted the spoiler, and consigned to 
the melting pot many a precious remain of ancient piety, art, and 

Spain, XI. religious festivals tour. — xii. kings. 61 

XI. — Religious Festivals Tour. 

Religion has long been mixed up most intimately in every public, 
private, and social relation of Spain. There a powerful and intelligent 
clergy monopolized soul and body, dwarfing both; and secured the 
good things of this world to themselves, by promising to others the 
blessings of the next one. The priesthood, in order to prevent the 
exercise of thought^ furnished food for the eye— not mind — and from 
the beginning marshalled into their service even popular amusements, 
making a holy day and a holiday synonymous. Moralists and philo- 
sophers may speculate on the changes, whether for better or worse, 
wrought by the diminution of these popular amusements and occupa- 
tions. The masses at least were not driven to the pothouse or politics ; 
now-a-days, as the cloisters come down in every town, colosseums arise 
for the bloody brutalizing bull fight ; yet the church ceremonials, on 
gi-and days, although now much shorn of their splendour, should always 
be visited, and especially when celebrated in honour of the tutelar saint 
or miracle of any particular district : local costumes and manners will 
be best studied at the Fiestas y JRomerias, the Festivals and Pilgrimages 
to some high place or shrine, and at the Veladas, the Wakes or Vigils, the 
German Kirchweihe, which in a fine climate are at once attractive and 
picturesque. Akin to these scanty relaxations of the peasantry are the 
Ferias or fairs, a word which also has a double meaning for the 
Spaniards, who, imitating the Moors at Mecca, have always been per- 
mitted to- combine a little traffic with devotion. These local festivities 
are however sadly fallen off from their pristine getting up and large 

The principal local saints, sites of pilgrimage, and leading fairs will 
be mentioned in their respective places: travellers curious in these 
festivals should endeavour to be at Valencia April 5, at Madrid April 15, 
jRonda May 20, and Santiago July 25, and should always remember to 
be in some great city during the Holy Week or Semana Santa (Seville 
is the best), and during Corpus Christi, a moveable feast which takes 
place the first Thursday after Trinity Sunday, and is celebrated every 
where in Spain with great pomp, especially at Seville, Granada, Va- 
lencia, Barcelona, and Toledo. All the infinite holy days that are kept 
in honour of the Virgin deserve notice, as do the more gloomy services 
connected with the dead on the days of All Saints and All Souls in the 
beginning of November. The festivities of Christmas and Carnival time 
are more joyous, and very national and peculiar. 

XII. — Kings op Spain. ' 

In the subjoined chronology of the order of succession of the Kings 
of Spain, from the Goths, the years of their deaths are given Trom the 
official and recognised lists. 

A.D. 1 

£arico • . 

Alarico • • 

Gesalico . • < 

Amalarico • 

Theadio • • 

Theadesilo • 

Gothtc Atngs, 


Ataulfo . . .. 


Sigerico • . • 


Walia . . . 


Theodoredo . « 


Tarismundo • . 


Tbeodorico • . 





Agila • • 






Leuva I. • 






JElecaredo I. 



Leuva \l. 




Sect. L 

Kings of Spain — continued. 




Witerico: . . 


Garcia* « 

. 913 

Fernando IV. el 

Gundemaro • 


Ordono II. • 

• 923 



Sisebuto . • 


Fruela II. • 

. 924 

Alonso XI. • • 


Becaredo II. 


Alonso IV. 


Pedro I. el Cruel 


Saintila • • 


Monge . • 

• 930 

Henrique II. • 


Sisenanto ^ . 


Ramiro II. • 

« 960 

Juan I. • • . 


Chintila . • 


Ordono III. • 

. 966 

Henrique III. • 


Tulga . . 


Sancho I. 

. 967 

Juan II. • . • 




Ramiro III. . 

. 982 

Henrique IV. el 

Keces^into • 


Bermudo II. 

• 999 

Impotente . . 


Wamba . • 


Alonso V. 

. 1028 

Dona Isabel, laCa- 


Ervigio • • 


Bermudo III. 

. 1037 

tolica . • • 


Egica • • 
Witiza . . 


Dona Sancha. 

• 1067 

Fernando V. • 



Dona Juana . • 


Don Rodrigo 


Kings of Castile and 

Felipe I. • . . 



Carlos v., I. de 

Kings of Leon, 

Fernando I. . 

. 1067 

Espana • • 


Pelayo . . 



Sancho II. • 

'. 1073 

Felipe II. . . 


Favila . . 



Alonso VI. • 

. 1108 

Felipe III. . . 


Alonso I. el Cato- 

Dona Uraca • 

. 1126 

Felipe IV. • . 


lico . . 


Alonso VII. Km- 

Carlos II. • • 


Fruela I. 



. 1157 

Felipe V. abdi- 

Aarelio . • 


Sancho III. . 

, 1158 

cated . • . 


Silo . • . 


Alonso VIII. 

• 1214 

Luis I. • . . 


Mauregato • 


Henrique I. • 

. 1217 

Felipe V. . . 


Bermndo I. el Di- 

Fernando II. 

• 1188 

Fernando VI. . 


acono . • 



Alonso IX. • 

. 1230 

Carlos III. . • 


Alonso II. el Casto 


Dona Berenguela 1244 

Carlos IV., abdi- 

Ramiro I. • 



San Fernando III. 1262 

cated . • . 


Ordono I. 



Alonso X. elSabio 1284 

Fernando VII. . 


Alonso III. 


Sancho IV. 


Isabel II. . . 

Magno . • 



Bravo • • 

. 1295 

Xni. — Table of Contempobart Sovereigns. 

The periods have been selected during which leading events in Spanish 

history have occurred. 

England. France. 

Egbert. • Charlemagne 

Alfred . • Louis II. . 

Ethelred II. Hugh Capet . 

▲.D. Spain. 

800 Alonso II. el Casto • 
877 Alonso III. el Magno 
996 Ramiro III. • • • 

1075 Sancho II. . • . 

1156 Alonso VII. . . 

1245 San Fernando < 
1345 Alonso XI. • 
1360 Pedro el Cruel . 
1485 Isabel la Catolica 

Henry II. . Louis VII. • 

Henry III. St. Louis • 
Edward in. Philip VL . 
Edward III. John II. . • 
Henry VII. Charles VIIL 

1615 Fernando de Aragon, Henry VIII. Francis I. 

1560 Carlos V Edward VI. Henry II. 

1560 Felipe II. . . • • Elizabeth . Charles IX. 

".44 Felipe IV. ... Charles I. Louis XIV. 

Leo III. 
John VII. 
Gregory V. 

Gregory VII. 

r Adrian IV., 
Innocent IV. 
Benedict VI. 
Innocent VI. 
Innocent VII I» 
Leo X. 
Paul III. 
Pius IV. 
Innocent X. 

Spain. xiy. royal arms. 6S 

A.D. Spain. England. France. Rome. 

1705 Felipe V. .... Anne • . Lonis XIY. . Clement XL 

1760 Carlos III. . . . George III. Louis XV. . Clement XIIL 

1808 Fernando VII. . . George III. Buonaparte . Pius VII. 

1840 Isabel II Victoria . Louis-Philippe {^l^g'^x^' 

XrV. — The Royal Arms op Spain. 

These, which appear on most of all religious and public buildings, offer 
fixed and certain aids in marking dates. They have from time to time 
undergone many changes, and those changes denote epochs. The 
** canting" Castle was first assumed for Castile, and the Lion for Lewi ; — 
the earliest shields were parted per cross ; gules, a castle, or ; argent, a lion 
rampant gules, or more properly purpure. In 1332 Alonso XL insti- 
tuted the order of La Vcmda, the " Band," or scarf, the origin of " blue 
and red ribbons ;" the charge was a bend dexter gules issuing from two 
dragons' heads vert. This, the charge of the old banner of Castile, was 
discontinued in 1369 by Henry II., who hated an order of which his 
brother had deprived him. The colours of the flag of Spain are red and 
yellow, because Castile bears gules and or. 

The union of Arragon and Castile in 1479, under Ferdinand and 
Isabella, caused changes in the royal shield, then divided by coupe 
and party ; the first and fourth areas were given to Castile and Leon 
quartered, the second and third to Arragon — Or, four bars, gules — ^and 
Sicily impaled ; Navarre and Jerusalem were added subsequently : Fer- 
dinand and Isabella, who were much devoted to St. John the Evangelist, 
adopted his eagle, sable with one head, as the supporter of their common 
shield : they each assumed a separate device : Isabella took a bundle of 
arrows, FlecTias, and the letter F, the initial of her husband's name and 
of this symbol of union. The arbitrary Ferdinand took a Yoke, Yugo, 
and the letter F, the initial alike of his wife's name and of the despotic 
machine which he fixed on the neck of Moor and Spaniard : he added 
the motto Tato mota, Tanto monta. Tantamount, to mark his assumed 
equality with his Castilian queen, which the Castilians never admitted. 

When Granada was captured in 1492, a pomegranate stalked and 
leaved ^oper, with the shell open-grained gvles, was added to the point 
of the shield in base : wherever this is wanting, the traveller may be 
certain that the building is prior to 1492. Ferdinand and Isabella are 
generally called los Reyes Catdicos, the Catholic Sovereigns : they were 
very great builders, and lived at the period of the most florid Gothic 
and armorial decorations : they were fond of introducing figures of 
heralds in tabards. 

The age of their grandson Charles V. was again that of change : he 
brought. in all the pomp of Teutonic emblazoning : the arms of the 
Boman Empire, Austria, Blirgundy, Brabant, and Flanders, were now 
added, and the apostolic one-headed eagle gave way to the double-headed 
eagle of the Empire : the shield was enclosed with the order of the 
Golden Fleece ; the ragged staff of Burgundy, and the pillars of Her- 
cules, with the motto Plus ultra, plus mdtre, were added. Philip II • 
discontinued the Imperial Eagle, but added in two escutcheons of pre- 
tence the arms of Portugal, Artois, and Charolois. These were omitted 
by his grandfion Philip IV. when Spain b^an to fall to pieces and ^ 


kingdoms to drop off; on the accession of Philip V. the three Bourbon 
fleur de lys were added in an escutcheon of pretence. 

The arms of every important town in ISpain will be found in the 
* Rasgo Heroico* of Ant. Moya, Madrid, 1766. Those of private families 
are endless. Few countries can vie with Spain in heraldic pride and 
pedigree literature, on which consult * BiUiotheca Hispanica Eistorico 
OenecUogico Heraldicay' Q. E. de Frankenau, 4to,, Leipsig, 1724: it 
enumerates no less than 1490 works ; the real author was Juan Lucas 
Cortes, a learned Spaniard, whose MS. treatises on heraldry and juris- 
prudence fell into the hands of this Frankenau, a Dane and first-rate 
plagiarist, by whom they were appropriated in the most bare-faced 
manner. On the copious subject of Spanish Heraldry and G enealogy, our 
paper in the * Quart. Review,' No. cxxiii. may be consulted. The chief 
towns rejoice in magnificent epithets, " Noble, Loyal, Faithful," &c. 
" Heroic" is so common, that the French soldiers, under Angoul^me, 
could not help laughing when the poltroon municipalities came out to 
surrender their keys instanter. These craven corporations often enjoy 
personal rank, " excellencies," and so forth. 

XV.— The Era. 

The antiquarian will frequently meet with the date Era in old books 
or on old inscriptfons. This mode of reckoning prevailed in the Roman 
dominions, and arose from the date of the particular payment of taxes, 
ces cera, "when all the world was taxed ;" therefore the Moors translated 
this date by Bafar, "copper," whence the Spanish word azofar. It 
commenced in the fourth year of Augustus Caesar, and according to 
some, on March 25th, according to others December 26th. Volumes 
have been written on this disputed point : consult * Ohr(ts Chronologicas* 
Marques de Mondejar, folio, Valencia, 1744, and the second volume of 
the ^Espaiia SagradaJ' Suffice it now to say, that to make the Era 
correspond with the Anno Domini, thirty-eight years must be added ; 
thus A,D. 1200 is equivalent to the Era 1238. The use of the Era 
prevailed in Spain down to the twelfth century, when the modem system 
of reckoning from the date of the Saviour was introduced, not, however, 
to the exclusion of the Era, for both were for a long time frequently used 
in juxtaposition : the Era was finally ordered to be discontinued in 1383, 
by the Cortes of Segovia. 

The Moorish Eegira commences from Friday, July 16, a.d. 622, 
Era 660. 

The New Style was introduced by Gregory XIIL into Spain in 1582, 
at the same time that it was at Rome ; October 5th of the Old Style was 
then called October 15th. This change must always be remembered in 
ascertaining the exact date of previous events, and especially in com- 
paring Spanish and English dates, since the New Style was only intro- 
duced into England in 1751. 

XVI. — Spanish Language and Phrases. 

Some acquaintance with this noble idiom is absolutely necessary to 
get on tolerably in the Peninsula, where, as with Orientals, no other is 
«»)oken or understood, the large cities and seaports excepted. The 

visiting, unvisited people of Spain have never felt the necessity of 


using any other language but their own, and have left to a fraction of their 
so-called hettera the disgrace of exchanging a nasal nondescript, which 
they call and fancy French, for their sonorous Castilian, in which, as 
Charles V. said, " God ought alone to be addressed in prayer ;" and in 
truth of all modem languages it is the most fitting and decorous medium 
for solenm, lofty devotion, for grave disquisitions, for elevated, moral, 
and theological subjects ; an exponent of national character, it partakes 
of the virtues and vices of the Spaniard — it is noble, manly, grandilo- 
quent, sententious, and imposing. The commonest village alcalde pens 
his placards in the Oambyses state-paper style, more naturally than Pitt 
dictated king's speeches, extemporaneously. The pompous, fine-sounding 
expressions and professions, convey to plain English understandings 
promises which are seldom realized by Spaniards. The words are so 
fine in themselves that they appear to he the result of thought and 
talent. The ear is bewildered and the judgment carried away by the 
mistakes we make in translating all these fine phrases — -palabras, pala- 
ver, which are but Orientalisms, and mean, and are meant to mean, 
nothing — into our homely, business-like, honest idiom. We take 
Spanish syllabubs for English plum-pudding, and deceive ourselves 
only; for no official Spaniard ever credits another to the letter: our 
literalness induces us to set them down as greater boasters, braggarts, 
and more beggarly in performance than they really are. This wordy 
exaggeration is peculiar to southern imaginative people, who delight in 
the ornate and gorgeous ; our readers must therefore be on their guard 
not to take all this conventional hyperbole of Spanish grandiloquence au 
pied de la lettre, for much less is meant than meets the ear. Such words 
must be much lowered down, to reach the standard of truth, and like 
their paper, when not protested, which is by far the safest way, at least 
discounted ; a deduction of 25 per cent, will seldom be found enough, 
if the bond fide value is wished to be ascertained. Again our early 
education at Public Schools and Universities leads us to associate a 
Koman and Classical feeling with this superb idiom, in which the Latin 
element is less changed than in any other modem language ; with the 
phraseology of Caesar and Cicero we cannot help connecting much of 
their greatness. The Spanish idiom, at least, is the manly son and 
heir of the Latin, as the Italian is the fair and elegant daughter. 

The repugnance to all commercial and mechanical pursuits which has 
been inherited from the Goths, and the fetters by which national intel- 
lect and literature have been so long confined, have rendered the language 
of Castile comparatively unfit for most of the practical purposes for which 
there is such a growing demand in this business-like, utilitarian age. It 
has yet to be hammered on the anvil of mere popular concems, and is from 
its very structure as unfitted for rapid condensed conversation, as are 
those Spanish talkei's and twaddlers who use it in writing or speaking ; 
however, as no other language is in vogue, the traveller must either hold 
his tongue or adopt theirs. Nor will those who imderstand Latin and 
French find much difficulty in mastering Spanish ; while a knowledge 
of Italian, so far from being an assistance, will prove a constant stumb- 
ling-block. Both languages, as we have said, are children of the Latin, 
but the one is the son and the other the daughter ; the terminations of 
the former end in masculine consonants, of the latter in feminine vowelp 


The pronunciation of Spanish is very easy ; every word is spoken as it 
is written, and with the lips and month, not the nose ; the consonants 
g, j\ and x, before certain vowels, have a marked Arabic and German 
guttaral power, which confers a force, manliness, and a back bone that 
is far from disagreeable. In fact, this manliness, combined with gravity 
and oriental majesty, is what principally distinguishes the Spanish from 
the Italian language. Again, every word is written and spelt as it is 
pronounced — ^a comfort to a student that is denied in our so-called ortho- 
graphy, in which letters seem to have been given to conceal the sounds 
of words. The g, j, and x before vowels is generally written now with/, 
although they may be used optionally. Thus the correct thing is to 
spell XimeneZf GhimeneZy as Jimenez. Again, the b and v have long 
been cognate and convertible ; thus Aqui se bende huen bino, occurs on 
inn sign-posts, as often as Aqui se vende buen vino. 

The original language of the Iberians was the Basque, which is now 
confined to its hilly comer. It was superseded by the Romance, or 
corrupt idiom formed from the fusion of the Roman and Gothic lan- 
guages ; this hybrid underwent a further change from its admixture 
with the Arabic at the Moorish invasion, when two new dialects were 
formed — the Aljamia or Spanish, as spoken by the Moors, and the 
Algardbia or Arabic, as spoken by the Spaniards. This latter was so 
bad, that the term, in its secondary sense, is applied to any gibberish — 
garabia — a word which, strictly speaking, means hgat-ai-drabra, the 
Arabic language. In Andalucia, as might be expected, this fusion was 
the greatest, and the province, in the names of her rivers, towns, and 
mountains, still retains the language of her former possessors, although 
the Spaniards have even forgotten their meaning : thus they pleonasti- 
cally call the Wadi 7 kiber, the great river, el rio grande del Guadal- 
quivir; los bancs de Alharthay the baths of the bath; el puente de 
Alcantara, the bridge of the bridge. 

Although el hablar CasteUano means emphatically, speaking Spanish, 
each province has its dialect. These may be conveniently classed under 
four great branches : — the primitive Basque ; the Valeftcian and Cata- 
Ionian, which comes near the Proven9al, as the Arragonese does to the 
langue d'Oc, or Lemosin ; the Asturian and Gallician ; and the Castilian,^ 
which thus may be compared to a heap of com, composed of many 
different classes of grain. The purest CastUian is written and spoken at 
Madrid and at Toledo, the most corrupt in the cities of Andalucia. One 
marked difference in pronunciation consists in the sound of the th ; the 
Castilian marks it clearly — Zaragoza, Tharagotha ; Andaluz, AndcUuth ; 
placer, plather ; usted, usteth: while the Andalucian, whose ceceo is 
much laughed at, will say Saragosa, placer, or plaser, Andaluce, uste. 
The traveller should never pronounce the h when at the beginning of a 
word; hombre, hacer, must be Ombre, cUher. The Castilian speaks 
with a grave, distinct pronunciation, ore rotundo, enunciating every 
letter and syllable. The Andalucian clips the Queen's Spanish, and 
seldom sounds the d between two vowels. 

The Castilians are sparing of words. If speech be silver, silence, say 
they, is often gold ; and, throughout Spain, much intercourse is carried 
on by signs, especially among the lower classes ; thus, energetic defiance 

contempt (the national oath — the oara/o— expressed by telegraph) is 


irresistibly conveyed by closing the fist of the right hand, elevating it, 
and catching the elbow in the palm of the left hand, and thus raising 
the right arm at a right angle. People call each other by a polite 
hissing, or rather by the labial sound Ps, ps. The telegraph action of 
this sibilant — Eoia ! ven aca, querido I — ^is done by reversing our form 
of beckoning ; the open hand is raised, and the palm is. turned toward 
the person summoned or selected, and the four fingers drawn rapidly 
up and down into the palm. Admiration — sohremliente, que huena 
mozal — ^is expressed by collecting the five. fingers* tips to a pointy 
bringing ihem to the lip, kissing them, and then expanding the hand 
like a bursting shell. Dissent — what a lie — mentiraj or have nothing 
to do with it, her, or him, no te metas en eso — is quietly hinted by 
raising the single fore-finger to the nose, and wagging it rapidly and 
horizontally backwards and forwards. Astonishment, incredulous sur- 
prise, or jocular resignation under unavoidable, irremediable afflictions 
— is dumbshowed by crossing oneself, as is done on entering a church in 
Spain. The ancient contemptuous"^ of Spain" — a fig for you — is 
digitally represented by inserting the head of the thumb between the 
fore and middle fingers, and raising the back of the hand towards the 
person thus complimented. The fair sex carry on dumb-show, but 
most eloquent " conversations " with the fan, dbanico ; and a signal-book 
might be written on the polyglot powers of this electric telegraph.. 
Their management of it, or manejo^ is unique and inimitable. 

In Andalucia, the head-quarters of the fancy, la Aficion^ a sort of 
slang is very current which is prevalent among Tnajos, bull-fighters, and 
all who aspire to be sporting characters ; it is called Oermania, geri- 
goma, jerga (whence, perhaps, our Jargon). It has often been con- 
founded, but most erroneously, with Rommany, or the language of 
Spanish gipsies, Gitanos, which is a Hindu dialect, whereas Germania 
is simply a language of metaphor, or a giving a new conventional 
meaning to an dd word. Thus cdegio, a college, in slang means a 
prison, becausie there young culprits become masters of sinful arts. 
Mr. Borrow, in his graphic * Zincali,' and A. F. Pott, in his learned 
compilation * Die ZigeuneVy' 2 vols., Halle, 1845, have exhausted the- 
subject of gipsy philology. 

The best method of acquiring the Spanish language is to establish 
oneself in a good casa de pupUos, to avoid English society and conversa- 
tion, to read Don Quixote through and aloud before a master of a 
morning, and to be schooled by female tongues of an evening. The 
ladies of Spain prove better mistresses, and their lessons are more 
attended to by their pupils, than the inflections and irregular verbs of a 
snuffy tobaccose pedagogue, a bore, and a button-holder, majadero y bota- 
rate. Mr. Lee, bookseller, 440, West Strand, can generally recommend 
a good Spanish language teacher, e.g. DeH Mar, whose grammar is very 
good. The old dictionary, * Tesoro de la Lengua Ca^teUana,' of Don 
Sebastian Covarrubias, Madrid, 1611 and 1674, abounds with quaint 
and Quixotic information. The Spanish Diccionario Naciondl, with 
Supplement, is trustworthy, and the French and Spanish Dictionary of 
Nufiez de Taboada is one of the best ; those who wish to trace the Arabic^ 
influence on the Spanish language will find in the Arte de la'Lengua 
Arahica, and the Vocahulario Arabico, by Pedro de AlcaU, 4to 



Sect. T. 

Granada, 1504 (generally bound up together), the exact idiom spoken 
by the Moors of Granada. 

As a " wrinkle " to students it will be found useful to add to their 
Taboada dictionary sundry blank sheets, and set down on them the 
colloquial, conversational phrases which recur the most frequently, for 
spoken language differs everywhere most essentially from written ; take, 
for example, a couple of Ifeaves from our book, in which the common 
every -day and lighter subjects have been purposely selected. 

Ojala! I wish I could, would to 
Allah it were so ! 

Si Dios quiere, if God pleases. The 
Inch allah ! of the Moors. 

Valgcune Dvjs, God bless me. 

Ave Maria purisinuiy a form of ad- 
miration and salutation. 

Sabe Dio8, quien sabe ? God knows, 
who can teU ? 

JVb se sabe, nobody knows, that de- 

Muy bien, very weU. 

Segun y conformed just as it may turn 

CorrterUe, all's right, certainly. 

Es regular que si, I should suppose 

No hay inconveniente, it is quite con- 

JSstd do8 leguas mas alia, it is two 
leagues ftirtber on ; mas aca, 

£n el dia de hoy, now-a-days. 

Lo hdgo por amor de Vmd,,* I do it 
for your sake. 

Ss casa de mucho aseo, it is a very 
comfortable house. 

Me armd una irampa, he laid a trap 
for me. 

Con mucho descoco jc descaro, with a 
regular brazen face. 

Vaua Vmd., mucho muy en hora mala, 
ill luck betide you (an oath). 

Ya se ve, mas claro, certainly, quite 

Cabal, no cahe duda, exactly, there 
can be no doubt. 

JEs verdad, tiene Vmd, razon, it is 
true, you are right. 

Por supuesto, of course. 

Me lo presumo, me lo Jiguro, I pre- 
sume so, I conclude so. 

Sin embargo, d pesar de eso, never- 
theless, in spite of. 

Que huena moza I what a pretty girl ! 

Muy guapa, muy guapita, very nice, 
uncommonly nice. 

Me lo dijd un taL Don Fulano, so 
and so told me, Mr. What-d'ye- 
call-him. Fulan is pure Arabic. 

Perdone, Vmd,, dispense Vmd„ ex- 
cuse me, forgive me. 

Disimule Vmd,, pardon me. 

Eso no puede ser de ningun mode, that 
cannot be on any account. 

Eso no era en mi ano, it was not in 
my year, it did not happen in my 

Y no era mi dano, I have no right to 

Pues, senores, and so, sirs, as I was 

Con que luego, and so then. 

De botones adentro, inside outside. 

Me viene como anUlo al dedo, it suits 
me like a ring does a finder. 

Que se aguante hasta el jueues, let 
him wait (till Thursday). 

Sabe muy lien guisar, he is a capital 

Muy hinchada, que tono se da ! Yeij 
proud, what airs she gives herself! 

No me da la gana, I don't choose, I 
am not in the humour. 

Ya estd hecha la diligencia, the com- 
mission or thing is already done. 

Que disparate ! what nonsense ! 

Hombre de bien, a good, an honest 

Tunante y embustero, a good-for- 
nothing liar. 

Mueran los gavachos, death to the 
miscreants (the national wish as 
regards the French). 

Picaro, picara, rogue (may be used 

JSuena alhaja, buena prenda es Vmd,, 
you are a pretty jewel. 

Calavera atolondrado, empty noddle 

- (skull). 

* Vmd, fa explained in page 124. 




Mity ordinario, yerj bad style. 
JVb vcUe nada, it is worth nothing. 
Me quiere mucho, he is very fond of 

£e mande a un recado, I sent him on 

a message. 
JEs hombre tan formal como noaotrosy 

he is as well-bred as we are. 
Con quien ne puede trutavi you can 

Hve, do bnsmess with him. 
Con toda franqueza JEspanolaf with 

all Spanish fi*ankness. 
JVb tiene educacion, he is very ill- 
iVb conoce el mundo, has no know- 
ledge of the world. 
Tiene cara de hereje, he is very ngly. 
'Tiene pecho como tabla de animas, 

she is very scraggy. 
Ha qnedado para vestir imageneSf she 

is an old maid; 
JEs una erudita a la violetaj una mart" 

sabidilla, she is a bine. 
Jj08 JEspanoles son muy valienteSf the 

Spaniards are very valiant. 
Algunos con las dientes, some with 

their teeth. 
Mueren como chinches, they die in 

Una esquela, una esquelita, a note, a 

A medio peh, half-seas-over. 
Vamos d las tieudas, let us go shop- 
Vamos, vamonos d la calUy let tis go 

out (literally, into the street). 
Que leutima I what a pity I 
Me da lastima, I am very sorry. 
Me da tanto coraje, it puts me in such 

a rage. 
JVb me quemes la sangre, don't vex 

me (burn my blood). 
Me hace volver loco, he drives me mad. 
Vengo sqfocado, I am suffocated with 

Queaarse/resco, Llevar chasco, to be 

Ah que me hurku, ah, you are joking 

at me. 
JLo dice en hroma, he says it in jest.^ 
Corazon de cuartel, a heart as roomy 

as a barrack. 
Ab como pan de valde, I don't eat 

my bread gratis. 
No compro nada de gangas, I buy 

nothing a bargain. 

Le pone el pie en el pescueto, she 

hen-pecks him. 
Tengo mi angel de guarda, I have mj 

guardian angel. 
Tengo hula para todo, I have a ball 

for everything (I am a privileged 

T^ene el diahlo en el cuerpo, he has 

the devil in him. 
Que mas ledad Vmd. f what is that 

to you ? 
JVb le hace, it does not signify. 
Nopor los lindos ijos de Vmd., not for 

the sake of your good looks (eyes). 
Bezelo que to tomen d mal, I am 

afraid th^ may take it amiss. 
Una cosa de tres semanas, about three 

Mande Fmd, con todafranqueza, com- 
mand me quite freely. 
Echaremos un paseito, let us take a 

Tenga Vmd. cuidado, take care. 
JVo tenga Vmd. miedo, cuidado, don't 

be afraid, don*t mind. 
Aqui estoy yo, I am here. 
No lo repar^, I paid no attention to it. 
He leido una porcion de ellas, I have 

read some of them. 
Pondr(f tierra por medio, I shall be 

off, (put earth between). 
Hace mucho papel, he makes a great 

Salid d las tablas, went on the stage 

Echemos un cigarrillo, let us make a 

No jfumo, no gasto cigarros, I do not 

smoke, I never use cigars. 
Fuego, candela, light (to light cigars). 
Que tonto eres! how silly you are ! 
Me volvid la hoja, he changed the 

subject, turned over a new leaf. 
Dice sandezes, he talks nonsense. 
Sabe mucho, he is a clever fellow. 
Sabe un punto mas que el diahlo, he 

knows a trick more than the devil. 
Cachaza^ hay <tfliipo,patience, there's 

plenty of time. 
No correpriesa, there is no hurry. 
Conque se marcha Vmd. de ueras f so 

you are really going ? 
Espreciso, no hay remedio, it must be, 

tnere's no help. 
Holal Senor Don Jose, que talf 

Hollo I Mr. Joseph, what news? 



Sect. I. 

Se dice en el pueblo, they say in the 

Mentiras, no lo creo, fibs, I don't be- 
lieve it. 
Que chismograjia I what tittle-tattle ! 
Mala lengua tiene Conchita, little 

Concha has a wicked tongue. 
iVb te metas en eso, have nothing to 

do with it. 
Que caidas tiene 1 how droll he is ! 
Que ocurrencias ! how witty ! 
£80 va largOf that's a long affiiir. 
Por lo que d mi toco, as far as de- 
pends on me. 
Que cara tan riauenal what a cheer- 
ful countenance ! 
TVene Vmd, huena cara, you are look- 
ing very well. 
Que compuesta estds! how well 

dressed you are, how well got up ! 
Venida en batea, you seem to come 

in a waiter font of a bandbox). 
Ilija de mi alma, de mis ojoSs de mi 

corazon, daughter of my soul, of 

my eyes, of my heart. 
Como V. guste, as you like it. 
Toma, para echar un traguito, here^s 

something to drink. 
Mucha bulla para nada, much ado 

about nothing. 
JEstoy en el uso de la palabra, I have 

not lost my speech. 
dalle Vmd, hombrey calle la boca! 

hold your tongue, sir I 
Calle Vmd, muger I hold your tongue, 

madam I 
Que leparece d Vmd, f what do you 

think of it? 
De me Vmd. el pico de la cnenta, give 

me the change of my bill. 
£8toy muy de priesa, I am in a great 

JSsto no acaecerd otra vex, it shall not 

happen another time. 
Que enfadoy que pesadez — que moles- 

tia, que majaaerial what a bore, 
- what a nuisance I 
Diga Vmd., mire Vmd,, tell me, look 

Tenga Vmd, la bondad de decirme, 

be so good as to tell me. 
Hagame Vmd, el favor, do me the 

Ouste d Vmd, decirme, pray please 

to tell me. 

Aca£cid en el tiempo del rey Wamba, 
it happened in the time of Wamba. 

JVb me pasa el pellejo, it does not wet 
through my skin. 

Tomar el aire, el fresco, to take an 

Jesus! que color hace I how hot it is ! 

Vengo molido, hecho pedazos, I am 
knocked all to pieces. 

Manos blancas no ofenden, white 
hands (the fair sex) never hurt. 

Conque me marcho, so I must go 

Vaya Vmd, con Dios, well, God bless 

Quede Vmd. con Dios, may you re- 
main with God. 

A los pies de mi senora, my respects 
to your wife. 

Agour^ good bye ; pronounced abour, 

Muchas memorias, remember me to 

Expressiones, say everything civil 
from me. — Aaios, adieu. 

HaMa la vista, Hasta despues, au 

Cosas de Espana — " Things of 
Spain ;" i, e. peculiarities tending 
to illustrate national character. 
The expression is common among 
all classes, and is that by which 
the natives designate anything 
which they either cannot or will 
not explain to strangers. 

Bisonos — Wanters ; Beggars ; the 
** under which King, Bezonian V of 
Pistol is an old Spanish term, and 
much used by Toreno to express the 
soldiers of a regular Spanish army 
— Cosas de 2itan» paupertas, 
egestas — " always," as the Duke 
says, " hors-de combat, always in 
want of everything at the most 
critical moment ;" so in Italy, the 
needy troops of even Charles V. 
were always asking for every- 
thing — Bisogna cami, Bisogna 

JVb«o<r«w— We, i,e, the Spaniards; 

^ the collective expression of indi- 
vidual egotism ; each I or item of 
the aggregate considering himself 
as No. 1 among mortals, as Spain 
is No. 1, the first and foremost of 

Spain, XVII. weights, etc. — ^xviii. authorities quoted. 71 

XVII. — Relative Scale op Spanish and English Weights, 

Distances, and Measures. 

Now that civilization is all the rage in Spain a scheme is in contem* 
plation to introduce one uniform rule in these matters, which is to be 
based on the decimal and French system ; meanwhile. 


English Eqalvftlent. 
1 Tomin. 

12 Granos . 

3 Tomines 
2 Adarmes 
8 Dracmas 
8 Onzas • 
2 Marcos • 

25 Libras . 

4 Arrobas 


1 Adarme. 

1 Dracma » « 

1 Onza . • 

1 Marco • . 

1 Libra • • 

1 Arroba . « 

1 QaiDtal • i 


Pulgada . 
Pie . . , 





Quarter of Cwt. 

Hundred Weight. 

Lineas • • • • 1 Pulgada . . • • = Inch. 

Puls:adas ... I Pie = Foot. 

1 j Pie^ .... 1 Codo . . . = • Cubit 

^Codos |_ . ,^,^ = Y.«l. 

The English foot is 13 Spanish inches. The English yard is 1 Spa- 
nish and 3J inches. The English mile is 1925 Spanish yards, 2 feet. 
The new Spanish legua is equal to about 3} English miles. 

Com and Dry Measures, 
4 Ochavillos • •- . 1 Ochavo . • • . 

4 Ochayos 
4 Cuartillos 
12 Celemines 
12 Fanegas 



About one Cwt. 

1 bushel is about 

1 Cuartillo • . • = 
1 Celemin . • • • = 
1 Fanega . • . • = 
1 Csdz. 
Our quarter is about 5 Fanegas, 1) Celemin. 
H Celemines. 

An Aranzadtty or Spanish acre, is as much land as a pair of oxen can 
plough in a day ; a Fcmega is that quantity which requires a Fanega 
of grain to sow it. 

Liquid Measures, Wine, &c, 

. 1 Cuartillo. 

• 1 Azumbre . • • = Pint. 
. 1 Cuartilla • • • rs Quart. 

• 1 Arroba. 
. 1 Bota o Pipa • • = About 110 to 115 gallons. 

About 7 Cuartillos make our Gallon. 

XVlll. — ^Authorities quoted. 

This Handbook, destined chiefly for the antiquarian and dilletante on 
his travels, does not profess to enter into prisons, poor-law, power-looms, 
political economy, or statistics, grave matters detailed in Madoz and 
Minutoli, while our lighter volumes are intended to go in Alforjas and be 
handled on the saddle. In quoting authorities for statements, Spanish 
authors will be chiefly selected, as being the most readily accessible in 
a country where foreign books are very rare ; when other authors are 

4 Copas . 
4 Cuartillos • 
2 Azumbres . 
4 Cuartillas . 
29 Arrobas . 


quoted, those will be taken who, by common consent, in Spain and 
out, are held by their respective countrymen to be most deserving of 
credit : a fre^iuent reference will be made to authorities of all kinds, 
ancient as well as modern. Thus the home reader or writer who is 
anxious to pursue any particular subject will find his researches facili- 
tated, and all will have a better guarantee that facts are stated correctly 
than if they were merely depending on the unsupported assertion of an 


Mariana (Juan de), Historia General de Espaua, in books and 
chapters : this history, written originally in Latin, was also published 
in Spanish with corrections and additions by its learned author in 
1628, who is termed their " Livy " by his countrymen. The work, 
continued and illustrated down to Charles III., by Eduardo Chao, 
4 vols. 8vo., Mad. 1849, offers a fair collection of factSy for it was not 
likely that the author, a priest and Jesuit, would have taken liberal or 
philosophical views of many of the most important bearings of his 
country's annals, even had any truly searching spirit of investigation 
been ever permitted by the censorship of the Government and Inqui- 

Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, 2 vols. 4to., London, 1841-43, by 
Don Pascual Oayangos, the first Hispano- Arabic scholar of his day, who 
unites to indefatigable industry a sound critical judgment ; written in 
English, this work must henceforward take its place as the t^t-book 
on the subject. 

Historia de los Ardbes en Espana, by Juan Antonio Oonde, 4 vols. 
4to., Mad. 1820-21, is compiled entirely from Arabic authorities, and is 
very dry reading ; the premature death of the author prevented his 
giving it the last finishing touches, hence sundry inaccuracies, and a 
general want of arrangement. It was translated into French by a M. 
Maries, 3 vols., Paris, 1825 ; or rather murdered, as the original text is 
misrepresented and rendered uncertain by the introduction of new and 
inaccurate matter. 

Diccionario de las Bellas Artes, 6 vols. 8vo., Mad. 1800, by Jitan 
Agustin Cean Bermvdez, forms a complete dictiouary of all the leading 
artists of Spain, with their biographies, lists of their principal works, 
and where they are or were to be seen ; for this book in the hands of 
the Soults and Co. proved a catalogue which indicated what and where 
was the most valuable artistical plunder. The substance has been most 
ably and agreeably eviscerated by W. Stirling in his Annals of Spain, 
while the mass of additional information is what might be expected from 
the research of this accurate and indefatigable author. Consult also 
Handbook of the Spanish School of Painting, by Sir E. Head, 1848 ; and 
the condensed epitome of architecture, sculpture, and painting, "Die 
Christliche Ktmst in Spanien,* Leipzig, 1853, by J. D. Passavant, the 
director of the Frankfort Museum, who purposes to write an artistical 
tour through the Peninsula. 

Noticias de los Arquitectos y Arquitectura, by J. A. Cean Bermudez, 
4 vols. 4to., Mad., 1829, is an excellent dictionary of architecture. This 
author edited and improved the text of Don Eugenic Llaguno y Amirola ; 

Spain, xvjii. sp. historica.l and artistical authorities. 73 

unfortunately both wrote under the influence of their purist pedantic 
GrsBCo-Romano academical age, which had little feeling ibr any of the 
earlier styles. To investigate theremains of classical antiquity, and tourge 
on and eulogise classical copyists was their chief end, to the comparative 
neglect of other branches of the subject. 1l\\q Swmario de las Antigiie- 
dizdes Romatms en Espana, 1 vol. foL, Mad. 1832, by the same author, 
gives a correct summary of all the chief remains of antiquity which 
still exist in Spain, with copious indexes. 

An epitome of Spanish Architecture will be found in a paper of ours in 
the Quarterly, No. cliv. (1846). Consult also the useful Ensayo ffistorico, 
by Jos^ Caveda, 8vo., Mad. 1849, in which every style is traced from 
the Eoman to the present period, with the still-existing examples cited. 

Historia Critica of Juan Francisco Masdeu, 20 vols. 4to., Mad. 1784, 
18C5. This work of research, although tedious, contains a vast collec- 
tion of documentary information and antique inscriptions ; these title- 
deeds of the dead, saved from the wreck of time, are now doubly 
valuable, as many of the originals have perished. Here, while no dry 
bone of antiquity is left unpicked, too much of the mediaeval and modern 
has been passed over. Begun, like many things of Spain, on too grand 
and extensive a scale, this work never was completed. 

For the ancient geography of Spain, consult Geographic von Hispanien, 
Konrad Mannert, 8vo., 3rd edit., Leipsig, 1829 ; and, better still, BiS' 
panien, Fr. Aug. Ukert, Weimar, 1821, second part, p. 229. For early 
History down to the Goths, oow&xAirHistoire O en e rale de I'Espagne, B. 
Depping, 2 vols. 8vo., Paris, 1814 ; and excellent, but not yet com- 
pleted, Histoire de VEspagne of M. Eomey. However, as to her history, 
few countries are more indebted to another than Spain is to English 
and American writers ; suffice it to mention the names of Bobertson, 
Dunlop, Coxe, Irving, Presoott, Lord Mahon, Stirling, and others. 

The Viaje de Espana, by Antonio Ponz, 18 vols.. Mad. 1786-94, 
presents a valuable itinerary of Spain as it was, before the most precious 
monuments were destroyed, and its treasures plundered by Vandals 
foreign and domestic. This Leland of Spain published his itineraries 
to rebut some caustic criticisms of the Vago Italiano, the Padre Caimo ; 
for it is, and has long been one of the weaknesses of Spain since her 
decline, to consider herself/he object of the envy and admiration of the 
imiversal mankind, and to fancy that all are conspired to misunderstand 
and depreciate her superior excellencies ; then, as now, those foreigners 
who tell the truth, are set down as liars, libellers, and antagonists, just 
as if a mariner should quarrel with his best friend, an honest barometer. 
Ponz, a kind-hearted careful observer, could not escape the one-sided pre- 
judices of his age, which looked only to the antique, or to the imitations 
of classical style. He was cruelly addicted to the Castilian disease of twad- 
dle, and the pith of his 18 tomes might be condensed into half-a-dozen. 

Diccionario Oeografco, by Sebastian de Mifiano, 10 vols. 4to., Mad. 
1826-9. This geographical and topographical description of the Pen- 
insula was somewhat " done to order " for the home market, and over 
coloured to flatter the government of the day ; it is now completely 
superseded by the Diccionario Qeografico Estadistico Bistorico of 
Pascual Madoz, xvi. vol. 4to., Mad. 1848-50. This important work 
is indeed a creditable monument of individual perseverance, imaided 

Sfaik. — I. * 

74 xviii. sp. RELIGIOUS AUTHORITIES. Sect. L 

nay thwarted by some of the "powers that be." They disliked 
** taking stock" when they had no effects, and obstructed revelations of 
the prison-house, and of that nakedness of the land brought about by 
misgovemment — the true source of evil to which Madoz alludes, as much 
as he dare do. The people, on their parts, disliked to be numbered, as be- 
tidii^ no good, and significative of fresh taxes, increased conscription. Sec, 

The articles in this work differ, having been furnished by " 1000 " 
local contributors. The amount of information in statistics, in judicial, 
criminal, commercial, and fiscal details, is considerable, and must prove 
of great iise to original tour writers. The geologist also will find much 
new and interesting matter. P. Madoz, a gallant partizan, and a Catalan 
liberal, was banished by Ferdinand VII. to France, of whose young 
school he became a disciple ; hence he sneers at England — fria cal- 
culadora — and attributes Spain's independence to Spanish arms 
alone ! Never weary of monstering her molehills into mountains, 
of trumpeting forth the bush -fightings of partizan warfare, as pro- 
digios de valor, he escapes from the chronic atrophy of present pa- 
ralisis, to recollections of a glorious ^pa«^ and hopes of a brilliant /t^^ure. 
'^Gosas de Espan% ; and we may mention one other " thing :" when 
the real value of this work was recognised, the government felt bound to 
offer some sort of patronage, and as " funds were wanting," hit upon 
this scheme. All cesantes, widows, &c., who had pensions with long 
atrdsos, arrears, were allowed to take copies of this work, without pay- 
ment, to the amount due to them from Government, which many did, 
selling them forthwith ; thus a work worth 80 dollars fell, from the 
glut in the market, to about 15 or 20. 

The best and rarest of the local histories will be named in their 
respective localities. This branch of Spanish literature forms indeed 
a goodly row on the book collector's shelf — ^praeclara Supellex. 


La Espaiia, Sagrada, commenced in 1747, now consists of 47 vols. 
4to. ; this a grand work, framed on the scope of the Italia Sacra of 
Ughelli, 1644, and the Gallia Ghristiana of the brothers Sainte Marthe, 
1716, was compiled by the learned Padre Henrique Florez, who maybe 
called the Dugdale, Muratori, or Montfaucon of Spain. The Academia de 
la Historia of Madrid is charged with its continuance, but so many of the 
archives of cathedrals and convents were made cartridges of by the Soults 
and Snchets, and destroyed during the recent civil wars and sequestra- 
tions, that the treatment of the latter dioceses must of necessity be some- 
what inferior to the former, from the lack of those earliest and most 
interesting documents, which, fortunately printed by Florez, were thus 
rescued from destruction ; Florez is also the author ofMedaUasde Espana, 
3 vols, folio. Mad. 1757, 73. The 3rd volume, rather rare, and smaller 
than the two preceding, treats of the coins and medals of Spain earlier 
than the Romans, and down to the Goths : plates are given of the ex- 
amples, and a short account of the mints in which they were struck. 
These, the portrait and picture books of antiquity, and of all its re- 
mains' those which have best escaped, now possess a value far different 
from their original monetary standard, and one the ancients never con- 
' "^mplated, and illustrate at once the religion, war, and history of the past. 

Spain^ xvm. sp. militaey authorities. 76 

Flos Sanctorum^ or Vida de los Santos, by the Jesuit Pedro Riba« 
ileneyra and others. The Madrid fol, edit, of 1790, 3 vols., is that 
here quoted. It gives the present church authorised version of 
legends and monkish miracles — shorn indeed from the Legcnda Aurea 
of Voragine, and suited to more enlightened and sceptical times. 
Fi*- Pacheco, in his Arte de la Fintura, also details the correct colours 
and attributes with which these legends were to be expressed by the 
imitative arts ; consult also Fictor Chriatianus Eruditus, Juan Justerian 
de Ayala, fol.. Mad. 1730 ; or the Spanish translation by Luis de Duran, 
2 vols. 4to., Mad. 1782. Without some of these books none can 
hope to understand the fine arts of the Peninsula, whether in cathedral 
or gallery ; indeed. Palomino (ii. 131) considered a work of this kind 
to be absolutely indispensable to every Spanish artist, as being to mo- 
dern papal hagiography, what a Lempri^re is to ancient pagan my- 
thology. Nor in many cases will mucn more be found to be changed 
than the mere names. 


These necessarily are of 3 classes, and belong to the invader, th« 
French ; the invaded, the Spanish ; and the deliverer, the English. 
They correct and explain each other. 

(Euvres de N, Buonaparte, 5 vols. 8vo., Paris, 1822. Le Style est 
rHommej and great as this great general was in victories — Marengo, 
Jena, Aiisterlitz — and greater in the number of his reverses — Egypt, 
Bussia, Leipsig, and Waterloo, he was greatest by far as a phrasemaker, a 
writer of leading articles, and was indubitably the first ** Thunderer" of 
France. These tomes contain his Moniteur proclamations, bulletins, 
and information, " garbled," as the Duke says, " in the usual Jacobin 
style," and filled with '* the usual philippics " against la perfide Albion 
et son or. True exponents of this true Italian and of his machiavellian 
system, his compositions breathe fire and spirit, splendide mendax ; and 
if occasionally Ossianic, and the very reverse of the dispatches of our 
plain veracious Duke, were admirably suited for his readers and pur- 
poses. Although the truth is seldom in them, they fascinate by their 
** invention " and daring, and bum like sparks struck from granite by 
the sword. His nonsense suited the nonsense of a time and followers, 
who neither understood nor appreciated a quiet undemonstrative per- 
formance of duty ; to whom, from having no feeling for moral greatness, 
La gloire came more acceptable when arrayed in the melodramatic tinsel 
of a Franconi Murat. These things are matters of taste and race. To 
deny Buonaparte's military merits would be absurd, and in none more 
60 than an Englishman, at whose expense no single leaf of his large 
ohaplet was earned ; and those who unjustly seek to curtail its fair 
proportions, rob our soldiers and sailors of naif their glory ; but as a 
man and a civilian he was mean, and the incarnation of selfish 

Histoire de la Ouerre dans la F^insuU, General Foy, 4 vols., Paris, 
1827. This author, one of the humble instruments of the despot Empire 
and rule of brute force, became a patriot under the gentle constitutional 
Restoration. Like all inferior imitators, he out-herods and out-buckrams 
Buonaparte. Even his friend Chateaubriand, no foe in the abstract t 


charlatanism, describes him as ''homme dMmagination et sujet k se 
tromper" (Congres de Ver, 43). Eloquent and clever as M. Foy was, 
he could not always invent facts, or guess numbers accurately ; nor 
was he equal to that most difficult of all tasks, the sustaining consist- 
ently throughout a " fiction of military romance." The truth creeps 
out in accidental contradictions. Foy, says Sir G. Murray (* Quart. 
Keview,' cxi. 167), who knew him well in peace and war, has as " a 
writer shown notoriously the grossest ignorance in respect to many 
particulars connected with England, about which a very slight inquiry 
would have set him right." M. Foy, who was present at every sauve 
qui pent J from Roleia to Waterloo, has the face to deny to the Duke the 
commonest military talent, attributes his successes to accident, and 
ascribes the valour of British soldiers principally to " beef and rum ;'* 
see i. 230, 259, 290, 325, et passim. Bisum teneatis ? 

Jou/maux des Sieges dans la PSnin^ule*3. Belmas, 4 vols. 8vo., Paris, 
1836, projected by Buonaparte in 1812, and finished by Soult, professes 
to be based on authentic documefiits (for what they are see p. 79) in 
the French war-office — it details how the English forces were always 
double in number to the French, the reverse being nearer the truth. 

Much the same may be said of the Victoires et Conquites des Fran- 
cis, 26 vols. 8vo., Paris, 1818-21 ; this compilation of a set of inferior 
officers and small gens-de-lettres, aft^ the second capture of Paris, ex- 
hibits throughout an untrue, unfair, and virulent tone against the 
countrymen of Nelson and Wellington, about whom they write so much 
in hate and ignorance, and so little in fact or honour ; and yet this is 
the vomit to which some of our neighbours return when writing on this 
subject. (See M. Gagenon on the Duke of Wellington, 1852.) The 
characteristics of other modem historical romance writers of the Lamar- 
tine and Thiers class are thus truly hit off by our Napier, when dealing 
with the latter little gentleman's, " pages sparkling with paste bril- 
liants, but wanting the real jewel truth." 

The Itvndraire descriptif de VEspagne, by Alez. de Laborde, 6 vols., 
Paris, 1827, Ijke Murphy's * Alhambra,' was a bookseller's speculation, 
and in both cases it is difficult to believe that the authors ever were at 
all in Spain, so gross, palpable, and numerous are the inaccuracies : 
some idea of the multitudinous and almost incredible mistakes and mis- 
statements of Laborde may be formed by reading the just critique of 
the * Edin. Rev.' xv. 6. The third edition, 1827, was tickled up by 
one Bory de St. Vincent, an aide-de-camp to Soult, a rabid Buonapart- 
ist, and author of a poor Guide des Voyageurs en Espagne, Paris, 
1823. Of his qualifications he gives an account in the D^cace — 
" having galloped in less than a year more than 1400 leagues." " Vous 
jugerez par ce rapide narr^, des facilit^s que j'ai eu pour hien voir 
I'Espagne, et concevrez quefaicruipouvoiT en ^crire avec connaissance de 
catise.'* This Bory afterwards became, like Foy, a patriot^ andf in 
1815 edited, under a false name, a jacobin paper at Ghent. 

Biographie UniverseUe, 74 vols. 8vo., Paris, 1811-43, is a respectable 
compilation, although not free from bias whenever tender national 
subjects are concerned. 

The materials for writing political and military history, under 
"^uonaparte, were systematically tampered with, and the sources of 

Spain, xvui. sp, military authorities. 77 

correct information were corrupted as a matter of course ; his throne 
was hung around with a curtain of falsehood, lined with terror ; or, in 
the words of his own agent, I'Abb^ de Pradt, with ruse doublee de terreur. 
Under him, says even Foy, i. 17, " La presse ^tait esclave ; la police 
repoussait la v^rit^ avec autant de soins, que s*il fiit agi d'<Scarter 
I'invasion de I'ennemi." " At all times," says the Duke (* Disp.,' 
July 8, 1815) " of the French revolution, the actors in it have not 
scrupled to resort to falsehood, either to give a colour or palliate tlieir 
adoption or abandonment of any line of policy ; and they think, pro- 
vided the falsehood answers the purpose of the moment, it is fully 

Under the system, formed in the school of such revolutions, the truth 
could seldom be known, when a disaster was represented as a victory, and 
the meaning-pregnant word honour was narrowed into mere honneur, or 
exhibition of personal bravery in the field ; it followed, in the utter want 
of moral principle, that neither to lie or steal were held to disgrace a 
general, provided he was not beaten in battle. Buonaparte renewed, in 
war and politics, the old " Dolus an virtus quis in hoste, requirit j** and 
to him again is applicable the character given by Livy to Hannibal 
(xxi. 4) : " Has tantas viri virtutes, ingentia vitia equabant ; inhumana 
crudelitas, perfidia plusquam Punica, nihil veri, nihil sancti, nuUus 
Deilm metus, nullum jus jurandum, nulla religio." 

Nor can it be wondered at, when sans-culottes were thus placed at the 
head of chivalrous civilized France, that a low morality should have been 
too much the order of the day ; tel maitre, teU valets. When Lefebvre broke 
his parole^ his master — instead of sending him back, as the Duke would 
have done, " had any English officer been capable of such dishonour " 
(*Disp.' Oct. 20, 1809) — approved of the foul deed, and promoted 
him ! Under such circumstances, the Duke " could place no confidence 
in their parole " (June 30, 1811). Now the farceur Foy, who ascribes the 
bravery of our dull slow soldiers to ** beef and rum," thinks that " honour 
is a motive too delicate for their dense organization, and that our ofiicers 
lack the exclusive idolatry of it of the French" (i. 235, 241), and this 
while Buonaparte was doing his best to bring back those dark ages, when 
telling a lie was but a familiar jest, and a breach of parole and perjury 
only a/ofon de parler, " Francis familiare erat ridendo fidem frangere " 
(F. Vopiscus Proculus). " Si pejeret Francus quid novi faceret, qui 
jDcrjurium ipsum sermonis genus putat esse, non criminis " (Salvien de 
G. D. iv). The Duke knew exactly what he might venture to believe, 
for he distrusted even their honour among each other : ** Although we 
rarely find the tmth in the public reports of the French government w 
of their officers, I believe we may venture to depend upon the truth of 
what is written in cipher " (* Disp.' January 29, 1813). But according 
to M. Foy, Wellington was " un General vulgaire !" (i. 325) ; " d*un 
port^e ordinaire 1" (i. 259), when compared with the Marshals of the 
Empire, " Demigods of the * Iliad' " (i. 325) ; whom — ^par parenth^se 
— he defeated one after the other, as easily as he did their master. 
And now in 1852 1 according to M. Thiers, Nelson, when not at sea, 
is still un homme hom^ ! emd. Wellmg,ton d^un peu d'entendu! These 
historical romancers become, however, authorities when admitting any- 
thing against themselves. Such confession is so diametrically oppose*^ 


to their whole system, that the reluctant testimony of an unwilling 
witness becomes admissible : how great indeed a defeat must that be 
which they term a " nwi sticch,** or do not claim as a victory, such as 
Talavera, Barrosa, Albuera, Fuentes de Ouoro, Toulouse, &c. — si videos 
TioCy gentibus in nostris, risu qtuitiare \ It is indeed strange that any 
individuals of a nation so chivalrously martial, of such undisputed 
bravery, should not understand how well it could afford to admit a 
reverse in a fair well-fought fight, and that any one of a people of such 
singular cleverness should not perceive that honesty, in the end, is the 
best and the most manly policy ; and passing strange, that their power 
and keen sensitiveness of ridicule should not observe the smile and pity 
with which the rest of the world, who know the truth, peruse such 
braggadocio balderdash and sheer military romancing, as Walter Scott 
happily terms what the Foys, Bory St. Vincents and Co., put forth as 
History I Meantime no English traveller who values his time, temper, 
or breath, will argue these points. It is useless to attempt to convince 
men against their will, and cruel to undeceive their cherished delusion, 
animi gratissimiis error ; qui decijpi vult decipiatur, 


They have two objects : one to detail the systematic razzias and 
the wrongs which they sustained from their invaders ; the second, to 
blink as much as possible the assistance afforded by England, and to 
magnify their own exertions. They all demonstrate, to their own and 
Spain's entire satisfaction, that the Peninsula and Europe also, was de- 
livered from the iron yoke of Buonaparte by Nosotros, and by them alone. 
Their compilations are wearisome to read, floundering through paltry 
partisan gtterriUas, " little wars," by which the issue of the great cam- 
paign was scarcely ever influenced ; they, in a word, join issue with 
the Duke, who when a conqueror in France, Spain's salvation being 
accomplished, wrote thus : — " It is ridictdous to suppose that the 
Spaniards or the Portuguese could have resisted for a moment if the 
British force had been withdrawn'' (* Disp.* Dec. 21, 1813). The tra- 
veller, when standing on the battle-plains of Talavera, Barrosa, and 
Salamanca, will hear the post of superiority assigned to Nosotros, by 
whose misconduct on each of these very occasions our full triumph was 

Histoire de la Revolution d^Espagnef 3 vols. Leipsig, 1829-31, by 
Schepeler, a Westphalian, holding a commission in the Spanish service, 
uid imbued with all the worst national prejudices. Hispanis Hispanior, 
he vents his dislike to the French by appalling details of sacks, &c., and 
his hatred to the English by sneering at her generals and soldiers. 

La Historia Pditica y Militar, 3 vols. Madrid, 1833, was compiled 
" to order" of the grateful Ferdinand VII. by one Jos^ Mufioz Maldo- 
nado, from official Spanish papers, in order to fool Spanish pride, 
" orguUo nacional,^^ to the top of its bent> and to write down Col, 
Napier's truthful and therefore most unpopular revelations. Hear the 
Duke's opinions on these Peninsular sources of historical information : — 
" In respect to papers and returns, I shall not even take the trouble of 
reading them, because I know that they are ^^/ahricated for a par- 
tictdar purpose, and cannot contain an answer to the strong fact from 

Spain. xvui. sp. military authorities. 79 

me." ** Nothing shall induce me even to read, much less to give an 
answer to documentos very ingeniously framed, but which do not contain 
one word bearing on the point." (* Disp.' June 4, 1811.) " I have no 
leisure to read long papers, which are called documents^ but which 
contain not one syUcMe of truth J^ These, like the pieces qfficielles et 
jmtijicatives of the Buonapartists, on which certain authors base their 
astounding romances, are, Anglice, lies, and from them Maldonado 
ascribes the glorious result to the petty war of the guerriUeros, and not 
to Salamanca and Yittoria nominatim (iii. 442), for the part of Hamlet 
is pretty much omitted ; it was the Spanish armies that the Duke led 
to victory (iii. 594), the English are not even named : the Spanish 
military conduct throughout humbled Buonaparte, and ** obfuscated in 
sublimity anything in Greek or Roman history" (iii. 601). What 
hellebore cau cure a disease like this ? 

The Historia del LevantamientOy >d:c, de Espanay 5 vols. 4to. Madrid, 
1133-27, by the*Conde de Toreuo, the celebrated loan financier and 
minister, is written in pure Gastilian, although tainted with an affecta- 
tion of quaint phraseology : he has alio borrowed largely from Southey, 
without acknowledgment. 

All these works, written either by official personages or under the 
eye of the Government, are calculated also to suppress the true, and 
suggest the false ; they advocate the few at the expense of the many ; 
they defend the shallow heads and corrupt hearts by which the honest 
members of the Spanish nation were sacrificed, by which whole armies 
were left wanting in everything at the most critical moment, and brave 
individiidl^ exposed to certain collective defeat. As Orpheus and San 
Antonio charmed brutes, by dulcet strains and sermons, so Spanish 
juntas and authors manage to seduce their countrymen by flattering 
tales, and by cramming them with La Magnanima Mensogna, or 
Boinance, so congenial to their ardent imaginations and self-conceit : 
the universal nation believes greedily what it vehemently desires ; 
they are told, and doubt not, that their Guerilla or petty war was 
the battle of giants ; that their puddle was the ocean, their minnows 
the tritons, and a very small supply of the oil of facts suffices for the 
lamp of their so-called history. The inveterate Eastern idiosyncracy 
seeks to be deceived with false prophesies, and " the people love to 
have it so." Hence, as in the days of Jeremiah (v. 31), " The priests 
have rule by these means ; and Spanish histories of the war are only to 
be paralleled by Spanish histories of monkish miracles and legends. 

Far be it from us to imitate their example ; for, however thwarted by 
their miserable leaders in camp and cabinet, honour eternal is due to the 
PEOPLE OP Spain, worthy of better rulers and a better fortune ! And 
now that the jobs and intrigues of their Juntas, the misconduct and inca- 
pacity of their wretched Generals, are sinking into the deserved obscurity 
of oblivion, the national resistance as a whole rises nobly out of the 
ridiculous details, a grand and impressive feature, which will ever adorn 
the annals of hauschty Spain. That resistance was indeed wild, disor- 
ganized, imdisciplined, and Algerine, but it held out to Europe an 
example which was not shown by the civilized Italian or intellectual 
German. A wide distinction must ever be drawn between individuals 
and their country at large. Thus in speaking of chivalrous, intellectual 


afti mighty France, never is the time-honoured glory of the white 
panache of her Henri IV. intended to be stained by the foul deeds com- 
mitted in camp or cabinet, in cloister or city, by criminals whom a 
Robespierre Revolution raised to a momentary command ; and we gladly 
hail in our present ally, a foe whom we ever have found worthy of our 
steel in war, and now in peace a no less noble competitor in all that 
humanises and ennobles mankind. Esto perpetual 


These are of all classes and quality. Among the minor and most 
entertaining are the works of Gleig, Sherer, and Kincaid. Hamilton's 
AnThoU of the Peninsular Campaigns, revised by P. Hardman, 1849, is 
on the whole one of the fairest compilations from the best authorities. 
We shall chiefly quote three others. 

Southey's History of the Peninsvlar War is a true exponent of its 
author, a scholar, poet, and blind lover of the Spaniards, their ballads 
and chronicles. It breathes a high, generous, monarchical tone; a 
detestation of the tyrannical and revolutionary, and a loathing for 
cruelty, bad faith, and Vandalism. It is somewhat descriptive, excur- 
sive, and romantic, and the work of a civilian and professional man of 
letters; indeed, military men assert that the author had not the 
slightest perception of their craft, or ever grappled with the object of 
any campaign, or understood a single battle. The Duke thought the 
" book a romance, and so I told him " — ^ipse dixit. 

The History of the War in the Peninsvla, by Napier, in most respects 
the antithesis to Southey, is the book of a real soldier, and characterized 
by a bold, nervose, and high-toned manliness. The style is graphic, 
original, and attractive. He scourges with a whip of steel our own and 
the Spanish governmental mediocrities, such, without the Duke's Dis- 
patches, as the world never could have believed. He has placed on 
record " the ignorance and incapacity, the vanity, cowardice, hope- 
less imbecility, insane arrogance, and restless, intriguing, false, and 
treacherous spirit of our Peninsular allies," and has demonstrated, 
irrefragably as a problem in Euclid, that " Spain at the end was 
as helpless as she had been at the beginning and all through the war, 
and quite unequal to her own deliverance either by arms or policy ; 
that it was English valour and English steel, directed by the genius of 
an English general, which, rising superior to all obstacles, whether pre- 
sented by his own or the Peninsular governments, or by the perversity 
of national character, alone worked out her independence ;" and his best 
efforts, it may be added, were thwarted by a malignant opposition, 
whose hopes of getting into place, based on Buonaparte's success, led 
them to bully and hamper a feeble ministry ; in fact, to defeat the 
foe in the field was the easiest of the Duke's herculean labours. 

In vain have authors on both sides of the Pyrenees tried to write 
down Napier's facts, stern things and sternly expressed in the rough-rider, 
double-shotted style of a hard-hitter and gooi hater ; and be his political 
and strategic opinions what they may, his stated /acfe are trustworthy ; 
for the Great Duke, who liked the gallant soldier as a man, readily 
afforded him any information. The author, although anxious to be 
"'•npartial, is unaware of his strong under-current of democratic preju- 

Spain. xviii. napier's history. 81 

dices ; his ultra-advocacy of Soult, and idol-worship of Buonaparte, not 
merely as a general, but as a man and statesman, justify the excellent 
criticism of Lord Mahon, that this work is by far the best French 
account of the war. If Napier's modem Csesar be the superhuman perfec- 
tion of civil and military genius, what must that far greater Man be 
who cropped all his blushing honours to make a garland for his own 
crest ? that man who never lost a gun, who never had a sauve qui pent 
— ^no Egypt, Leipsig, Eussia, or Belgium — one whose coup-de-grace, 
Waterloo, " settled Boney," decided the fate of the world, and gave it 
peace for half a century — whose Waterloo is an epic of itself, to which 
Marengo, Austerlitz, and Jena, are mere glorioles and episodes, full of 
sound and fury, and signify nothing ? 

Colonel Napier deals gently ^vith the Duke's opponents in the field, 
treating their systematic plunder, &c., as customs of war. Soult, who 
never met the English but to be defeated, is in fact the Achilles of his 
Iliad, <>f which the ill-fated Moore is the " Hector." Meantime, the real 
** Deusex machina^^ — ^the Duke — is constantly criticised ; the faults he 
committed are set right, and he is shown how much better the campaign 
might have been managed in Napier's opinion ; all these commentaries 
were indeed written more for the benefit of posterity than of his Grace, 
who thus wrote to Mr. D. Perceval, June 6, 1835 : — "Notwithstanding 
my great respect for Colonel Napier and his work, I have never read a 
line of it, because I wished to avoid being led into a literary discussion, 
which I should probably find more troublesome than the operations 
which it is the design of the Colonel's work to describe and record." 
Those curious to see the critic criticised, may turn to the reviews 
of Napier's History, written in the 'Quarterly' by Sir George 
Murray, a brother soldier, and one who fought every inch of the cam- 

The recent edition of Napier (1863) is valuable, from the crushing 
rejoinder made by the fearless author to the "inventions" of M. 
Thiers's real French version. A soldier like Napier may indeed 
give his opinion in councils of war and battle; and no Polybius 
ever described the actual conflict with more spirit-stirring touch; 
but when Monsieur Thiers lectures a Wellington on the art of war, 
the old story of the pedant Phormio and Hannibal at once occurs: 
— " I have indeed seen many dotafds in my life," said the greatest 
general of antiquity, " but none so bad as this." 

Napier's new edition is unfortunately disfigured by multitudinous mis- 
spellingB and mistakes in Spanish names and orthography ; a reference to 
the commonest map and dictionary might have obviated this " intre- 
pidity of error," to use one of our author's criticisms of Sir Walter 
Scott's History. In any future edition an index will add much to the 
utility of the work. 

Dispatches of " tJie DvkeJ*^ This is the true English book, which 
with the companion volumes of immortal Nelson posterity will never 
let die : this is the antidote and corrective of all libels, and the final 
court of appeal in all questions of real facts. Here is the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, and no mistake ; nothing is 
extenuated, nothing is set down in malice. Wellington, bom, bred, and 
educated like a gentleman, could not lie, like revolutionary upstart? 

B 3 


whose low-birth habits no subsequent titles could eradicate. La casque 
sent toujours le hareng. In this country, where " character " makes or 
mars a man, the Duke would just as soon have thought of robbing a 
church, as of telling a lie. Clear in his " great office," he never alloyed his 
glory with the dross of pillage or peculation. Honesty was his policy ; his 
shrine of immortality was approached through the temple of virtue, and 
he trusted to a grateful country to provide means to support a dignity 
which he had carved out with an untarnished sword. A conqueror of 
conquerors, he scorned to bully, and was too really powerful to exchange 
the simplicity of greatness for bulletin bombast, the hectoring rhodo- 
montade of theatrical clap-trap. He scouted all the balderdash of 
" driving leopards into the sea," of " finishing campaigns with thun- 
derbolts," and similar feats, sooner said than done. He was too just 
and generous to deny merit to a brave although a vanquished opponent. 
Serene and confident in himself — a%tog wv — ^he pursued his career of 
glory, without condescending to notice the mean calumnies, the " things 
invented by the enemy," who judged of others by themselves : for 
wisdom and goodness to the vile seem vile. The Duke's writings are 
the exponent of the man ; the/ give a plain unvarnished tale, with no 
fine writing about fine fighting. Every line bears that honest English 
impress Truth, without which there can be no real manliness or 
greatness ; and when will any of the " demigods" of the Revolution dare 
to publish his private correspondence ? The Duke's own portraiture is 
unprecedented, and the moraX exhibition of abnegation of self, and of 
that first and paramount duty, tJie serving King and country, is more 
valuable than this record of unparalleled military achievements, itself 
one more enduring than bronze. 

Wellington, the real editor of his works, read all in proof, and cor- 
rected every page with his own hand. The papers were set up in type 
exactly as they had been written. But now, when the campaign was 
concluded, always considerate for others, he struck out every name and 
sentence which might give pain, and to such an extent, that matter 
sufficient for six ^ditional volumes was cancelled. One copy alone 
exists of the entire work, and consists of the identical sheets marked 
by the Duke's revising pen. And when the present generation is past» 
when personal considerations cease to operate, and history can fairly 
claim its entire rights, these now sealed-up volumes will raise their 
author to even a higher pinnacle, by a more complete display of all 
his qualities, both as a man and as a general, and by a further revela- 
tion of the inadequacy of the means by which ends so great were 
accomplished. Then, as he remarked himself, " When my papers are 
read, many statues will have to be taken down." 

The publication of this code of the " Soldier and Gentleman," this 
encyclopaedia of military and administrative science, forced om* 
opposition to admit the union in him, of all those high qualities which 
the glorious profession of arms peculiarly calls forth. In these un- 
affected documents, they who run must read his love for King and 
country, his spotless honour and honesty, exalted sense of duty, god- 
Mke presence of mind, self-relying courage in danger, serene equanimity 
like in reverse or victory ; his lofty contempt of calumniators — ^his 

^f-denial and scrupulous consideration of others —his sagacity and 

Spam, XIX. HINTS to book collectors. 83 

foretbonglit — ^his unsparing, intense labour of body and mind — ^last, 
not least, his modesty and simplicity. 

The nervous, perspicuous, idiomatic style of these despatches, drawn 
from deep wells of pure Anglo-Saxon undefiied, is no less truly English 
in word than in thought ; they tell their own story, with the una- 
dorned eloquence of real patriotism. The iron energy of his sword 
passed, like Caesar*s, into his didactic pen, and he used either instrument 
with equal facility, to turn his antagonists to flight or shame. He fought 
as he wrote, and so he spoke. Hyperbolical only in the defence of 
comrades, he knew how cheering the note of praise is to the distant soldier 
fighting for his King, and how depressing the cold blast of a factious 
parliamentary Op])Osition. He was no Athenian sophist skilled in logo- 
machies — no practised debater, no intellectual gladiator ; he just said 
the right thing at the right time, constantly expressing the most in the 
fewest words, and his character carried conviction. All understood his 
blimt discourse — soldier-like, as if giving the word of command ; and 
few took offence at his honest home-thrusts, or could resist his sledge- 
hammer blows on the naiPs head. He used his words to explain, not 
conceal his thoughts ; not a few terse phrases have passed into pro- 
verbs already — but a quiver might be filled with the pithy, pointed 
shafts shot from his mind, that arsenal of sound judgment, wide expe- 
rience, and conmion sense — mens sana in corpore sano. 


The Duke's Dispatches, so far as they go, give the best idea of Spain 
and Spaniards, and of a true Spanish Handbook he must form the hero ; 
and many are the sites which, gilded by his name and fame, stir up 
the inner heart of his countrymen. The other works, native and foreign, 
which treat on local and general subjects, will be pointed out in their pro- 
per places, and form a new branch of literature, well worth the considera- 
tion of the traveller and bibliophile. The Btbliotheca Hispana Vetus et 
Nova, by Nicolas Antonio, 4 vols, folio, Mad., 1788, and edited by the 
learned Bayer ; although the arrangement is very inartificial and confused, 
it is one of the best bibliographical works of Spain. The lover of black 
letter and of books printed in Spain before 1500, cannot dispense widi 
the Typographia EapandULy Francisco Mendez, 4to., Mad., 1796. The 
Index Expurg<xt<mus, published at Madrid by the orthodox Church, is 
also an excellent vade mecum and guide to all about to form a really 
good library, as the priests, deadly foes to mind, carefully inserted every 
book likely to furnish useful and entertaining knowledge. 

XIX. — ^HiNTS TO Book Collectobs. 

A word to our beloved brethren bibliophiles. Books in Spain have 
always been both scarce and dear, for where there are few purchasers, 
prices must be high to remimerate the publisher or importer. The 
public libraries of Spain are few and imperfect. Those recently formed 
in provincial towns consist of brands rescued from the suppressed 
convents, and chiefly relate to monastic and legendary lore. Every 
collection or library, again, in Spain is subject to dilapidations of 
various kinds. There is seldom any catalogue, and, should one exist 


it is Boon mislaid. None then can check directors and Empleados, who 
pick out the plums, exchange imperfect copies for the good ones, and 
thus men, beggars by birth, end with fine galleries and libraries. Seiior 
Conde for example. Quis custodes, custodiat ? 

The works mentioned in this Handbook, and principally the topo- 
graphical, have become rarer and dearer since the publication, as more 
collectors have been put on the scent in England, and in France also, as 
Monsieur Maison, in his pirated Guide du Voyageur, appropriated all 
our bibliographical information, in common with everything else that 
suited the French market. Most of the Spanish classic authors have 
been reprinted in Paris by the bookseller Baudry, under the direction 
of Senor Ochoa, one not over-qualified for the difficult task. 

The lighter literature of Spain of the Picaresque, Salas Barbadillo 
class, Los libros de entretenimiento, are very rare. Few copies were 
printed originally, and they have either perished in the use of thumbs 
at home, or were exported to Mexico in the reign of (Charles II., when 
they met with no sale at home from mystical books being all the fashion. 
Many more were burnt by the priests, who, on the death of collectors, 
frightened the widows and women (like Don Quixote's neice) with the 
idea of their sensual, Satanic, and heretical tendency. 

In the rare instances where books prohibited by the Inquisition were 
permitted, they were kept caged like wild beasts under lock and key, and 
those semi-permitted were first emasculated, the best passages borrado or 
inked over by the Inquisition, who watched with eye of Argus and 
hand of harpy over the smallest expression of truth, or the slightest 
hint that might set human intellect on thinking. The males of the Sp. 
masses to this day read little but their old ballads, and the Cid is still 
their hero ; while the females love lives of saints, monkish miracles, and 
such like ohras de devotion which their Church substitutes for the Bible. 

The commonest editions of the classics are hardly to be had. The 
Spaniard never was much of a critic or learned annotator ; and in 
general there are very few of his books by which a foreigner, accus- 
tomed to better works on the same subjects, will be much benefited or 
amused. Spanish literature, depressed and tinctured by the Inquisition, 
was a creature of accident, and good productions occurred only like 
palms in the desert; it never exercised a connected influence on 
national civilization, excepting its chronicles and ballads — the chap, 
the household books of the people, and the delight of the vulgar 
to this day, consist much of this poetry of national heroism, which 
the learned despised, while vast indeed was the proportion dedi- 
cated to scholastic theology, monkish legends, and polemical research, 
and the cloister was the best customer. In general there is a want of 
sound critical judgment, of bold, searching, truth-gi-appling philosophy. 
The Spaniards themselves are aware of this comparative inferiority, 
although none dared, for fear of the furnace, to name the real cause. 
Half their works on literature take the explanatory and apologetical 
tone. Since the recent changes, matters have had a tendency to im- 
prove, but still theology, law, and medicine, form the chief subjects. 
There are very few classical works beyond mere school-books, and those 
mostly in Latin. Greek, indeed, was never much known in Spain ; 

"in learned men quoted from Latin translations, and, when they used 

Spain, ' XIX. Spanish booksellers. 85 

the Greek word, often printed it in Roman letters. Greek books were 
either printed in Flanders or procured from Italy, owing to the scarcity of 
its type in Spain. The Latin Vulgate, in fact, superseded the Greek 
Testament. German is altogether modem Greek to Spaniards. There 
is a sprinkling of English works, grammars, * Vicars of Wakefield,' and 
* Buchan's Domestic Medicine.' * Valter Scott,' double done into Spanish 
from the French, fares no better than the Bard of Avon — * Chespire, que 
les Anglais ^crivent Schakspir ;' who, travestied " en Fran<;ais," is like 
Niagara passed through a jelly-bag. Eeal French books are more common, 
and especially those which treat on medical, chemical, and mechanical 
subjects ; and as Spain imports her literature and paletots from Paris, 
one of her worst misfortunes is that she is mistaught what is going on in 
intellectual Germany and practical England, through the unfair, garbled, 
and inaccurate alembic of French translation. This habit of relying on 
other nations for original works on science has given a timidity to 
Spanish authors, as it is easier to translate and borrow than to invent. 
They distnist each other's compositions as much as they do each other's 
word, and turn readily to a foreign book, in spite of all their dislike to 
foreigners, which is more against persons than things. The bulk of 
Spaniards would as soon think of having a cellar as a library, and gene- 
rally speaking the trash offered for sale has few attractions for a 
foreigner. A " reading public " in Spain, long among the things 
wanting out of the Church,is still in an infant state, and is still rocked in 
the cradle of Liceos, Casinos, and other copies of trans- Pyrenaean club 
civilization. Most of the curious private Spanish libraries were dispersed 
during the war of independence, when those which were not stolen by 
the Junots, made into cartridges by the Soults and Suchets, or burnt 
to heat their camp-kettles, escaped to England, and even the best books of 
these are seldom in good condition ; the copies are torn, worm-eaten, 
stained, and imperfect, for the Spaniards, like the Orientals, never were 
collectors or conservators, nor had a real keen relish or perception 
of matters of taste and intellectual enjoyment ; they axe to modern 
nations what the old Romans were to the Greeks — soldiers, conquerors, 
and colonists, rather than cultivators of elegance, art, fancy, and 
aesthetic enjoyments. The collector of rare and good books may rest 
assured that a better and cheaper Spanish library is to be formed 
in one month in London than in one year in Spain. The native 
bookseller, sui generis, and one of the true Cosas de Espaiiay is indeed 
a queer, uncomfortable creature for an eager English collector to fall 
foul of. He sets ensconced among his parchment-bound wares, more 
indifferent than a Turk. His delight is to twaddle with a few cigaresque 
clergymen and monks (when there were monks) ; and in fact they were 
almost the only purchasers. He acts as if he were the author, or the col- 
lector, not the vendor of his books. He scarcely notices the entrance of 
a stranger ; neither knows what books he has got or what he has not ; 
he has no catalogue, and will scarcely reach out his arm to take down 
any volume which is pointed out ; he never has anything which is pub- 
. iished by another bookseller, and will not send and get it for you, nor 
always even tell you where it may be procured. As for gaining the 
trade allowance by going himself for a book, he would not stir if it 
were twenty-five hundred instead of twenty-five per cent. Becent trp 

86 XX, HINTS TO AUTHOES. ' Sect. I^ 

Tellers report that now-a-days the genus Biblwpolum Ihericum is get- 
ting a trifle sharper. In the days of Ferdinand VII., whenever we- 
were young enough to hint at the unreasonable proposition of begging^ 
one of them to get us any book, the certain rejoinder was, " Ah que ! 1 
must mind my shop ; you have nothing else to do but run up and 
down streets "—^en^fo qiie gtuxrdar la tienda, V, estd corriendo las 
calles. When one of them happens not to be receiving visitors, and,, 
for want of anything better, will attend to a customer, if you ask him 
for any particular work — say Caro's * Antiquities of Seville,* he will 
answer, " Veremos — Call again in a day or two." When you re- 
turn the third or fourth time, he will hand you Pedraza's * Antiquities 
of Granada.' It is in vain to remonstrate, as he will reply, " No le 
hace, lo mismo tiene, son siempre antigiiedades " — " What does it 
signify ? it is the same thing, both are antiquities." If you ask for 
a particular history, ten to one he will give you a poem, and say, 
** This is thought to be an excellent book." A book is a book, and you 
cannot drive him from that. If you do not admit the proposition, he- 
will say, " Why, an Englishman bought a copy of it from me five- 
years ago." He cannot understand how you can resist following the 
example of Apatsano — a fellow-countryman. If he is in good humour, 
and you have won his heart by a reasonable waste of time in gossiping 
or cigarising, he will take down some book, and, just as he is going to- 
ofiFer it you, say, " Ah I but you do not understand Spanish," which is 
a common notion among Spaniards, who, like^the Moors, seldom them- 
selves understand any language but their own ; and this, although, as 
you flatter yourself, you have been giving him half an hour's proof to 
the contrary ; then, by way of making amends, he will produce some 
English grammar or French dictionary, which, being unintelligible to 
him, he concludes must be particularly useful to a foreigner, whose 
vernacular they are. An odd volume of Kousseau or Voltaire used to 
be produced with the air of a conspirator, when the dealer felt sure 
that his customer was a safe person, and with as much self-triumph aa 
if it had been a Tirante lo Blanc ; and, in fact, in the good old times, 
selling such books was as dangerous as fireworks — a spark might blow 
up shop and keeper. His dismay at the contemptuous bah I with 
which these tomes of forbidden knowledge were rejected could only be 
depicted by Hogarth. 

XX. — Hints to Authobs. 

The necessity of a third edition of this Ecmdhook — con perdan sea 
dicho — is one proof that %l n^y a plus de Pyrenees, so far as they 
existed to bar out our nomade travellers. Nor has the volume been 
altogether useless to many, who think a visit to Spain entails the ne- 
cessity of " writing a book," just as if it were to Timbuctoo. The 
missionaries from Albemarle Street, the first in many a field, have been 
best served, and if sorne of the substance printed by their followers has 
been anticipated by them, the public may not necessarily be the loser ; 
those who travel and write the quickest, who indite ^^Bevelatums''* from 

^ tops of dillys, and " Olimpses^' from the decks of steamers, may 

Spain. XX. Spanish sensitive^jess. 8T 

not always benefit mankind by discussing matters they do not quite 
understand, whether original or appropriated. 

Meantime, to pillage the things of Spain, in peace as well as war, seems 
to be considered fair game by some across the channel. Thus one Mon- 
sieur Maison has larded his second edition of his own meagre Guide de 
Voyageurs en Espoffne, Paris, 1851, by wholesale piratical appropriatioa 
of this Handbook, emasculated, indeed, by much suppression of the 
truth as regards the Bonapartist invasion. It is seldom that French 
travellers have done justice to their neighbour. Light, clever, and amus- 
ing, they have chiefly skimmed the surface, writing down on their 
tablets the scum that floats up ; thus, from their Voyage de Figaro down 
to Dumas, they have indulged in a travestie, quizzing tone, to the un- 
speakable wrath of Spaniards, who, taking the syllabubs seriously, 
employ ponderous authors to upset them instead of swallowing the 
joke ; so Marliani was set on Thiers, to refute his version of Trafalgar^ 
and a heavier treatise is concocting to rebut his bulletin of Bailen. 

The grave and sensitive Castilians are, and with justice, pained by 
hasty glances bestowed by the barbarian eye on only that half of the 
subject, of which they are most ashamed, and consider the least worth 
notice ; this prying into the nakedness of their land and exposing it 
afterwards, has increased their dislike towards the impertinente curioso. 
They well know and deeply feel their country's decline ; but like poor 
gentlefolks, who have nothing but the past to be proud of, are anxious 
to keep these family secrets concealed, even from themselves. This 
dread of being shown up sharpens their inherent suspicions, when 
strangers wish to examine into their ill-provided arsenals, and the beg- 
garly account of their empty-box institutions , just as Bums was scared 
even by the honest antiquarian Grose — 

A duel's amang ye, takiii' notes. 

At the same time, when Spaniards are once satisfied that no harm is in- 
tended in sketching, &c., no people can be more civil in ofifering assistance 
of every kind, especially the lower classes, who gaze at the, to them, magi- 
cal performance with wonder : the higher classes seldom take any notice, 
partly from courtesy and much from the nil admirari principle of 
Orientals, which conceals both inferiority and ignorance. Let no 
author imagine that the fairest account of Spain as she is, setting down 
nought in malice, can content a Spaniard; morbidly sensitive and 
touchy, as the worst class of Americans, both are afflicted with the 
notion that all the world, who are never troubling their heads about 
them, are thinking of nothing else, and joined in one common conspi- 
racy, based in envy, jealousy, or ignorance : " you don't understand us, 
I guess." He considers it no proof either of goodness of breeding, heart, 
or intellect, to be searching for blemishes rather than excellences, for 
toadstools rather than violets, and despises those curmudgeon smell- 
funguses who find all a wilderness from La Mancha to Castile — who see 
motes rather than beams in the brightest eyes of Andalucia. Many 
blots exist, indeed, and Spain and Spaniards have much too long been 
taken at tbeir own magniloquent and magnificent valuation. How 
shortlived this imix)sing kingdom's real greatness I begun under Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella, and waning even under Philip II. How much war 



Sefct. I. 

owing to accident and externals — to the possession by Charles V. of the 
New World, of Italy, the Low Countries, and Germany ! How soon, 
as these dropped off and Spain was left by herself, did poverty and 
weakness, her normal and present condition, return ! After years of 
systematic national self-puffing, an honest Handbook, we repeat, is 
bound like an appraiser, to do his duty to his employer, yet the whole 
unpalatable truths told here in strict confidence, need not be repeated 
to the thin-skinned natives, by those who consult and put faith in a 
Red Murray ; and assuredly the Peninsula affords room for other and 
more pleasant topics, and many and sweet are the flowers to be yet 

Those kind readers who do the author of this Handbook the honour 
of trusting to his lucubrations on the things of Spain, will find several 
other matters discussed at more length in his first edition of this 
work, 1845, out indeed of print, but of which copies occasionally may 
be obtained of Mr. Lee, 440, West Strand ; and also in his 

Historical Inquiry of the Unchangeable Character of a War in 

Spain. Murray. 1837. 

Gathering in Spain. Murray. 1846. 

On Cob Walls — the Moorish and Arabic) ^^ «x t» xr 

yr yj^ >yuart. Kev,, Wo. cxvi. 

The Theatre of Spain 

Banditti . 

Heraldry, Genealogy, Grandees. 

Bull Fights 

Ronda and Granada 

The Age of Ferdinand and Isabella 

Architecture of Spain 

Spanish Ladies* Love — The sack of) 

Cadiz by l^ord Essex | 

The Paintings of Spain 

The Literature of Spain 

ijharles V. at Yuste 

Spain in 1466 — the Bohemian Embassy 
Apsley House — The Duke .... 
Spanish Ballads ....... 

Bible in Spain 

Larpent's Journal in Spain .... 

Gipsies of Spain Brit, and For. Rev., No. xxvi. 

Ballads of Spain Westminster Rev., No. Ixv. 

Biography of Velazquez . . . Penny Cyclopaedia. 
Campaigns of Wellington . • Illustrated. Brettell. 1852. 
Bull Fights illustrated . . . Hogarth. 1852. 






















' do. 




















No. cxlvi. 







XXI. — The BuLL-FianT. 

The bull-fight, say what moralists may, is the sight in Spain, and 
to see one certainly forms the first object of all the younger portion of 
travellers from every nation ; and as not to understand after some sort the 
order of the course, the salient features, and the language of the " ring," 


argues in the eyes of the natives an entire want of liberal education, 
no Handbook for Spain can be complete without some elementary hints 
as to ** what to observe,*^ and what to say in the arena ; there the past is 
linked with the present, and Spanish nationality is revealed, and no mis- 
take, for trans-Pyrenean civilization has not yet invaded this sacred spot. 
The bull-fight, or, to speak correctly, the Bull-Feast, Fiesta de Toros, is a 
modern sport, and never mentioned in any authors of antiquity. Bulls 
were killed in ancient amphitheatres, but the present modus operandi is 
modern, and, however based on Roman institutions, is indubitably a 
thing devised by the Moors of Spain, for those in Africa have neither 
the sport, the ring, nor the recollection. The principle is the exhibition 
of horsemanship, courage, and dexterity with the lance, which consti- 
tuted the favourite accomplishments of the children of the desert. In 
the early bull-fight, the animal was attacked by gentlemen armed only 
with the Rejon, a short projectile spear about four feet long. This, the 
pQum of the Romans, was taken from the original Iberian spear, the 
Sparus of Sil. Ital. (viii. 523), the Lancea of Livy (xxxiv. 15), the 
oKovriov of Strabo (iii. 150), and is seen in the hands of the horsemen of 
the old Iberian-Romano coinage. To be a good rider and lancer was 
essential to the Spanish CahcSlero, This origiiial form of bull-fight, 
now only given on grand occasions, is called a Fiesta real. Such a one 
Philip IV. exhibited on the Plaza Mayor of Madrid before our Charles I. ; 
and Ferdinand VII. another in 1833, as the ratification of the Juramento, 
the swearing allegiance ^o Isabel II. (See our paper Quar. Rev., cxxiv. 

These Fiestas Bedles form the coronation ceremonial of Spain, and the* 
CabaUeros mi Plaza represent our champions. Bulls were killed, but 
no beef eaten ; as a banquet was never a thing of no-dinner-giving Iberia 
" NuUus in festos dies epularum apparatus " (Justin, xliv. 2). 

The final conquest of the Moors, and the subsequent cessation of the 
border chivalrous habits of Spaniards, and especially the accession of 
Philip v., which deluged the Peninsula with Frenchmen, proved fatal 
to this ancient usage of Spain. The monkey-puppies of Paris pro- 
nounced the Spanish bulls, and those who baited them, to be brutes and 
barbarous. The spectacle, which had withstood the influence of Isabella 
the Catholic, and had beaten the Pope's bulls, bowed before the despotism 
of fashion. But while the periwigged courtiers deserted the arena on 
which the royal eye of Philip V., who only wanted a wife and a mass-book, 
looked coldly, the sturdy lower classes, foes to foreign innovation, clung all 
the closer to the pastime of their forefathers ; by becoming, however, 
their game, instead of that of gentlemen, it was stripped of its chivalrous 
character, and degenerated into the vulgar butchery of low mercenary 
bull-fighters, just as our rings and tournaments of chivalry, did into 
those of ruffian pugilists. 

The Spanish bulls have been immemorially famous. Hercules, that 
renowned cattle-fancier, was lured into Spain by the lowing of the herds 
of Geryon — Oiron, — ^the ancestor (se dice) of the Duque de Osuna. 
The best bulls in Andalucia are bred by Cabrera at IJtrera, in the 
identical pastures where Geryon's herds were pastured and "lifted " by the 
<lemigod, whence, according to Strabo (iii. 169), they were obliged, after 
fifty days' feeding, to be driven off from fear of bursting from fat. The 


age of lean kine has succeeded. Notwithstanding that Spaniards assert 
that their bulls are braver than all other bulls, because Spaniards, who 
are destined to kill and eat them, are braver than all other mortal men, 
they (the bulls) are far inferior in weight and power to those bred and 
fed by John Bull ; albeit, the latter are not so fierce and active, from not 
being raised in such wild and unenclosed countries. Some of the finest 
Castilian bulls are bred on the Jarama, near Aranjuez, by the Duque 
de Yeraguas, a great torero and descendant of Columbus, but one who 
has not yet discovered a new world. To our graziers these bulls would 
seem poor brutes, and gain few prizes at " the Show," being raised for 
baiting not breeding. We are not going to describe a bull-fight ; the 
traveller will see it. Our task is to put him in possession of some of 
the technical rules and terms of art, which will enable him to pass his 
judgment on the scene as becomes a true amateur, un qficumado. This 
term qficion is the origin of our " fancy." 

Bull-fights are extremely expensive, costing from 300Z. to 4001, a 
time ; accordingly, out of the chief capitals and Andalucia, they are 
only got up now and then, on great church festivals and holy days of 
saints, royal and public rejoicings. As Andalucia is the head quarters 
of the ring, and Seville the capital, the alma mater of the tauromachists 
of the Peninsula, the necessity of sending to a distance for artists and 
animals increases the expense. The prices of admittance, compared to 
the wages of labour in Spain, are very high. 

Kor are all bulls fit for the plaza: only the noblest and bravest 
animals are selected. The first trial is the Eerradura, " Ferradura : k 
ferro," the branding with hot iron. The one-year-old calf bulls are 
charged by the conocedor, the herdsman, with his garrochay the real 
Thessalian goad, ofnn^. Those which flinch are thrown down and con- 
verted into oxen. The kings of Spain, from Philip IV. to Ferdinand VII,» 
attended by their delicate queens and maids of honour, invariably wit- 
nessed this operation at Aranjuez ! The bulls which pass this " little 
go^^ the Novillos, are in due time again tested by being baited with 
tipped horns, emholados ; but, since they are not killed, this pastime, as 
based on fiction and impotent in conclusion, is despised by the true torero 
and aficionado, who aspire only to be in at the death, at toros de mtierte^ 
The sight of the bull-calf is amusing, from the struggle between him 
and his majesty the mob ; nor is there any of the blo<S and wounds by . 
which delicate strangers are offended, as at the full-grown fight. Bull- 
baiting in any shape is irresistible to the lower classes of Spaniards, 
who disregard injuries done to their bodies, and, what is far worse, t<> 
their cloaks. The hostility to the bull, his second nature, grows with 
his growth. The very children play at toro, just as ours do at leap- 
frog, when one represents the bull, who is killed secundttm artem. Few 
grown-up Spaniards, when on a journey, can pass a bull (or hardly even 
a cow) without bullying and insulting him, by waving their cloaks in 
the defiance of d capeo. As bull-fights cost so much, the smaller towns- 
indulge ODly in mock-turtle, in the noviUos and emholados. In the 
mountain towns few bulls, or even oxen, are brought in for slaughter 
without first being baited through the streets. They are held by a long 
rope, toros de euerda, de gaUumho, Ferd. VII., at the instigation of the 
Conde de Estrella, and of Don Jos^ Manuel de Arjona, founded a tauro- 

Spain. XXI. the bull-fight. 9i 

machian university, a BvU-ford, at Seville, near the matadero, or- 
slaughter-bouse, which long had been known by the cant term of el 
coUgio. The inscription over the portal ran thus ; — Ferdinando VII, ,. 
FiOf Feliz, Bestaurador, para la ensenanza preservadora de la Escuda de 
Tauromachia: Ferd. VII., the pious, fortunate, and restored, for the- 
jpr€8ervative teaching of the Tauromachian School. In fact, bread and 
bulls, pan y toroSy the Spanish cry, is but the echo of the Roman Panem 
et Circenses, The pupils were taught by retired bull-fighters, the 
counterpart of the lanistce of antiquity. Candida and Bomero were the 
first professors : these tauromachian heroes had each in their day kill^ 
their hecatombs, and, like the brother-lords Eldon and Stowell, may be 
said to have fixed the practice and equity of their arenas on sound 
principles which never will be upset. 

The profits of the bull-fight are usually destined for the support of 
hospitals, and, certainly, the fever and the frays subsequent to the show, 
provide both patients and funds. The Plaza is usually under the 
superintendance of a society of noblemen and gentlemen — arenas per- 
petui oomites. These corporations are called Maestranzas, and were 
instituted in 1562, by Philip II., in the hope of improving the breed of 
Spanish horses and men at arms. The king is always the Eermano 
mayor, or elder brother. These tauromaquian brotherhoods were con- 
fined to four cities, viz. Honda, Seville, Granada, and Valencia, to which 
Zaragoza was added by Ferdinand VII., the only reward it ever obtained 
for its heroic defence agai nst the invaders. The members, or TMiestranteSy . 
of each city are distinguished by the colour of their uniforms : as they 
must all be of gentle blood. Hidalgos^ and are entitled to wear a gaudy 
costume, the person-decorating honour is much sought for. 

The day appointed for the bull-feast is announced by placards of all 
colours. We omit to notice their contents, as the traveller will sec 
them on every wall. 

The first thing is to secure a good place beforehand, by sending for 
a Bdetin de Somhra, a shade-ticket. The prices of the seats vary 
according to position, as the great object is to avoid the san ; the best 
places are on the northern side, in the shade. The transit of the sun 
over the Plaza, the zodiacal progress into Taurus, is certainly not the 
worst calculated astronomical observation in Spain : the line of shadow 
defined on the arena is marked by a gi*adation of prices. The sun of 
torrid, tawny Spain, on which it once never set, is still not to be trifled 
with, and the summer season is selected because pastures are plentiful, 
which keep the bulls in good condition, and the days are longer. The 
fights take place in the afternoon when the sun is less vertical. The 
different seats and prices are detailed in the bills of the play, with the 
names of the combatants and the colours and breeds of bulls. 

The day before the fight the bulls destined for the spectacle ar^ 
brought to a site outside the town. N.B. No amateur should fail to ride- 
out to see what the ganado, the hichos or cattle, is like. The encierrOf 
the driving them from this place to the arena, is a service of danger, but 
is extremely picturesque and national. No artist or aficionado should 
omit attending it. The bulls are enticed by tame oxen, cahestroSy into a 
road which is barricaded on each side, and then are driven full speed by 
the mounted conocedores into the Plaza, It is so exciting a spectacle* 


that the poor who cannot afford to go to the bull-fight risk their lives 
and cloaks in order to get the front places, and best chance of a stray 
poke enpoMarU, 

The next afternoon (St. Monday is usually the day) all the world 
crowds to the Plaza de toros ; nothing, when the tide is full, can exceed 
the gaiety and sparkle of a Spanish public goin^r, eager and dressed in 
their best, to the fight They could not move faster even if they were 
running away from a real one. All the streets or open spaces near the 
outside of the arena are a spectacle. The merry mob, always on the 
scene, like the chorus in a Greek plaj^, is everythingr. The excite- 
ment of these salamanders under a burning sun, and their thirst for 
the blood of bulls is fearful. It is the bird-lime with which the 
devil catches many a male and female soul, lliere is no sacrifice even 
of chastity, no denial which they will not undergo to save money for 
the bulI-Hght. It is to Madrid what a Review is to Paris, and the Derby 
to London. Sporting men now put on all their r»ayo-6nery : the 
distinguished ladies wear on these occasions white lace mantillas ; a 
fan, cAanico, is quite necessary, as it was among the Komans (Mart, 
xiv. 28). They are sold outside for a trifle, made of rude paper, and 
stuck into a handle of common reed. The aficionados and '* the gods " 
prefer the pit, the tendido, or hs andamios^ the lower range, in order, by 
being nearer, that they may not lose the nice traits of tauromaquia. 
The real thing is to sit across the opening of the toril^ which gives an 
occasion to show a good leg and an embroidered gaiter. The plaza has 
a langua :e to itself, a dialect peculiar to the ring. The coup d'oeil on 
entrance is unique ; the foreigner is carried back to the coliseum under 
Commodus. The classical scene bursts on him in all the glory of the 
South. The president sits in a centre box. The despejo^ or clearing out 
the populace from the arena, precedes his arrival. The proceedings open 
with the procession of the performers, the mounted spearmen, ^a€?ore«; 
then the chvlos^ the attendants on foot, who wear their silk cloaks, capos 
de duranciUo, in a peculiar manner, with the arms projecting in front ; 
then follow the slayers, the matadoreSf and the mule- team, el tiro, 
which is destined to carry off the slain. The profession of bull-fighter 
is very low-caste in Spain, although the champions are much courted 
by some young nobles, like our blackguard boxers, and are the pride and 
darlings of all the lower classes. Those killed on the spot are denied 
the. burial rites, as dying without confession. Springing from the 
dregs of the people, they are eminently superstitious ; they cover their 
breasts with relics, amulets, and papal charms. A clergyman is in 
attendance with su magestad, the consecrated host, the Incarnate Deity 
kept waiting in person, in case of being wanted ! for a dying combatant 
whose carcase was long denied Christian burial. 

When all the bull-fighting company, thus glittering in their gorgeous 
costume, have advanced and passed the president, a trumpet sounds ; 
the president throws the key of the torilj the cell of the bull, to the 
algiiacil or pdice man, which hs ought to catch in his feathered hat. 
This gentleman is unpopular ; the people dislike the finisher of the law, 
and mob him by instinct as little birds do a hawk ; as the alguacil 
generally rides like a judge or a Lord Mayor, many are the hopes and 
kind wishes that he may tumble off and be gored by a bull of Nemesis, 


The dififerent performers now take their places as our fielders do at a 
cricket-match. The bull-fight is a tragedy in three acts, lasts about 
twenty minutes, and each consists of precisely the same routine. From 
six to eight bulls are usually killed ; occasionally another — a toro de 
Oracia — is conceded to popular clamour, which here will take no denial. 
When the door of the toril is opened the public curiosity to see the 
first rush out is intense, and as none know how the bull will behave, 
well or ill, all are anxious to catch his character. The animal feels the 
novelty of his position, turned from his dark cell into glare and crowd. 
He is the foredoomed Satan of the Epic ; ignorant indeed of his fate, for die 
he must, however skilful or brave his fight. This death, the catastrophe 
foreshadowed again as in a Greek play, does not diminish the sustained 
interest of the spectators, as the varied chances in the progress of the 
acts offer infinite incidents and unexpected combinations. In the first 
of the three acts the picadores are the chief ])erformers ; three of them 
are now drawn up, one behind the other, to the right at the tablas^ the 
barrier between the arena and spectators ; each sits bolt upright on his 
Bosinante, with his lance in his rest, and as valiant as Don Quixote. 
They wear the broad-brimmed Thessalian hat ; their legs are cased 
with iron and leather, which gives a heavy look ; and the right one, 
which is presented to the bull, is the best protected. This grieve is termed 
the espiniUera — the fancy call it la mona — the more scientific name is 
gregortara, from the inventor, Don Oregorio Gallo — just as we say a 
spencer, from the noble Earl. The spear, garrocha, is defensive rather 
than offensive ; the blade, la pua, ous;ht not to exceed one inch ; the 
sheathing is, however, pushed back when the picador anticipates an 
awkward customer, and they know a bull's qualities better than any 
Lavater or Spurzheim. A butcherous bull is called camic&iOf who 
charges home, and again one charge more ; siempre Uegando y con recargo. 
None but a brave bull will face this garrocha, which they recollect 
of old. They dislike kicking against the pricks, and remember these rods 
of their youth. Those who shrink from the punishment, castigoy are 
scientifically termed hlandos, parados, temerosoSj recdosos, tardos apartir, 
huyendose de la suerte, tardos a las varas. When the bull charges, the 
picador, holding the lance under his right arm, pushes to the right, 
and turns his horse to the left ; the bull, if turned, passes on to the 
next picador. This is called redbir, to receive the point — recibid dos 
puyazos, tomd tres varas. If a bull is turned at the first charge, he 
seldom comes up well again — feme el castigo, A bold bull sometimes 
is cold and shy at first, but grows warmer by being punished — poco 
prometia a su salida, hravo^pero reparondUo, solid frio,pero credo en 
las varas ; ducit opes animumque ferro. Those who are very active — 
alegres, ligeros, con muclias piemas : those who paw the ground — que 
aranan,escarban la tierra — are not much esteemed ; they are hooted by the 
populace, and execrated as hlandos, ca&ra«, goats, becerritos, little calves, 
vac(zs, cows, which is no compliment to a bull ; and, however unskilled 
in bucolics, all Spaniards are capital judges of bulls in the ring. Such 
animals as show white feathers are loathed, as depriving the public of 
their just rights, and are treated with insult, and, moreover, soundly 
beaten as they pass near the taUas, by forests of sticks, la cachiporra. 
The stick of the elegant mc^'o, when going to the bull-fight, is sui 

•94 XXI. THE BULL-FIGHT. Sect. I, 

generis, and is called la chivata ; taper, and between 4 and 5 feet long, 
it terminates in a lump or knob, while the top is forked, into which the 
thumb is inserted. This chivata is peeled, like the rods of Laban, in 
alternate rings, black and white or red. The lower classes content 
themselves with a common shillelah ; one with a knob at the end is 
preferred, as administering a more impressive whack. Their stick is 
called porra, because heavy lumbering. While a slow bull is beaten 
and abused, nor even his mother's reputation spared, a murderous bull, 
duro chocante camicero y pegajoso, who kills horses, upsets men, and 
•clears the plaza, becomes deservedly a universal favourite ; the conquer- 
ing hero is hailed with " Viva toro ! viva toro I hravo toro / " Long life 
is wished to the poor beast by those who know he must be killed in ten 
minutes. The nomenclature of praise or blame is defined with the 
nicety of phrenology : the most delicate shades of character are dis- 
tinguished ; life, it is said, is too short to learn fox-hunting, let alone 
bull-fighting and its lingo. Sufiice it to remark that claro, bravo, and 
hoyante are highly complimentary. Seco, carnndo, pegajoso imply ugly 
customers : there are, however, always certain newspapers which give 
Jancy reports of each feat. The language embodies the richest portions 
of Andalucian salty and is expressed without any parliamentary peri- 
phrasis ; during these saturnalia the liberty of speech is perfect ; even 
the absolute king bows now to the people's voice ; the vox populi is 
the vox Dei in this levelling rendezvous of bloodshed. The nice dis- 
tinction of praise or blame, of merit or demerit, in bulls and artists, 
are expressed in scientific terms, which all the toresque " fancy " have 
^t their tongues' tips, and students will find in the lucid glossaries of 
the great works of Pepe lUo and Montes. 

The horses destined for the plaza are those which in England would 
be sent to the more merciful knacker ; their being of no value renders 
Spaniards, who have an eye chiefly to what a thing is worth, indifferent 
to their sufferings. If you remark how cruel it is to " let that poor 
horse struggle in death's agonies," they will say, " Ah qtie ! no vale nd," 
Oh ! he is worth nothing. When his tail quivers in the last death- 
struggle, the spasm is remarked as a jest, mira que cola ! or when the 
blood-boltered bull is mantled with crimson, your attention is called to 
the bel cuerpo de sangre. The torture of the horse is the hlot of the 
bull-fight : no Englishman or lover of the noble beast can witness his 
sufferings without disgust; these animals being worth nothing in a 
money point of view increase^ the danger of the rider ; it renders them 
slow, difficult to manage, and very unlike those of the ancient combats, 
when the finest steeds were chosen, quick as lightning, turning at 
touch, and escaping the deadly rush : the eyes of these poor animals, 
who will not face the bull, are often bound with a handkerchief like 
criminals about to be executed ; thus they await blindfold the fatal 
gore which is to end their life of misery. If only wounded the gash is 
sewed up and stopped with tow, as a leak 1 and life is prolonged a 
minute for new agonies. When the poor brute is dead at last, his 
carcase is stripped as in a battle, and looks poor and rippish indeed. 

The picadores are subject to hair-breadth escapes and severe falls : 

few have a sound rib left. The bull often tosses horse and rider in 

■^6 ruin ; and when the victims fall on the ground, exhausts his rage 

Spain, XXI. the bull-fight. 95 

on Ms prostrate enemies, till lured away by the glittering cloaks of the 
•chtdos, who come to 'the assistance of the fallen picador. These horse- 
men show marvellous skill in managing to place their horses as a ram- 
part between them and the bull. When these deadly struggles take 
place, when life hangs on a thi*ead, the amphitheatre is peopled with 
heads. Every expression of anxiety, eagerness, fear, horror, and delight 
is stamped on speaking countenances. These feelings are wrought up 
to a pitch when the horse, maddened with wounds and terror, plunging 
in the death-struggle, the crimnon streams of blood streaking his foam 
and sweat whitened body, flies from the infuriated bull, still pursuing, 
still goring; then is displayed the nerve, presence of mind, and horse- 
manship of the undismayed picador. It is, in truth, a piteous, nay, 
disgusting sight to see the poor dying horses treading out their entrails, 
yet saving their riders unhurt. The miserable steed, when dead, is 
dragged out, leaving a bloody furrow on the sand, as the river-beds of 
the arid plains of Barbary are marked by the crimson fringe of the 
flowering oleanders. A universal sympathy is shown for the horseman 
in these awful moments ; the men shout, and the women scream, but this 
soon subsides. The picador, if wounded, is carried out and forgotten 
— los muertos y idos, no tienen amigos, the dead and absent have no 
friends, — a new combatant fills the gap, the battle rages, he is not 
missed, fresh incidents arise, and no time is left for regret or reflection. 
We remember at Granada seeing a matador gored by a bull ; he was 
carried away for dead, and his place immediately taken by his son, as 
coolly as a viscount succeeds to an earl's estate and title. The bull 
bears on his neck a ribbon, la devisa ; this is the trophy which is most 
acceptable to the querida of a huen torero. The bull is the hero of the 
scene, yet, like Milton's Satan, he is foredoomed and without reprieve. 
Nothing can save him from a certain fate, which awaits all, whether 
brave or cowardly. The poor creatures sometimes endeavour in vain 
to escape, and they have favourite retreats in the pHa^, su qtierencia ; or 
they leap over the barrier, barrera, into the tendido, among the spec- 
tators, upsetting sentinels, water-sellers, &c., and creating a most 
amusing hubbub. The bull which shows this craven turn — unturuinte 
coharde picaro—is not deemed worthy of a noble death by the sword. 
The cry of dogs, perros, perros, is raised. He is baited, pulled down, 
and stabbed in the spine. A bull that flinches from death is scouted 
by all Spaniards, who neither beg for their own life nor spare that of a 
foe. The tension of their excitement is only to be discharged by 
blood : and, if disappointed in that of beasts, they will lap that of men : 
from insulting bad bulls, they pass to the empresa, the management. 
The cries cahestros el circo and a la carreta are anything but compli- 

At the signal of the president, and sound of a trumpet, the second 
act commences with the chtdos. This chtdo signifies, in the Anibic, a 
lad, a merryman, as at our Astley's. They are picked young men, who 
commence in these parts their tauromaquian career. The duty of 
this light division is to draw off the bull from the picador when endan- 
gered, which they do with their coloured cloaks ; their address and 
agility are surprising, they skim over the sand like glittering humming- 
birds, scarcely touoiing the earth. They are dressed, a lo majoy m 


short breeches, and without gaiters, just as Figaro is in the opera of 
the * Barhiere de SeviUaJ Their hair is tied into a knot behind, monOf 
and enclosed in the once universal silk net, the retecilla — the identical 
reticvlum—oi which so many instances are seen on ancient Etruscan 
vases. No bull-fighter ever arrives at the top of his profession without 
first excelling as an apprentice, chvlo ; then he begins to be taught how to 
entice the bull to them, Uamar al toro, and to learn his mode of attack, 
and how to parry it. The most dangerous moment is when these chulos 
venture out into the middle of the pla^a, and are followed by the bull 
to the barrier, in which there is a small ledge, on which they place their 
foot and vault over, and a narrow slit in the boarding, through which 
they slip. Their escapes are marvellous ; they seem really sometimes, 
so close is the run, to be helped over the fence by the bull's horns. Oc- 
casionally some curious suertes are exhibited by chulos and expert 
toreros, which do not strictly belong to the regular drama, such as the 
suerie de la capa, where the bull is braved with no other defence but a 
cloak : another, the scdto tras cuemo, when the performer, as the bull 
lowers his head to toss him, places his foot between his Tioms and is 
lifted over him. (N.B. — The correct term in toresque euphuism is 
astas, spears ; cuemos, horns, is seldom mentioned to ears polite, as its 
secondary meaning might give offence ; the vulgar, however, call things 
by their improper names ) The chulos, in the second act, are the sole 
performers ; another exclusive part is to place small barbed darts, ban- 
deriUcts, which are ornamented with cut paper of different colours, on 
each side of the neck of the bull. The banderiUeros go right up to him, 
holding the arrows at the shaft's end, and pointing the barbs at the bull ; 
just when the animal stoops to toss them, they dart them into his neck 
and slip aside. The service appears to be more dangerous than it is^ 
but it requires a quick eye, a light hand and foot. The barbs should be 
placed exactly on each side — a pretty pair, a good match — huenos pares. 
Sometimes these arrows are provided with crackers, which, by means 
of a detonating powder, explode the moment they are afBxed in the 
neck, banderiUas de fuego. The agony of the tortured animal fre- 
quently makes him bound like a kid, to the frantic delight of the 
people ; while the fire, the smell of singed hair, and roasted flesh 
mingled with blood (a bifstek a VEspafkiC), faintly recalls to many a 
dark scowlinc; priest the superior attractions of his former amphitheatre, 
the auto defe. But ceremonious murder delights all classes. 

The last trumpet now sounds ; the arena is cleared for the third act ; 
the rtuitador, the executioner, the man of death, stands before his victim 
dUmCy and thus concentrates in himself an interest previously frittered 
among the number of combatants. On entering, he addresses the pre- 
sident, and throws his montera, his cap, to the ground, and swears he 
vTill do his duty. In his right hand he holds a long straight Toledan 
blade, la espada ; in his left he waves the muleta, the red flag, the 
engano, the lure, which ought not (so Romero laid down in our hearing) 
to be so large as the standard of a religious brotherhood, or co/radia^ 
nor so small as a lady's pocket-handkerchief, panuelito de senorita ; it 
should be about a yard square. The colour is red, because that best 
irritates the bull and conceals blood. There is always a spare matadoTy 
in case of accidents, which may happen in the best regulated bulU 

Spain. XXI. the bull-fight. 97 

fights ; lie is called media espada, or sdbresaliente. The matador (el 
diestro, the cunning in fence in olden books), advances to the bull, m 
order to entice him towards him — citarlo a la suerte, a la Jurisdiccion 
del engano — to subpoena him, to get his head into chancery, as our ring 
would say ; he next rapidly studies his character, plays with him a 
little, allows him to run once or twice on the muleta, and then prepares 
for the coup de grace. There are* several sorts of bulls — levantados, the 
bold and rushing ; parados, the slow and sly ; aplomados, the heavy 
and leaden. The bold are the easiest to kill; they rush, shutting 
their eyes, right on to the lure or flag. The worst of all are the sly 
bulls ; when they are m^rrajos, y de sentidot cunning and not running 
straight, when they are revueltos, cuando ganan terreno y rematen en el 
ImltOj when they stop in their charge, and run at the man instead of 
the flag, they are most dangerous. The matador who is long killing 
his bull, or shows a white feather, is insulted by the jeers of the im- 
patient populace ; he nevertheless remains cold and collected, in propor- 
tion as the spectators and bull are mad, and could the toro reason, the 
man would have no chance. There are many suertes or ways of killing 
the bull ; the principal is la suerte de /rente, 6 Vi veronica — the matador 
receives the charge on his sword, lo mato de tm recihido. The volapie, 
or half-volley, is beautiful, but dangerous ; the matador takes him by 
advancing, corriendose lo. A firm hand, eye, and nerve, form the essence 
of the art ; the sword enters just between the left shoulder and the 
blade. In nothing is the real fancy so fastidious as in the exact nicety 
of the placing this death-wound ; when the thrust is true — buen estoque 
—death is instantaneous, and the bull, vomiting forth blood, drops at 
the feet of his conqueror, who, drawing the sword, waves it in triumph 
over the fallen foe. It is indeed the triumph of knowledge over brute 
force ; all that was fire, fury, passion, and life, falls in an instant, still 
for ever. The team of mules now enter, glittering with flags, and tink- 
ling with bells, whose gay decorations contrast with the stem cnielty 
and blood ; the dead bull is carried oflF at a rapid gallop, which always 
delights the populace. The matador wipes the ,hot blood from his 
sword, and bows with admirable sangfroid to the spectators, who throw 
their hats into the arena, a compliment which he returns by throwing 
them back again : when Spain was rich, a golden, or at least a silver, 
shower was cast to the favourite matador — those ages are past. These 
hats— the type of Grandeza — are the offerings, now that cash is scarce, 

i of generous poverty not will, and as parts and parcels of themselves — 

^11 shocking bad some, it must be admitted. 

When a bull will not nin at all at the picador, or at the mvleta, he 
is called a toro abanto, and the media luna, the half-moon, is called for ; 
this is the cruel ancient Oriental mode of houghing the cattle (Joshua 
xi. 6). The instrument is the Iberian bident — a sharp steel crescent 
placed on a long pole. The cowardly blow is given from behind ; and, 
when the poor beast is crippled, an assistant, the cachetero, pierces the 
spinal marrow with his cachete — puntiUa, or pointed dagger — ^with a 
traitorous stab from behind. This is the usual method of slaughtering 
cattle in Spain. To perform all these vile operations, el desjarretar, is 
considered beneath the dignity of the matador ; some, however, will 
kill the bull by plunging the point of their sword in the vertebrre, e7 
Spain. — ^I. f 


descaheUar — ^the danger gives dignity to the difficult feat. The iden- 
tical process obtains in each of the fights that follow. After a short 
collapse, a fresh object raises a new desire, and the fierce sport is 
renewed : nor is it assuaged with less than eight repetitions ; and when 
darkness covers the heavens, the mob— /cex rumdum satiata — retires to 
sacrifice the rest of the night to Bacchus and Venus, with a passing 
homage to the knife. 

The Spaniards, sons of " truces Iberi," are very tender on the subject 
of the cruelty or barbarity of this spectacle, which foreigners, who 
abuse it the most, are always the most eager to attend. Much may be 
said on both sides of the question. Mankind has never been over- 
considerate in regarding the feelings or sufferings of animals, when 
influenced by the spirit of sporting. This sentiment rules in the arena. 
In England no sympathy is shown for game — fish, flesh, or fowl. They 
are preserved to be destroyed, to afford sport, the end of which is death. 
The amusement is the playing the salmon, the fine run, as the pro- 
longation of animal torture is termed in the tender vocabulary of the 
chace. At all events, in Spain horses and bulls are killed outright, 
and not left to die the lingering death of the poor wounded hare in 
countless hattites. Mr. Windham protested " against looking too 
microscopically into bull- baits or ladies' faces ;" and we must pause 
before we condemn the bull in Spain, and wink at the fox at Melton 
or the pheasant in Norfolk. As far as the loss of human life is con- 
cerned, more aldermen are killed indirectly by turtles, than Spaniards 
are directly by bulls. The bull-fighters deserve no pity ; they are the 
heroes of low life, and are well paid — volenti non fit injuria. We 
foreigners come coldly and at once into the scene, without the prepara- 
tory freemasonry of previous acquaintance, and are horrified by wounds 
and death to which the Spaniards have become as familiar as hospital- 

It is difficult to change long-established usages, customs of our early 
days, which come down to us connected with interesting associations 
and fond remembrances. We are slow to suspect any evil or harm in 
such practices, dislike to look the evidence of facts in the face, and 
shrink from a conclusion which would require the abandonment of a 
recreation long regarded as innocent, and in which we, as well as our 
parents before us, have not scrupled to indulge. Children, L*age sans 
pitie, do not speculate on cruelty, whether in bull-baiting or birds'- 
nesting. The little dons and dttenas connect with this sight their first 
notions of reward for good conduct, finery, and holidays, where amuse- 
ments are few ; they return to their homes unchanged, playful, timid, 
or serious, as before ; their kindly social feelings are unimpaired. And 
where is the filial, parental, and fraternal tie more affectionately che- 
rished than in Spain? The Plaza is patronised by the Queen our 
Lady, Q. D. G., whom God preserve ! is sanctified and attended by 
the cler^, and conducted with state show and ceremony, and never is 
disgraced by the blackguardism of our disreputable boxing-matches. 
The one is honoured by authority, the other is discountenanced. How 
many things are purely conventional ! No words can describe the 
horror felt by Asiatics at our preserving the blood of slaughtered 
-•nimals (Deut. xii. 16 ; Wilkinson, ii. 375). The sight of our bleeding 


shambles appears ten times more disgusting to them than the battle- 
woimds (the order of the day) of the bull-fight. Nor would it be very 
essy to conceive a less amiable type of heart and manner than is pre-* 
flented by a mounted English buteher-cad. Foreigners who argue that 
the effects produced on Spaniards are exactly those which are produced 
on themselves, are neither logical nor true reasoners ; and those who 
contend that the Spaniards massacre women and defenceless prisoners 
because they are bull-fighters — post hoc et propter hoc — forget that the 
unvaried testimony of all ages has branded the national character with 
cold-blooded cruelty. They have never valued their own, nor the lives 
of others. 

Fair pUxy, which at least redeems our ring, is never seen in or out of 
the bull fight (yet as yet there is no betting in their " ring," no bull 
backed to kill so many horses, or a man at long odds). The Tlazou 
but holds up a mirror to nationality. In it, as out of it, all true 
Spaniards scout the very idea of throwing away a chance, — " ddus an 
virtus quis in hoste requirat ?" How much of the Punica fides and 
Carthaginian indoles is retained, witness the back-stabbings and trea- 
cheries, by which, from the assassins of Sertorius down to the Morenos, 
Marotos, and Nogueras of to-day, Europe has been horrified ; these 
unchanged, unchangeable features in Oriental and Iberian character 
imply little disgrace, and create less compunction. "Happy shall 
he be that taketh and dasheth thy little ones against the stones.*' They 
rarely observe amnesties, seldom pardon or forgive opponents when in 
their power. These characteristic tendencies, which slumber in quiet 
times, but are not extinct ; which, however condemned by Spaniards in- 
dividually, hardly ever fail to guide them when assembled, whether in 
cortes or junta; have long preceded the bull-fight, which is rather an effect 
than a cause. The Spanish have always been guertUeroSy bush-fighters, 
and to such, a cruel mimic game of death and cunning must be extremely 
congenial. From long habit they either see not, or are not offended by 
those painful and bloody details, which most distress the unaccustomed 
stranger, while, on the other hand, they perceive a thousand novelties in 
incidents which, to untutored eyes, appear the same thing over and over 
again. They contend that the more the toresque intellect is cultivated 
the greater the capacity for tauromachian enjoyment. A.thousand minute 
beauties, delicate shades, are appreciated in the character and conduct of 
the combatants, biped and quadruped. The first coup-^^ceil of the 
gay costume and fiashing eyes of the assembled thousands is mag- 
nificent ; this novel out-of-door spectacle, d Vantique, under no 
canopy save the blue heavens, fascinates, and we turn away our eyes 
during moments of painful details — which are lost in the poetical 
ferocity of the whole. These feelings are so infectious, that many a 
stranger merges into the native. The interest of the awful tragedy is 
undeniable, irresistible, and all-absorbing. The display of manly 
courage, nerve, and agility, and all on the very verge of death, is most 
exciting. There are features in a bold bull and accomplished comba- 
tants, which carry all before them ; but for one good bull, how many are 
the bad! Those whose fate it has been to see 99 bulls killed in one 
week (Madrid, June, 1833), and as many more at different places and 
times, will have experienced in succession the feelings of admiiation 

P 2 


pity, and hore, Spanish women, against whom every puny scribbler 
darts his petty handeriUa, are relieved from the latter Infliction by the 
never-flagging, ever-sustained interest, in being admired. They have no 
abstract, no Pasiphaic predilections, no crudelia amor tauri ; they were 
taken to the bull-fight before they knew their alphabet, or what love 
was. Nor have we heard that it has ever rendered them particularly 
cruel, save and except some of the elderly and tougher lower-classed 
females. The younger and the more tender scream and are dreadfully 
affected in all real moments of danger, in spite of their long familiarity. 
Their grand object, after all, is not to see the bull, but to be seen them- 
selves, and their dress. The better classes generally interpose their fans 
at the most painful incidents, and certainly show no want of sensibility. 
They shrink from or do not see the cruel incidents, but adore the manly 
courage and address* that is exhibited. The lower classes of females, 
as a body, behave quite as respectably as those of other countries do at 
executions, or other dreadful scenes, where they crowd with their babies. 
The case with English ladies is far different. They have heard the bull- 
fight not praised, bat condemned, from their childhood : they see it for 
the first time when grown up, when curiosity is their leading feeling, and 
an indistinct idea of a pleasure, not unmixed with pain, of the precise 
nature of which they are ignorant, from not liking to talk on the subject. 
The first sight delights them : as the bloody tragedy proceeds, they get 
frightened, disgusted, and disappointed. Few are able to sit out more 
than one course, corrida, and fewer ever re-enter the amphitheatre. 
Probably a Spanish woman, if she could be placed in precisely the same 
condition, would not act very differently, and the fair test would be to 
bring her, for the first time, to an English brutal boxing-match. 

Thus much for practical tauromachia ; those who wish to go deeper into 
its philosophy — ^and more books have been written in Spain on toresque 
than on most surgical operations — are referred to " Xa Carta historica sobre 
d Origen y Progresos de las Fiestas de ToroSy'* Nicholas Fernandez de Mo- 
ratin, Madrid, 1777 ; ** Taurmnaquia, o Arte de Tartar ; porun Aficiona^ 
do,''^ Madrid, 1804. This was written by an amateur named Gomez ; 
Jose Delgado {Pepe lUo) furnished the materials. It contains thirty 
engravings, which represent all the implements, costumes and different 
operations ; " La Tauromaquia, o Arte de Torear^*^ Madrid, 1827 ; 
" Elogio de las Corridas de Toros^^ Manuel Martinez Rueda, Madrid, 
1831 ; " Pom y Toros^^ Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, Madrid, 1820 ; 
and the " Tauromaquixi completa,^* Madrid, 1836, by Francisco Montes, 
the Pepe lUo of his day, long the joy, glory, and boast of Spain. The 
antiquity of the bull-fight has b^sn worked out in our paper in the 
* Quarterly Review,' No. cxxiv. 4. See also the graphic illustrations of 
Mr. Price, London, Hogarth, 1852. 

To conclude it may be remarked, that latterly, since the recent lUtiS' 
tracion, the march of intellect, civilization, and constitutions, nothing has 
progressed more than the bull-fight. Churches and convents have been 
demolished, but, by way of compensation, amphitheatres have been 
erected ; hut now-a-days the battlement comes down and the dung-heap 
rises up— i^a/an los adarves y dlzanse las muladares. 

Spain. xxu. Spanish theatre. 101 

XXII. Spanish Theatre. 

The theatre, dances, and songs of Spain form an important item in the 
means of a stranger passing his evenings. The modern drama of Europe 
may be said to have been formed on this model, whence was borrowed 
the character and conduct of The Play, as well as the arrangements of the 
Theatre ; and Spain is still tJie land of the Fandango, the JBolerOj and 
the guitar. 

The Spanish drama rose under the patronage of the pleasure-loving 
Philip IV. ; but its glory was short-lived, and now it hardly can b3 
called flourishing, as few towns, except the largest, maintain a theatre. 
In Spain actors, long vagabonds by Act of Parliament, were not allowed 
to prefix the cherished title of Don before their names — a remnant of the 
opposition of the clergy to a profession which interfered with their 
monopoly of providing the public with religious melodramas and 
** mysteries ;" the actor was not only excluded from decent society 
when alive, but refused Christian burial when dead, accordingly, in a 
land where the spirit of caste and self-love is so strong, few choose 
to degrade themselves alive or dead. 

The drama, too, of Spain has declined with the country itself, and is 
almost effaced from the repertoire of Europe. The plays of Lope de 
Vega and Calderon have given way to pieces translated from the French ; 
thus Spain, as in many other things, is now reduced to borrow from the 
very nation whose Comeilles she first instructed, those very amusements 
which she once taught ! The old theatre was the mirror of the manners 
of the time, when the bearded Hidalgos strutted on the stage repre- 
senting the bravoes and bugbears of Europe. Spain was not then ashamed 
to look herself in the face ; now her flag is tattered, she shrinks from the 
present, and either appears in foreign garb or adopts the Cids and Alvas 
of a more glorious past. Meanwhile the sainete or Farce is admirably 
performed by the Spaniards, for few people have a deeper or more quiet 
relish for humour, from the sedate Castilian to the gay Andalucian. In 
playing these farces, the performers seem to cease to be actors, and 
simply to go through a part and parcel of their daily life ; they fail in 
tragedy, which is spouted in a sort of unnatural rant, something between 
German mouthing and French gesticulation. The Spanish theatres, 
those of Madrid scarcely excepted, are badly lighted and meagerly sup- 
plied with scenery and properties. 

The first Spanish playhouses were merely open courtyards, corrales, 
after the classical fashion of Thespis. They were then covered with an 
awning, and the court was divided into different parts ; the yard, the 
patio, became the pit. The rich sat at the windows of the houses round 
the court, whence these boxes were called ventanus ; and as almost all 
Spanish windows are defended by iron gratings, rejas, the French took 
their term loge griU^e for a private box. In the centre was a lower 
gallery, la tertulia, the quarter chosen by the erudite, among whom it 
was the fashion to quote Terttdian — los Tertuliarws, The women, excluded 
from the pit, have, as at our rails, an exclusive " ladies' carriage," la ter- 
ttdia de las mugeres, reserved for themselves, into which no males are al- 
lowed to enter. This feminine preserve used to be termed La Cazuda— 

1G2 xxn» SPANISH Musia Sect. I* 

the pipkin or (Ma^ from the hodgepotch or mixture, and also " lajaiUa 
de las mugeres,** the women*s cage. There they congregated, as in church, 
dressed in black, and with mantillas. This dark assemblage of tresses 
might seem like the gallery of a nunnery ; let there be but a moment's 
pause in the business of the play, then arose such a cooing and cawing 
in this rookery of turtle-doves, such an ogling, such a flutter of man- 
tillas, such a rustling of silks, such telegraphic workings of fans, such 
an electrical communication with the pittites below, who looked up with 
wistful, foxite glances, on the dark clustering vineyard so tantalizingly 
placed above their reach, as to dispel all ideas of monastic seclusion, 
sorrow, or mortification. The separation of combustible materials in an 
inflammable climate dates from Augustus (Suet., 44). In the fourth 
century, at Constantinople, the women sat apart in an upper gallery of 
the churches, to the injury and interruption of male devotion. 

Good music is seldom heard in Spain, notwithstanding the eternal 
strumming and singing. Even the masses, as performed in their cathe- 
drals, from the introduction of the pianoforte and the violin, are devoid 
of impressive or devotional character ; there is sometimes a poorish Italian 
opera in Madrid and elsewhere, which is patronised by the upper classes 
because a thing of London and Paris; it bores the true Spaniards to 
extinction ; they are saltatory and musical enough in their own Oriental 
way, and have danced to their rude songs from time immemorial, but are 
neither harmonious, nor have any idea of the grace and elegance of the 
French ballet; bad imitators of their neighbours, the moment they 
attempt it they become ridiculous, whether in cuisine, language, or 
costume ; indeed a Spaniard ceases to be a Spaniard in proportion as he 
becomes an Afrancesado ; when left to their original devices, they take, 
in their jumpings and chirpings, after the grasshopper, and have a 
natural genius for the guitar and bolero ; indeed one charm of the Spanish 
theatres is their own national i?aiZe— matchless, unequalled, and inimit- 
able, and only to be really performed by Andalucians. This is la scUsa de 
la comediay the essence, the cream, the sauce piquante of the nights' enter- 
tainments ; it is attempted to be described in every book of travels — for 
who can describe sound or motion ? — it must be seen. Yet even this is 
somewhat scornfully treated by the very upper classes as the uncivilized 
feat of picturesque barbarians, and it is, indeed, the expression of Spain, 
and owes nothing to civilization ; the whole body and soul of the south is 
represented by movements, as poetry is by words, whereas in France 
people dance only with their leojs. However languid the house, laughable 
the tragedy, or serious the comedy, the sound of the Castanet awakens 
the most listless ; the sharp, spirit-stirring click is heard behind the 
scenes ^the effect is instantaneous — it creates life under the ribs of death 
— it silences the tongues of women — on n'^coute que le ballet. The 
curtain draws up ; the bounding pair dart forward from the opposite 
scenes, like two separated lovers, who, after long search, have found each 
other again, and who, heedless of the public, are thinking only of each 
other. The glitter of the gossamer costume of the Majo and Maja, in- 
vented as for this dance — ^the sparkle of gold lace and silver filigree — ^adds 
to the lightness of their motions ; the transparent, form-designing saya 
of the women heightens the charms of a faultless symmetry which it fain 
"^ould conceal ; no cruel stays fetter serpentine flexibility. Their very 

Spain. xxu. Spanish danc£s. 103 

bones seem elastic ; their frame and physique is the voluptuous exponent of 
beings with real bodies who dance, and very unlike the wiry over-trained 
professional dancer. They pause — ^bend forward an instant — prove their 
supple limbs and arms : the band strikes up, they turn fondly towards 
each other, aud start into life. What exercise displays the ever-varying 
charms of female grace, and the contours of manly form, like this fasci- 
nating dance ? The accompaniment of the Castanet gives employment 
to their arms, upraised as if to catch showers of roses. C^est k pantO" 
mime dfamcyur. The enamoured youth — the coy, coquettish maiden ; 
who shall describe the advance — her timid retreat, his eager pursuit, like 
Apollo chasing Daphne ? Now they gaze on each other, now on the 
ground ; now all is life, love, and action ; now there is a pause— they 
stop motionless at a moment, and grow into the earth. There is a truth 
which overpowers the fastidious judgment. Away, then, with the 
studied grace of the foreign danseuse, beautiful but artificial, cold and 
selfish as is the flicker of her love, compared to the real impassioned 
abandon of the daughters of the South ! There is nothing indecent in 
this dance ; no one is tired or the worse for it. " Un ballet ne saurait 
6tre trop long, pourvu que la morale soit bonne, et la m^taphysique bien 
entendue," says Molifere. The jealous Toledan clergy wished to put this 
dance down, on the pretence of immorality. The dancers were allowed in 
evidence to " give a view " to the court : when they began, the bench 
and bar showed symptoms of restlessness, and at last, casting aside 
gowns and briefs, joined, as if tarantula-bitten, in the irresistible caper- 
ing. — Verdict for the defendants, with costs ; Solvuntur risu tabulae. 

The Bolero is not of the remote antiquity which many, confounding 
it with the well-known and improper dances of the Gaditanas, have 
imagined. The dances of Spain have undergone many changes in style 
and name since the times of the Philips (see Pellicer, Don Quixote, i. 
156). The fandango is considered to be an Indian word. The now 
disused zarahcmda was probably the remnant of the ancient dances of 
Gades, which delighted the Romans, and scandalized the fathers of the 
church, who compared them, and perhaps justly, to the capering per- 
formed by the daughter of Herodias. They were prohibited by Theo- 
dosius, because, according to St. Chrysostom, at such balls the devil 
never wanted a partner. The well-known statue at Naples of the 
Venere Callipige is the undoubted representation of a Cadiz dancing- 
girl, probably of Telethusa herself (see Martial, E. vi. 7, and Ep. ad 
Priap. 18 ; Pet. Arbiter, Var"*- Ed. 1669). In the Museo Borbonico 
(Stanza iii. 503) is an Etruscan vase repi*esenting a supper-scene, in 
which a female dances in this precise attitude. She also appears in the 
paintings in the tomb at Cumse, where the persons applaud exactly as 
they do now, especially at the pause, the Men paradoy which is the 
signal of clapping and cries — mas pitede! was puede! dejala, que se 
canse. Orza, orza I zas punaladaf mxis ajo al pique ! 

These most ancient dances, in spite of all prohibitions, have come 
down unchanged from the remotest antiquity ; their character is com- 
pletely Oriental, and analogous to the ghawassee of the Egyptians and 
the Hindoo nautch. They existed among the ancient Egyptians as they 
do still among the modems (compare Wilkinson, ii. 243, with Lane, ii. 
98). They are entirely different from the hdero or fandango^ and are 


never performed except by gipsies ; and, as the company is not select, 
and more heads than hearts broken, are likened to "gipsy's fare," 
" merienda de OitanosJ** Every young antiquarian should witness this 
exhibition which delighted Martial, Petronius, Horace, and a funcion 
can always be got up at Seville. This singular dance is the romalis in 
gipsy language, and the ole in Spanish ; the xtipovoiJtia, hrazeo, or 
balancing action of the hands, — the Xaicri(r/ia, the zapateddo, los taconeoSf 
the beating with the feet, — the crissatura, meneo, the tambourines and 
castanets, Bcetica crusmata, crotola, — the language and excitement of 
the spectators, — tally in the minutest points with the prurient descrip- 
tions of the ancients, which have been elucidated so learnedly by 
Scaliger, Burman, the Canon Salazar (Grandezas de Cadiz, iv. 3), and 
the Dean Marti (Peyron, i. 246). These Gaditanian dances, which the 
aesthetic Huber (Skitzen, i. 293) pronounces " die Poesie der WoUust," 
are perhaps more marked by energy than by grace, and the legs have 
less to do than the body, arms, and hips. The sight of this unchanged 
pastime of antiquity, which excites the lower classes of Spaniards to 
frenzy, will rather disgust an English spectator, possibly from some 
national mal-organization, for, as Moliere says, " PAngleterre a produit 
des grands hommes dans les sciences et les beaux arts, mais pas un 
grand danseur ! AUez lire I'histoire." However indecent these gipsy 
dances may be, yet the performers are inviolably chaste ; young girls 
go through them before the applauding eyes of their parents and 
brothers, who would resent to the death any attempt on their sister's 
virtue, and were she in any weak moment to give way to a husnCy or 
one not a gipsy, and forfeit her "kLcha, ya trupoSy her unblemished 
corporeal chastity, the all and everything of their moral code, her o\vn 
kindred would be the first to kill her without pity. 

The dances of other Spaniards in private life are much the same as 
in other parts of Europe, and, having nothing national, cease to have a 
particle of interest, nor is either sex particularly distinguished by grace 
in this exercise, to which, however, they are much attached. • Escozesas 
and Bigodones form a common conclusion to the tertvliay where no great 
attention is paid either to music or custume. The lower, uncivilized 
classes adhere, as in the East (Wilk., ii. 239 ; Lane, ii. 64-74), to their 
primitive dances and primitive Oriental accompaniments — the " tabret 
and the harp ;" the guitar and tambourine — toph, tabor, tympanum^ 
' with the Castanet : tympoma vos Imxtisqvs vocat. No people play on these 
castanets, castanvMas paliUos, so well as the Andalucians ; they begin 
as children by snapping their fingers, or clicking together two bits of slate 
or shell ; these castanets are the Baetican crusmata and crotcla, and crotalo 
is still a Spanish term for the tambourine, and their use still, as in the 
days of Petronius Arbiter, forms the delicice populi. Cervantes describes 
the " bounding of the soul, the bursting of laughter, the restlessness of 
the body, and the quicksilver of the five senses," when this clicking 
and capering is set going. It is the rude sport of people who dance 
from the necessity of motion ; and of the young, the healthy, and the 
joyous, to whom life is of itself a blessing, and who, like bounding kids, 
thus give vent to their superabundant lightness of heart and limb. 
_ Sancho, a true Manchegan, after the saltatory exhibitions of his master, 
ofesses his ignorance of such elaborate dancing, but for a zapateo, a 

Spain. xxn. the seguidilla and guitar. 105 

knocking of shoes, he was as good as a gerilfante. Unchanged as are 
the instruments, so are their dancing propensities. All night long, says 
Strabo (iii. 249), and Sil. Italicus (iii. 349), did they dance and sing, 
or rather jump and yell out, " vlulantes" the unchanged " howlings 
of Tarshish." 

The Iberian warriors danced armed ; like the Spartans, even their re- 
laxations preserved the military principle, and they beat time with their 
swords on their shields. When one of their champions wished to show 
his contempt for the Eomans, he retired before them dancing a derisive 
atep ( App. jBcZ?. Hisp. 410). T\n&pynrica saltatio is of all ages and climes ; 
thus-the aXbanatico of the Grecian Archipelago is little changed from what 
it was in Homer's time ; the Goths had it, and the Moors likewise ; our 
tnorm-dance is but the Moorish one, which John of Gaunt brought into 
England, the peasants in Spain occasionally dance it still in all the per- 
fection of ancient step and costume. The most picturesque exhibition 
of these wild dances which we ever saw was at Quintana Duenas. This 
armed dance, mimic war, was invented (se dice) by Minerva, who capered 
for joy after the overthrow of the rebel angels, giants. Titans — the victory 
of knowledge over brute force. Masdeu in the last century describes these 
unchanged dances as he saw them at Tarragona (^Hist. Crit. ii. 7), when 
some of the performers got on each other's shoulders to represent the 
Titans, and the Dance retained its Pagan name — el Titcms, BayUs de 
los Titanes, 

The seguidiUa, the guitar, and dance, at this moment form the joy of 
careless poverty, the repose of sunburnt labour. The poor forget for 
them their toils, sans six scms et sans scmci, nay, sacrifice even tbeir meals, 
like Pliny's friend Claro, who lost his supper, Boetican dives and gaspa- 
cho, to run after a Gaditanian dancing-girl (Plin. Ep. i. 15), and, as of old, 
this dancing is their relaxation and Bequies (Sil. It. iii. 346). In venta 
and court-yard, in spite of a long day's walk, work, and scanty fare, at the 
sound of the guitar and click of the castanet a new life is breathed into 
their veins ; so far from feeling past fatigue, the very fatigue of the dance 
seems refreshing, and many a weary traveller will rue the midnight frolics 
of his noisy and saltatory fellow-lodgers. Supper is no sooner over than 
" apres la pause la danse," — some black-whiskered performer, the very 
antitliesis of Farinelli, " screechin' out his prosaic verse," screams forth 
his " coflas de zarabanda, Las Canas,^* either at the top of his voice, or 
drawliS out his ballad, " melancholy as the drone of a Lincolnshire bag- 
pipe ;" both feats are done to the imminent danger of his own trachea, and 
of all un-Spanish acoustic organs, and after the fashion of Gray's critique, 
" des miaulemens et des hurlemens effroyables, m$l^s avec im tintamare 
dudiable — voilalamusiqueFran9aiseenabr^g^." As, however, in Paris, 
so in Spain, the audience are in raptures ; "all men's ears grow to his 
tunes as if they had eaten ballads." This Cana, the unchanged Arabic 
Oamiia, for a song, is sad and serious as love, and usually begins and ends 
with an ay 1 or sigh. The company takes part with beatings of feet, 
** taconeos ;" with clapping of hands, the xP^'^^Si " palm^ido,^* and 
joining in chorus at the end of each verse. There is always in every 
company of Spaniards, whether soldiers, civilians, or muleteers, some 
one who can play the guitar, poco mas o menos. Qodoy, the Prince of 
the Peace, one of the most worthless of the multitude of worthies' 

F 3 


ministers by whom Spain has been misgoverned, first captivated the 
royal Messalina by his talent of strumming on the guitar. Isaiah gives 
the truest image of the desolation of an Eastern city, the ** ceasing of 
the mirth of the guitar and tambourine." In most villages the barhero 
is the Figaro, who seldom fails to stroll down to the venta unbidden 
and from pure love of harmony, gossip, and the ftoto, where his song 
secures him supper and welcome ; a/uncion is soon armada^ or a parti/ 
got up of all ages and sexes, who are attracted by the tinkling, like- 
swarming bees, and the more if the stranger volunteers to pay for re- 
freshments. The guitar is part and parcel of the Spaniard and his 
ballads, and, so say the political economists, has done more injury to 
Spain than hailstorms or drought, from fostering sins^ug, dancing, and 
idleness ; the i^erformer slings it across his shoulder with a ribbon, as was 
depicted on the tombs of Egypt 4000 years ago (Wilkinson, ii. ch. vi.). 
It is the unchanged kinoor of the East, the KiOapa, cithera, g^uitarra, 
githorne ; the " guiteme Moresche " of the ministrellers (Ducange). 
The performers, seldom scientific musicians, content themselves with 
striking the chords, sweeping the whole hand over the strings, rasque^ 
cmdo, or flourishing, floreando, and tapping the guitar-board with the 
thumb, gdpeando, at which they are very expert. Occasionally in the 
towns there is a zapatero or a maestro of some kind, who has attained 
more power over this ungrateful instrument ; but the attempt is generally 
a failure, for it responds coldly to Italian words and elaborate melody, 
which never come home to Spanish ears or hearts ; like the guitar of 
Anacreon, love, sweet love, is its only theme, ip<ara fiovov. The mul- 
titude suit the guitar to the song ; both air and words are frequently ex- 
temporaneous ; the language comes in aid to the fertile mother- wit of the 
natives ; rhymes are dispensed with at pleasure, or mixed up according 
to caprice with assofiants, with which more of the popular re/ranes are 
rounded off than by rhymes. The assonant consists of the mere 
recurrence of the same vowels, without reference to that of consonants. 
Thus Santos, UantoSy are rhymes ; amor and razon are assonants ; even 
these, which poorly fill a foreign ear, are not always observed ; a change 
in intonation, or a few thumps more or less on the guitar-board, does 
the work, and supersedes all difficulties. These moras pronunciationis, 
this ictus metricuSy constitute a rude prosody, and lead to music just as 
gestures do to dancing, — to ballads, — *' que se cantan haUando ;" and 
which, when heard, reciprocally inspire a Saint Vitus's desire to snap 
fingers and kick heels, as all will admit in whose ears the ?uibas verdes 
of Leon, or the cachucha of Cadiz, yet ring. The words destined to set 
all this capering in motion — not written for cold critics — are listened to 
by those who come attuned to the hearing vein — ^who anticipate and 
re-echo the subject — who are operated on by the contagious bias. Thus 
a sonnd-fascinated audience of otherwise sensible Britons, tolerates the 
positive presence of nonsense at an opera. To feel the full power of the 
guitar and Spanish song, the performer should be a sprightly Andaluza, 
taus;ht or untaught ; and when she wields the instrument as her fan, 
as if part of herself, and alive, no wonder one of the old fathers of the 
church said, that he would sooner &ce a singing basilisk : she is good 
for nothing when pinned down to a piano, on which few Spanish women 
nlay even tolerably. The words of her song are often struck off at the 


moment, and allude to incidents and persons present. Sometimes those 
of la gente ganza, que tiene zandunga, are most clever, full of epigram 
and double entendre ; they often sing what may not be spoken, and steal 
hearts through ears, for, as Cervantes says, Cuando cantan encanian : 
at other times their song is little better than nonsense, with which the 
audience is just as well satisfied. For, as Figaro says — " ce qui ne 
vaut pas la peine d'etre dit, on le chante." A good voice, which 
Italians call novanta-nove, ninety-nine parts out of the hundred, is very 
rare; nothing strikes a traveller more unfavourably than the harsn 
voice of Spanish women in general. The Spanish guitar requires an 
abandon, a fire, and gracia which could not be risked by ladies of more 
northern climates and more tightly-laced zones. The songs, the 
ballads, " this free press " of the people of Spain, and immemorially 
their delight, have tempered the despotism of their church and state, 
have sustained a nation's resistance against foreign aggression. 

Not much music is printed in Spain ; the songs and airs are frequently 
sold in MS. Sometimes, for the very illiterate, the notes are expressed 
in numeral figures, which correspond with the number of the strings. 
Andalucia is the chosen spot to form the best collection. Don N. 
Zamaracola has published a small selection — *■ Cohccion de Seguidillas, 
Tiranas, y Folos,^ Mad. 1799, under the name of Don Precise. The 
SeguidiUas, Manchegas, Boleros are a sort of madrigal, and consist of 
7 verses, 4 lines of song and 3 of chorus, estreviUo ; the Bondends and 
Malagenaa are couplets of 4 verses, and take their names from the 
towns where they are most in vogue ; the term of others. La Arana, 
comes from the Havana. The best guitars in the world were made by 
the Pajez family, father and son, in Cadiz. 

Meanwhile the genuine airs and tunes are very Oriental, of most 
remote antiquity, and a remnant of primitive airs, of which a want of 
the invention of musical notation has deprived us. Melody among the 
Egyptians, like sculpture, was never permitted to be changed, lest any 
new fascination might interfere with the severe influence of their mis- 
tress, religion. That both were invented for the service of the altar is 
indicated in the myth of their divine origin. These tunes passed into 
other countries ; the plaintive maneros of the Nile, brought by the 
Phoenicians into Spain, became the Lintis of Greece (Herod, ii. 79 J. The 
national tunes of the Fellah, the Moor, and the Spaniard, are still slow 
and monotonous, often in utt^r opposition with the sentiments of the 
words, which have varied, whilst the airs remain unchanged. They are 
diatonic rather than chromatic, abounding in suspended pauses, and uni- 
sonous, not Uke our glees, yet generally provided with an " estreviUo,** 
a chorus in which the audience joins. They owe little to hannony, the 
end being rather to affect than to please. Certain sounds seem to have 
a mysterious aptitude to express certain moods of the mind in connection 
with some unexplained sympathy between the sentient and intellectual 
organs : the simplest are by far the most ancient. Ornate melody is a 
modem invention from Italy ; and although, in lands of greater inter- 
course and fastidious civilization, the conventional has ejected the 
national, fashion has not shamed or silenced the old-ballad airs of Spain 
— those " bowlings of Tarshish." Indeed, national tunes, like Ihe songs 
of birds, are not taught in orchestras, but by mothers to their infa-^ 


progeny in the cradling nest. As the Spaniard, in the mass, is warlike 
without being military, saltatory without being graceful, so he is musical 
without being harmonious ; he continues much the raw man material 
made by nature, and treating himself mostly as he does the raw products 
of his soil, takes things as he finds them, leaving art and final develop- 
ment to the foreigner. He is better seen in the streets than in the 
saloon — in the Serrania and far from cities. The venta after all is the 
true opera-house of Spain : all the rest is London leather or Parisian 
prunella ; y no vale ndda. The student may consult Origen de Teatro 
Espanol, M. Garcia, Madrid, 1802 ; Tratado del Histrionismo, Pellicer, 
Madrid, 1804 ; Origines del Teatro Espand, Moratin» Madrid, 1830 ; 
and the excellent work on the Spanish Theatre by the German Schak ; 
see also our papers, on the Spanish Stage, * Quart. Rev.' No. cxvii. ; 
and on Spanish Ballads^ * Edin. Rev.' No. cxlvi. 

XXIII. Spanish Cigars. 

But whether at the bull-fight or theatre, lay or clerical, wet or dry, 
the Spaniard during the day, sleeping excepted, solaces himself, when he 
can, with a cigar ; this is his nepenthe, his pleasure opiate, his te veniente 
die et te decedente, which soothes but not inebriates. 

The manufactory of the cijrar is not the least active of all carried on 
in the Peninsula. The buildings are palaces ; witness Seville, Malaga, 
and Valencia. As a cigar is a sine qua non in a Spaniard's mxmth, it 
must have its page in a Spanish Handbook, Ponz, the first m that 
field, remarks (ix. 201), " You will think me tiresome with my tobac- 
^ conistical details, but the vast bulk of my readers will be more pleased 
* with it than with an account of all the pictures in the world." This 
calumet of peace is the poor man's friend, calms the mind, soothes the 
temper, and makes men patient under trouble, and hunger, heat, and 
despotism. " Quoique puisse dire," said Molidre, " Aristotc et toute 
la philosophic, il n'y a rien d'^gal au tabac." In larderless Spain it is 
meat and drink both, and the chief smoke connected with caterings 
for the mouth issues from labial chimneys. 

Tobacco, this anodyne for the irritability of human reason, is, like 
spirituous liquors which make it drunk, a highly-taxed article in civi- 
lized societies. In Spain, the Bourbon* dynasty (as elsewhere) is the 
hereditary tobacconist-general ; the privilege is generally farmed out to 
some contractor : accordingly, a really good home-made cigar is with 
difficulty to be had in the Peninsula for love or money. There seems to 
be no royal road to the science of cigar-making ; the article is badly 
made, of bad materials, and, to add insult to injury, charged at an 
exorbitant price. In order to benefit the Havana, tobacco is not allowed 
to be grown in Spain, which it would do perfectly near Malaga, for 
when the experiment was made, and proved successful, the cul- 
tivation was immediately prohibited by the government The bad- 
ness and deamess of the royal article favours the well-meaning smuggler ; 
and this corrector of blundering: chancellors of exchequers provides a 
better and cheaper thing from Gibraltar. No offence is more dreadfully 
punished in Spain than that of tobacco-smuggling, which robs the royal 
pocket — all other robbery is as nothing, for the lieges only sufier. 

Spain. xxiu. Spanish giqarito. 109 

The encouragement afforded to the manufacture and smuggling of 
cigars at Gibraltar is a never-failing source of ill blood and ill will 
between the Spanish and English governments. This most serious evil 
is contrary to treaties, injurious to Spain and England alike, and is 
beneficial only to aliens of the worst character who form the real plague 
and sore of the Rock. 

Many tobacoose epicures, who smoke their regular dozen, place the 
supply sufficient for the day, between two fresh lettuce-leaves, which 
improves the narcotic effect. Ferdinand VII. was not only a great 
manufacturer but consumer of certain Purofnes, a large thick cigar 
made expressly for his gracious ase in the Havana, and of the vuelta 
de ahajoj the very best, for he was too good a judge to smoke his own 
manufacture. The cigar was one of his pledges of love and hatred : 
when meditating a treacherous cowp^ he would give graciously a royal 
weed to a minister, and when the happy individual got home to smoke 
it, he was saluted by an alguacil with an order to quit Madrid in twenty- 
four hours. 

The bulk of Spaniards cannot afford either the expense of tobacco, 
which is dear to them, or the loss, of not losing time, which is very 
<>heap, by smoking a whole cigar : a single cigar furnishes occupation 
and recreation for half an hour. Though few Spaniards ruin themselves 
in libraries, fewer are without a little blank book of papd de hilo, a 
particular paper made best at Alcoy, in Valencia. At any pause all say 
•at once — fv^es senores ! echemos wn cigarito — well then, gentlemen, let 
us make a little cigar : when forthwith all set seriously to work ; 
every Spaniard, besides this book, is armed with a small case of flint, 
steel, and a combustible tinder, ^^yesca,** To make a paper cigar, like 
putting on a cloak, flirting a fan, or clicking castanets, is an ope- 
ration of much more difficulty than it seems, but Spaniards, who 
have done nothing so much from their chHdhood upwards, per- 
form both with extreme facility and neatness. This is the mode : — 
the petacca (Arabic^ Butak), a cigar case worked by a fair hand in 
coloured pita (the thread from the aloe), is taken out— a leaf is torn 
from the book, which is held between the lips, or downwards from the 
back of the hand, between the fore and middle finger of the left hand — 
:a portion of the cigar, about a third, is cut off and rubbed slowly in the 
palms till reduced to a powder^ — ^it is then jerked into the paper-leaf, 
which is rolled up into a little squib, and the ends doubled down, one 
of which is bitten off and the other end is lighted. The cigarillo is 
smoked slowly, the last whiff being the bonne bouche, the breast, la 
pedmga. The little ends are thrown away (they are indeed little, for a 
Spanish fore-finger and thumb is quite fire-browned and fire-proof). 
fk>me polished exquisites, poUos, use silver holders. These remnants are 
picked up by the beggar-boys, who make up into fresh cigars the 
leavings of a thousand mouths. On the Prados and Alamedas urchins 
always are running about with a rope slowly burning for the benefit of 
the public. At many of the sheds where water and lemonade are sold, 
one of these ropes, twirled like a snake round a post, is kept always 
ignited, as the match of a besieged artilleryman. In the houses of the 
affluent a small silver chafing-dish, prunce haiillum, filled with lighted 
^charcoal, is usually placed on a table. This necessity of a light levels ai' 


ranks ; it is allowable to stop any person in the streets, for fire, "/wc^fo,'*' 
** candela ;" thus a cigar forms the bond of union, an isthmus of com- 
munication between most heterogeneous ranks and ages. Some of the 
Spanish fair sex are said to indulge in a quiet cigariUa, utwl pajita ; but 
it is not thought either a sign of a real lady, or of one of rigid virtue, 
to have recourse to stolen and forbidden pleasures ; for whoever make& 
one basket will make a hundred — quien hace tm cesto, hara un ciento. 

Nothing exposes a traveller to more difficulty than carrying tobacco 
in his luggage ; whenever he has more than a certain small quantity,, 
let him never conceal it, but declare it at every gate, and be provided 
with <iguia, or permit. Yet all will remember never to be witbout some 
cigars, and the better the better ; for although any cigar is acceptable,, 
yet a real good one is more tempting than the apple was to Eve. The- 
greater the enjoyment of the smoker, the greater his respect for the 
donor ; a cigar may be given to everybody, whether high or low, and the 
petaca may be presented, just as a Frenchman of La vieille cour offered 
his snuflf-box, as a prelude to conversation. It is an act of civility, and 
implies no superiority ; there is no humiliation in the acceptance — it i& 
twice blessed — " it blesseth him that gives and him that takes ;" — ^it is 
the spell wherewith to charm the natives, who are its ready and obedient 
slaves, and a cigar, like a small kind word spoken in time, works miracles* 
There is no country in the world where the stranger and traveller can 
purchase for half-a-crown, half the love and good- will which its invest-^ 
ment in tobacco will ensure : a man who grudges or neglects it is neither 
a philanthropist nor a philosopher. 

Offer, therefore, your cigar-case freely and cheerfully, dear traveller^ 
when on the road ; but if you value your precious health of mind or 
body, your mens scma in corpore sano, l3ie combined and greatest 
blessings in this life, use this bane of this age but sparingly your- 
self: abuse it not. An early indulgence in this vicious and expen- 
sive habit saps life. The deadening influence of this slow but sure 
poison tampers with every power <;onferring secretion of brain and 
body ; and although the effects may not be felt at the moment, the 
cigaresque spendthrift is drawing bills on his constitution which in a 
few years assuredly must fall due, and then, when too late, he will dis- 
cover what far higher pleasures, intellectual and physical, have been 
sacrificed for the filthy weed. 

XXIV. — Spanish Costume — Cloak and Mantilla. 

The Spaniards, in spite of the invasions of French milliners and 
English tailors, have retained much of a national costume, that pic- 
turesque type, which civilization, with its cheap and common-place 
calico, is, alas 1 busily effacing. As progress in Spain is slow, fortunately 
the Capa and MantUla, nowhere else to be met with in Europe, still 
remain to gladden the eye of the stranger and artist, and however they 
may be going out of fashion at Madrid, are fortunately preserved in the 

Dress, from its paramount importance, demands a page. We strongly 

recommend our readers, ladies as well as gentlemen, whose grand object 

^ ' '*« to pass in the crowd incognito and unnoticed, to re-rig themselves out 

Spain. XXIV. Spanish mantilla. Ill 

at the first great town at which they arrive, for unless they are dressed 
like the rest of the world, they will everywhere be stared at, and be 
pestered by beggars, who particularly attack strangers. 

Black from time immemorial has been the favourite, the national 
colour, fUKavtifiov^s Sjravres to irXciov ev cayois (Strabo, iii. 233). This 
male sa/jum is the type of the modern saya or hasquina, the outer petti- 
coat, feminine, which is always black, and is put over the indoor dress 
on going out. The Greeks translated the Tyrian phrase " Bewitching 
of naughtiness" by the term fiaa-Kavia. Black, the colour of etiquette 
and ceremony, is the only one in which women are allowed to enter 
churches. Being that of the learned professions, it makes Spaniards seem 
wiser, according to Charles V., than they really are ; while, from being 
the garb of the bereaved, it disarms the evil eye which dogs prosperity, 
and inspires, instead of associations of envy, those of pity and respect. 
It gives an air of decorum and modesty, and softens an indifferent skin. 
Every one in England has been struck with the air of respectability 
which mourning confers, even on ladies' maids. The prevalence of 
black veils and dark cloaks on the Alameda and in the church, convevs 
to the stranger newly arrived in Spain the idea of a population of nuns 
and clergymen. As far as woman is concerned, the dress is so becoming, 
that the diflBculty is to look ugly in it ; hence, in spite of the monotony, 
we are jjleased with a uniformity which becomes all alike ; those who 
cannot see its merits should lose no time in consulting their oculist. 

The beauty of the Spanish women is much exaggerated, and more 
loveliness is to be seen in one fine day in Kegent-street than in a year 
in Spain. Their charm consists in symmetry of form, grace of manner 
and expression, and still more, as in the case of a carpor-ffaic au beurre 
noir, in the dressing ; yet, such is the tyranny of fashion, that many of 
its votaries are willing to risk the substance for the shadow, and to strive, 
instead of remaining inimitable originals, to become second-rate copies. 
Faithless to true Espanolismo, they sacrifice on the altar of La mode de 
Paris even attraction itself. The CocoSf or cottons of Manchester, are 
superseding the Alepines, or bombazeens of Valencia, as the blinkers and 
bonnets of the Boulevards are eclipsing the Mantillas, 

The Mantilla is the aboriginal female head-gear. Iberia, in the early 
coins, those picture-books of antiquity, is represented as a veiled woman ; 
the KdkvTrTfM fUkaivri was supported by a sort of cock's-comb, Kopa^, and 
the partial concealment of the features was thought even in those day& 
to be an ornament (Strabo, iii. 164). Thus Poppasa, according to 
Tacitus, managed her veil quia sic decebat. The cara tupida or tapada, 
or face so enveloped, was always respected in Spain, and even Messalina 
shrouded under the mantle of modesty her imperial adulteries. The 
Gothic rrumtum so called, says S". Isidore {Or, xix. 24), quia manus 
tegat tantum, was made of a thickish cloth, as it was among the Cartha- 
ginians (see the Mantilia of Dido, JEn, iv. 705), whence the Moorish 
name Mantil, The Mantilla, an elegant diminutive of the Manto^ i& 
now made of silk or lace ; formerly it was substituted by the coarse 
petticoat among the lower classes, who, like Sancho Panza*s wife, turned 
them over their heads from pure motives of economy. In fact, as in the 
East, the head and face of the female were seats of honour, and never to 
be exposed ; accordingly, by a decree of Philip IV., a woman's mantiUcf 


could not be seized for debt, not even in case of the crown. From being 
the essential article of female gear, the manto has become a generic 
term, and has given its name to our milliners, who are called mantuu- 

There are three kinds of mantillas, and no lady can properly do without 
a complete set : first the white, used on grand occasions, birth-days, 
bull-fights, and Easter Mondays, and is composed of fine blonde or lace 
embroidery ; yet it is not becoming to Spanish women, whose sallow olive 
complexion cannot stand the contrast, so that Adrian compared one thus 
dressed to a sausage wrapt up in white paper. The second is black, 
made of raso or alepm, satin or bombazeen, often edged with velvet, and 
finished off with deep lace fringe. The third, used on ordinary occa- 
sions, and by the Fancy, and called Mantilla de tira, has no lace, but 
is made of black silk with a broad band of velvet. This, the veil of the 
Maja, the Oitana, peculiarly becomes their eye of diamond and their 
locks of jet. The Mantilla used to be suspended on a high comb, 
peineta, and then crossed over the bosom, which is, moreover, concealed 
by a panuelo, or handkerchief. These are the " hoods and ushers " of 
Hudibras, and without them, unless the house was on fire, no woman 
formerly would go out into the streets, and indeed when thus enveloped 
nothing can be more decent than the whole upper woman ; matroncs 
prceter faciem nil cemere posses. The smallest display of the neck, &c., 
ot patriotismo, is thought over-liberal and improper, and one of the great 
secrets of a Spanish woman's attraction is, that most of her charms are 

The Mantilla is kept in its proper place by the fan, aMnico, which is 
part and parcel of every Spanish woman, whose nice conduct of it leaves 
nothing to be desired. No one understands the art and exercise of it, the 
manejo, like her : it is the index of her soul, the telegraph of her chame- 
lion feelings, her signal to the initiated, which they understand for good 
or evil as the wagging of a dog's tail. She can express with her dumb 
fan more than Paganini could with his fiddlestick. A handbook might 
be written to explain the code of signals. Kemember not to purchase 
any of the old Rococo fans which will be offered for sale at Cadiz and 
Seville as Spanish, being however all made in France ; the prices asked 
are exorbitant, for which foolish English collectors may thank them- 
selves. There are more and better of these fans to be had in Wardour- 
street than in all Andalucia, and for a quarter of the money. 

The Ma/ntilla, properly speaking, ought not to be worn with curls, 
rizos, recently introduced by some French perruquiers; these are 
utterly unsuited to the melancholy pensive character of the Spanish 
female face when in repose, and particularly to her Moorish eyes, which 
never passed the Pyrenees ; indeed, first-rate amateurs pronounce the 
real ojos ardbes, like the palm-tree, to be confined to certain localities. 
The finest are " raised " in Andalucia ; they are very lull, and repose 
on a liquid somewhat yellow bed, of an almond shape. 

The Spanish hair is the glory of the sex ; herein, like Samson's, is 

the secret of her strength, for, if Pope be infallible, " Her beauty draws 

us by a single hair " — Sancho Panza says more than a hundred oxen. 

It is very black, thick, and often coarser than a courser's tail, especially 

'th the lower classes ; nourished by copious larding^ and undwarfed 


by caps, it grows like the " bush," and occasionally becomes the well- 
stocked preserve of ca^a menor, which afford constant sport and occupa- 
tion to most picturesque groups a la MurUlo, 

The hair of the better classes is attended to with the greatest care, 
and is simply braided a la Madonna over a high forehead. The Iberian 
ladies, reports Strabo (iii. 248), were very proud of the size of this 
palace of thought, and carefully picked out the irpoKo/xta, the superfluous 
items, to increase its dimensions. The Andaluza places a real flower, 
generally a rose or a red pink, among her raven locks ; the children 
continue to let long Carthaginian plaited Trensa hang down their backs. 
There are two particular curls which deserve serious attention : they are 
circular and flat, and are fastened with white of egg to the side of each 
cheek : they are called PatiUas or Picardias, Rogueries — Caracoles de 
Amor — the French accroches coeur, " springes to catch woodcocks." 
These are Oriental. Some female mummies have been discovered with 
their patillas perfectly preserved and gummed on after 3000 years : the 
ruling passion strong in death (Wilk. ii. 370). The Spanish she-Goths 
were equally particular. S". Isidoro (Or. xix. 31) describes some curls, 
ancice, with a tact which becomes rather the Barhiere de Sevilla than 
its archbishop. When an Andaluza turns out with her hair dressed in 
its best, she is capable, like Eoxalana, of upsetting empires, trastomar 
el mundo. 

Thus much for our fair readers ; one word now on the chief item of 
male costume in Spain. The cloak, capa, is to man what the saya and 
'inantitta are to woman. The Spaniards represent the gens togata of 
antiquity, and their capa is the unchanged Paenula, Teficwa, This 
emblem of civilization and symbol of Roman influence was introduced 
into Spain by Sertorius, who, by persuading the natives to adopt the 
dress, soon led them to become the admirers, then subjects, of Rome — 
Cedent arma togce. The Andalucians (Strabo, iii. 264) were among the 
first to follow this foreign fashion. They gloried in their finery like the 
Germans, not seeing in this livery, as Tacitus did, a real badge of the 
loss of national independence — " Inde habitus nostri honor, et frequens 
toga, idque apud imperitos, humanitas vocabatur, cum pars cervitutis 
esset." Much the same case is now going on with French bonnets and 
English coats ; the masses of Spaniards have never left oflf their cloaks 
and jackets. This jacket, the ancient x'to>v» tunica, synthesis, was 
worn by the Carthaginians (Plant. Poen, v. 2), just as it is now by the 
Moors. The Spaniards live in jackets, they are the " tunicatus pr(h 
peUics " of Europe. Augustus Caesar, who, according to Suetonius, was 
chilly, wore as many as Hamlet's gravedigger does waistcoats. Fer- 
dinand VII., the week before his death, who gave a farewell audience to 
a foreign minister in a jacket, died in harness : like him and Caesar, 
Spaniards, when in the bosom of their families, seldom wear any other 
dress. ttmicata guies 1 exclaims Martial (x. 51) ; nor can anything 
ever exceed the comfort of a well-made Zamarra, a word derived from 
Simiir — mustela Scythica, The merit and obvious origin of this sheep- 
skin costume account for its antiquity and unchanged usage. S". 
Isidoro (Or. xix. 24) calls it paUium, apeUe, 

The capa is cut in a peculiar manner and rounded at the bottom ; the 
circumference of the real and correct thing is seven yards all but three 


inches and a half: "&^s ter ulnarum toga. As cloaks, like coats, are 
cut according to a man's cloth, a' scanty capa^ like the " toga arcta '* of 
Horace, does not indicate affluence or even respectability. S". Isidoro 
did well to teach his Goths that their toga was a tegendo, because it 
concealed the whole man, as it does now, and well, provided it be a 
good one ; una huena capa, todo tapa. It covers a multitude of sins,, 
and especially pride and poverty — the twin sisters of Iberia. The 
ample folds and graceful drapery give breadth and throw an air of 
stately decency — nay, dignity— over the wearer ; it not only conceals 
tatters and nakedness, but appears to us to invest the pauper with the 
abstract classicality of an ancient peripatetic philosopher, since we never 
see this costume of Solons and Cassars except in the British Museum. 
A genuine Spaniard would sooner part with his skin than his capa ; 
thus when Charles III. wanted to prohibit their use, the people rose in 
arms, and the Squillacci, or anti-cloak ministry, was turned out. The 
capa fits a Spaniard admirably ; it favours habits of inactivity, prevents 
the over-zealous arms or elbows from doing anything, conceals a knife 
and rags, and, when muffled around, offers a disguise for intrigues and 
robbery; capa yespada accordingly became the generic tenn for the 
profligate comedy which portrayed the age of Philip IV. 

The Spanish clergy never appear in public without this capa, and 
the readers of the Odyssey need not be reminded of the shifts to which 
Ulysses was put when " he left his cloak behind." St. Paul was 
equally anxious about his, when he wrote his Second Epistle to 
Timothy ; and Kaphael has justly painted him in the cartoon, when 
preaching at Athens, wearing his cloak exactly as the Spanish people 
do at this moment. Nothing can appear more ludicrous to a Spanish 
eye than the scanty, narrow, capeless, scapegrace cloaks of English cut : 
the wearer of one will often see the lower classes grinning, without 
knowing why. They are staring at his cloak, its shape, and way of 
putting it on. When a stranger thinks that he is perfectly incognito^ 
he is pointed out to the very children, and is the observed of all 
observers. All this is easily prevented by attention to a few simple 
mles. No one can conceive the fret and petty continual worry to 
which a stranger is exposed both from beggars and the impertinente 
curioso tribe by being always found out ; it embitters every step he 
takes, mars all I)rivacy, and keeps up a continual petty fever and ill- 

A wise man will therefore get his cloak made in Spain, and by a 
Spanish tailor, and the more like that most generally worn the better. 
He may choose it of blue colour, and let the broad hem or stripe be 
lined with black velvet ; red or fancy colours and silks are muy charro, 
gaudy and in bad taste : he mrist never omit a cape — dengue esdavina, 
whence our old term sclaveyn. A capa without a cape is like a cat 
without a tail. As the clerical capa is always black, and distinguished 
from the lay one by its not having a cape. Whenever an Englishman 
comes out with a blue cloak and no cape, it appears quite as ludicrous 
to Spanish eyes as to see a gentleman in a sack or in a red cassock. It 
is applying a form of cut peculiar only to clergymen to colours which 
are only worn by laymen. Having got a correct capa, the next and 
not less important step is to know how to wear it ; the antique is the 

Spain. XXIV. how to put it on. 11^ 

true model ; either the capa is allowed to hang simply down from the 
shoulders, or it is folded in the emhozo, or a lo majo : the emhozar con- 
sists in taking up the right front fold and throwing it over the left 
shoulder, thus muffling up the mouth, while the end of the fold hangs- 
half way down the hack behind; it is difficult to do this neatly, 
although all Spaniards can ; for they have been practising nothing else 
from the age of breeches, as they assume the toga almost when they 
leave off petticoats. No force is required ; it is done by a knack, a 
sleight of hand : the cloak is jerked over the shoulder, which is gently 
raised to meet and catch it ; this is the precise form of the ancients^ 
the apafiaXKco'dai of Athenaeus (i. 18), The Goths wore it in the same 
manner {S^- Isidore, Or. xix. 24). When the emhozo is arranged, two- 
fingers of the right hand are sometimes brought up to the mouth and 
protrude beyond the fold : they serve either to hold a cigar or to tele- 
graph a passing friend. It must be remembered by foreigners that, as- 
among the ancient Eomans (Suet, in Claudy vi.), it is not considered 
respectful to remain embozado on ceremonious occasions. Uncloaking is- 
equivalent to taking ofif the hat ; Spaniards always uncloak when Su 
Majestad, the host or the king, passes by, the lower orders uncloak 
when speaking to a superior : whenever the traveller sees one not do that 
with hirrij let him he on his gv>ard, Spaniards, when attending a funeral 
service in a church, do not rend, but leave their cloaks at home behind 
them : the etiquette of mourning is to go without their capa. As this- 
renders them more miserable than fish out of water, the manes of the 
deceased must necessarily be gi-atified by the sincerity of the sorrow of 
his surviving and shivering friend. 

The majo fashion of the wearing the cloak, is that which is adopted 
by the chvlos when they walk in procession around the arena, before 
the bull-fight commences. It is managed thus : take the right front 
fold, and whip it rapidly under the left elbow, pressing down at tho 
same time the left elbow to catch it ; a sort of deep bosom, the ancient 
umbo, sinus, is thus fonned, and the arms are left at liberty. The- 
celebrated Aristides at Naples is cloaked somewhat in this fashion. We 
strongly advise the newly arrived traveller to get his tailor or some 
Spaniard just to give him a few lessons how to perform these various 
evolutions ; without this he will never pass in a crowd. If he puts 
his cloak on awkwardly he will be thought a quiz, which is no element 
of success in society. Everybody knows that Cicero adopted the cause 
of Pompey in preference to that of Caesar — because he concluded, from 
the unintellectual manner in which the future dictator wore his cloak, 
that he never could turn out to be a great man. Caesar improved as- 
he grew older, when nothing fidgeted him more than any person's dis- 
turbing the peace of his sinus (Suet. 82, and see the note ot Pitiscus) ;. 
and, lifee the Egyptian ladies' curls, the ruling passion was strong in 
his death, for he arranged his cloak as his last will and deed. Cata 
and Virgil were laughed at for their awkward togas ; no Englishman 
can pass for a great man in Spain, unless his Spanish valet thinks so* 
when he is cloaked. 

The better classes of Spaniards wear the better classes of cloth. The 
lower continue to cover their aboriginal sheepskin with the aboriginal 
cloth. The fine wools of Spain — ^an ancient Merino sold in Strabo's- 


time for a talent (iii. 213) — ^produced a corresponding article, insomuch 
that these Hispance coccince were the presents which the extravagant 
Chloe gave her lover (Mart. iv. 27). The poor were contented then, 
as now, with a thick double cloth, the ** duplex pannus^* of poverty 
and patience (Hor. 1 Ep. xvii. 25), and it was always made from the 
brown undyed wool ; and there are always several black sheep in every 
Spanish flock, as in all their cortes and juntas. Their undyed wools 
formed the exact LacemcB Boeticoe (Martial, xiv. 133), and the best are 
still made at Grazalema. The cloth, from the brown colour, is called 
" pano pardo" This is the mixed red rusty tint for which Spain was 
renowned — ^^ferrugine clarus Iberd;^^ among the Goths the colour was 
simply called " Spanish," just as our word drab, incorrectly used as a 
colour, was originally taken from the French drap, cloth, which hap- 
pened to be undyed. Drab is not more the livery of our footmen and 
Quakers, than " brown " is of Spain, whether man or mountain — gente 
or Sierra Morena. The Manchegans especially wear nothing but 
jackets and breeches of this stuff and colour, and well may their king 
call his royal seat ** elpardo,^* Their metaphors are tinctured with it. 
They call themselves the " browns," just as we call the Africans the 
blacks, or modem Minervas the blues : thus they will say of a shrewd 
peasant — ^Yorkshire — " Mas sabe con su grammatica parda que no el 
escribano ;" he knows more with his brown grammar than the attorney. 
The pane pardo is very thick, not only to last longer, but because the 
cloak is the shield and buckler of quarrelsome people, who wrap it 
round the left arm. The assassins of Cassar did the same, when they 
rushed with their bloody daggers through frightened Rome (App. B, G. 
ii. 503). Caesar himself, when in danger at the battle of Lerida, did 
the same thing {Bell. Civ. i. 67). The Spaniards in the streets, the 
moment the sharp click of the opened knife is heard, or their adversary 
stoops to pick up a stone, whisk their cloaks round their left arms with 
marvellous and most classical rapidity. Petronius Arbiter (c. 30) de- 
scribes them to the life — " Intorto circum brachium pallio composui ad 
prseliandum gradum." There is no end to Spanish proverbs on the 
cloak. They wear it in summer because it keeps out heat ; in winter 
because it keeps out cold. Por sol que haga, ne dejes tu capa en casa-^ 
the common trick upon a traveller is to steal his cloak. Del Andaluz 
guarda tu capuz. A cloak is equivalent to independence, debajo mi 
manto, veo y cantOy 1 laugh in my sleeve ; and, even if torn and tat- 
tered, it preserves its virtue like that of San Martin ; debajo de una capa 
rota, hay buen bebidor — there is many a good drinker under a bundle 
of rags. 

The Spaniards as a people are remarkably well dressed ; the lower 
orders retain their peculiar and picturesque costume ; the better classes 
imitate the dress of an English gentleman, and come nearer to our ideas 
of that character than do most other foreigners. Their sedate lofty port 
gives that repose and quiet which is wanting to our mercurial neigh- 
bours. The Spaniard is proud of himself, not vain of his coat ; he is 
cleanly in his person and consistent in his apparel ; there is less of the 
*' diamond pins in dirty shirts," as Walter Scott said of some conti- 
nental exquisites. Not that the genus dandy, the PoUo, does not exist 
in Spain, but he is an exotic when clad in a coat. The real dandy is 


tbe " majOf*^ in his half-Moorish jacket. The elegant, in a long-tailed 
**A«;«>" is a bad copy of a bad imitation — a London cockney, filtered 
through a Boulevard badaud. These harmless animals, these exquisite 
vegetables, are called Uchuginos, which signifies both a sucking pig and 
a small lettuce. The Andalucian dandies were in the war called 
paqtieteSf because they used to import the last and correct thing from 
England by the packet-boat. Such are the changes, the ups and 
downs, of coats and countries. Now the Spaniards look to us for 
models, while our ancestors thought nothing came up 

*' To the refined traveller from Spain, 
A man in all the world's new fashions planted ! " 

The variety of costumes which appear on the Spanish public ala^ 
medas renders the scene far gayer than that of our dull uniform walks ; 
the loss of the parti-coloured monks will be long felt to the artist. 
The gentlemen in their capas mingle with the ladies in their Tnantillas. 
The white-kilted Valencian contrasts with the velveteen glittering An- 
dalucian ; the sable-clad priest with the soldier ; the peasant with the 
muleteer : all meet on perfect equality, as in church, and all conduct 
themselves with equal decorum, good breeding, and propriety. Few 
Spaniards ever walk arm-in-arm, and still less do a Spanish lady and 
gentleman — scarcely even those whom the holy church has made one. 
There is no denial to which all classes and sexes of Spaniards will not 
cheerfully submit in order to preserve a respectable external appear- 
ance. This formed one of the most marked characteristics of the Ibe- 
rians, who, in order to display magnificence on their backs, pinched 
their bellies. The ancient Deipnosophists (Athen. ii. 6 ; Strabo, iii. 
232), who preferred lining their ribs with good capons, rather than 
their cloaks with ermine, wondered at the shifts and starvation endured 
by poor gentlemen in order to strut about in rich clothes, and forms one 
of the leading subjects of wit in all their picaresque novels : " silks 
and satins put out the kitchen fire," says poor Richard. Spaniards, 
even the wealthy, only really dress when they go out, and when they 
come home return to a dishabille which amounts to dowdiness. Those 
who are less affluent carefully put by their out-of-door costume, which 
consequently, as in the East, lasts for many years, and forms one 
reason, among many others, why mere fashions change so little : an- 
other reason why all Spaniards in public are so well dressed is, that, 
unless they can appear as they think they ought, they do not go out at 
all. In the far-spread poverty many families remain at home during 
the whole day, thus retiring and presenting the smallest mark for evil 
fortune to peck at. They scarcely stir out for weeks and months ; 
adversity produces a keener impatience of dishonour than was felt in 
better days, a more morbid susceptibility, an increased anxiety to 
withdraw from those places and that society where a former equality 
can no longer be maintained. The recluses steal out at early dawn to 
the missa de madrugada, the daybreak mass, which is expressly cele- 
brated for the consolation of all who must labour for their bread, all 
who get up early and lie down late, and that palest and leanest form of 
poverty, which is ready to work but findeth none to employ. When 
the sad congregation have offered up their petition for relief, they 


return to cheerless homes, to brood in concealment over their fallen 
fortunes. At dusky nightfall they again creep, bat-likej out to breathe 
the air of heaven, and meditate on new schemes for hiding the morrow's 

XXV. — Hints on Conduct — ^Dbess — Creed — ^Visitino — ^Modes of 

Address, &c. 

In conclusion and recapitulation, a few hints may be useful to the 
stranger in Spain as to conduct. The observance of a few rules in a 
<x)untry where " manners maketh man " will render the traveller's 
path one of peace and pleasantness. First and foremost, never forget 
that the Spaniard is of a very high caste, and a gentleman by innate 
aristocracy ; proud as Lucifer and combustible as his matches, he is 
punctilious and touchy on the point of honour ; make therefore the 
lirst advances, or at least meet him a little more than half way ; treat 
him, be his class what it may, as a CabaUero, a gentleman, and an old 
and well-bom Christian one, Cristiano viefo y rancio, and therefore as 
your equal. When his self-esteem and personal sensitiveness are thus 
once conciliated, he is quick to return the compliment, and to pay 
every deference to the judicious stranger by whom he is put in his 
proper place ; all attempt to bully and browbeat is loss of time, as this 
stiff-necked, obstinate people may be turned by the straw of courtesy, 
but are not to be driven by a rod of iron, still less if wielded by a 
foreigner, to despise whom is the essense of nationality or Espanolismo. 
It need scarcely be said, in a land so imbued with Orientalisms, that 
the greatest respect is to be paid to the fair sex for its own sake, what- 
ever be woman's age, condition, or appearance — ^nor will love's labour be 
lost. On landing "at Calais, the sooner May fair is wiped out of the tablets 
of memory the better, nor can any one, once in Spaiu, too constantly 
remember to forget England. How few there, or indeed any where on 
the Continent, sympathise with our wants and habits, or understand our 
love of truth and cold water ; our simple manly tastes ; our contempt 
for outward show compared to real comfort; our love of exercise, 
adventure, and alternate quiet, and of all that can only be learnt at our 
public schools. Your foreigner has no Winchester or Eton. 

Civil words and keeping out of mischiefs way arev everywhere the 
best defence. Never grudge wearing out a hat or two by touching it or 
taking it off; this is hoisting the signal of truce, peace, and good will ; 
the sensitive Spaniard stiffens when hats are not off, and bristles up like 
a porcupine against the suspicion of a desaire. Be especially polite to 
officials, from the odious custom-house upwards ; it is no use kicking 
against the powers that be ; if you ruffle them they can worry you, 
by a relentless doing their duty : these nuisances are better palliated 
by honey than vinesjar ; and many of the detentions and difficulties of 
our unwise travellers are provoked by uncourteous demeanor, and 
growlings in a tongue as unknown to the natives as the Englishman 
was to Portia — " He understands not me, nor I him." Dismiss the 
nonsense of robbers from your head, avoiding, however, all indiscreet 
exhibition of tjempting baits, or chattering about your plans and 
Tiovements. By common preparation mere footpads are baffled : to 
tempt resistance against an organised band is sheer folly : do not 


mix yourself with Spanish politics or civil wars — leave them to 
exterminate each other to their liking, like Kilkenny cats. Avoid 
logomachies, or trying to convince the natives against their will ; it is 
arguing against a north-east wind, and a sheer loss of time, too ; for, 
in a fine, indolent climate, where there is little to do — no liberty of 
press or circulating libraries — the otiose twaddlers spin Castilian non- 
sense by the yard. Mind your own business, and avoid things that do 
not concern you, taking especial care not to intermeddle. 

In the large towns the costume of an English gentleman is the best ; 
avoid all semi-bandit, fancy-ball extravagances in dress ; hoist, indeed, 
British colours there as everywhere. Thin cashmere or cuhica is far 
preferable to cloth, which is intolerable in the hot weather. Pay daily 
visits to Figaro, and carefully eschew the Brutus beards, and generally, 
everything which might lead the bulk of Spaniards to do you the 
grievous injury of mistaking your native country. A capa or cloak 
used to be absolutely essential, and is so out of Madrid, paletots not- 
^vithstanding : and how much in appearance and in health have those 
Spaniards lost, who, like the Turks, ape the externals of foreign 
civilization; how skimpy and pigmy and common-place they look 
stripped of their ample folds : let your cloak be of plain blue colour, 
faced with black velvet. Remember to get it made in Spain, or it will 
not be cut full enough to be able to be worn as the natives do : take 
particular care that it has a cape, dengue^ esdavina, imless you wish t^ 
be an object of universal attention and ridicule ; and mind to let your 
tailor give you a few lessons how to put it on like a Spaniard, and to 
show you the different modes of muffling up the face, a precaution 
necessary in the Castiles, where the cold airs, if inhaled, bring on 
sudden and dangerous ptUmonia, This artificial respirator keeps out 
both the assassin breath of cold, and the salitrose dust. No English- 
made capa can be properly embozada, that is, have its right fold thrown 
over the mouth and left shoulder, descending neatly half-way down 
the back. Our cloaks are much too scanty, no tien&n hastante vuelo. 
In the conduct of cloaks, remember, when you meet any one, being 
yourself emhozado or muffled up, to remove the folds before you address 
him, as not to do so is a great incivility : again, when strangers con- 
tinue to speak to you thus cloaked, and as it were disguised, be on your 

Take great care, when actually travelling, to get the passport 
refrendado y corriente in time, and to secure long beforehand places in 
the public conveyance. Carry the least possible luggage you can, 
never forgetting that none is so heavy and useless in Spain as precon- 
ceived prejudices and conventional foregone conclusions, although of 
genuine London or Paris manufacture. When you arrive at the place 
of your destination, if you wish to do or see anything out of the 
common way, call on the jefe politico, or comandante de armas, or chief 
authority, to state frankly your object, and request his permission. 
For travelling, especially on riding tours and in all out-of-the-way 
districts, adopt the national costume of the road ; to wit, the peaked 
hat, Sombrero gacTw, calanes, the jacket of fur, the Zamarray or the 
one of cloth, the Marselles ; the grand object is to pass incog, in the 
crowd, or if noticed, to be taken for a native. You will thus avoid 


being the observed of all observers, and a thousand other petty annoy- 
ances which destroy privacy and ruffle temper. You may possibly 
thus escape the beggars, which are the plague of Spain, and have a 
knack of finding out a stranger, and of worrying and bleeding him 
as effectually as the mosquitos. The regular form of uncharitable 
rejection is as follows : — Perdone V, ( Usted) por Dios, JSermano ? — 
My brother, will you excuse me, for God's sake ? If this request be 
gravely said, the mendicant gives up hope of coppers. Any other 
answer except this specific one, only encourages importunity, as the 
beggars either do not believe in the reality of the refusal, or see at 
once that you are not a Spaniard, and therefore never leave off, until in 
despair you give them hush-money to silence their whine, thus bribing 
them to relieve you from the pleasure of their company. 

Ladies will do well to adopt the national and most becoming man- 
tiHa, although in large towns the hideous bonnet is creeping in. They 
must also remember that females are nojt admitted into churches except 
in veils ; black also used to be the correct colour for dress. Spanish 
women generally seat themselves on the pavement when at prayers ; 
it is against all ecclesiastical propriety for a lady and gentleman, even 
man and wife, to walk about arm in arm in a church. Spaniards, on 
passing the high altar, always bow ; beware of talking during mass, 
when the ringing of a little bell indicates the elevation of the Host, and 
the actual presence of the incarnate Deity. It is usual to take off hats 
and kneel when the consecrated wafer is carried by in the streets ; and 
those Protestants who object, should get out of the way, and not offend the 
weaker brethren by a rude contempt of their most impressive ceremonial. 

Protestants should observe some reserve in questions of creed, 
and never play tricks with the faith or the eye ; con el qfo y la /e, 
nunca me hurlare. There is no sort of religious toleration in Spain, 
where their belief is called la Fe, and is thought to be the faith, and 
the only true one. You may smile, as Spaniards do, at a corpulent 
canon, and criticise what he practises, but take care to respect what he 
preaches. You will often be asked if you are a Christian, meaning a 
Eoman Catholic ; the best answer is, Cristiano, si, JRomano Catolico, 
no. Distributors of Protestant tracts will labour in vain, and find that 
to try to convert a Spaniard is but waste of time. The influence of 
the Voltaire school with the propagandism of revolution and atheism, 
has sapped much, both of the loyalty and religion, of the old 
Castilian ; but however the cause of the Vatican may be injured, that 
of Protestantism is little advanced : for there is no via media, no Bible 
in Spain ; Deism and infidelity are the only alternatives, and they are 
on the increase. The English are thought to have no faith at all, — to 
believe neither in the Pope or Mahomet, but in gold and cotton alone ; 
nor is this to be wondered at in Spain, where they have no ostensible 
religion ; no churches or churchyards ; no Sundays or service, except 
as a rare chance at a seaport in some consul's parlour. Being rich, 
however, and strong, they escape the contumely poured out in Spain on 
poor and weak heretics, and their cash is respected as eminently catholic. 

Conform, as nearly as you can, to the hours and habits of the natives, 
get up early, which is usual throughout Spain ; dine or rest in the middle 
of the day, for when everybody is either at table or the siesta, it is no use 

Spain. XX 7. hints ox conduct. 121 

to be ranning about sight-seeing when you are the only person awake. 
On all occasions pay with both hands ; most locks in Spain are to be 
picked with a silver key, and almost every difiBculty is smoothed by a 
properly administered bribe, and how small an additional per centage on 
the general expenditure of a tour through Spain is added by such trifling 
outlays ! Never therefore, cross the Pyrenees to wage a guerrilla warfare 
about shillings and half-crowns. N.B. Have always plenty of small sil- 
ver coins, for which great is the amount of peace, good will, and having 
your own way, to be purchased in Spain,where backshish, as in the East, is 
the universal infallible " open sesame^'' and most unanswerable argument. 
A Spanish proverb judiciously introduced always gives pleasure, nor 
need you ever fear ofifering your cigar case, petacay to any Spaniard, 
still less if your tobacco be of the legitimate Havana ; for next to 
pesetas, rank cigars, as popular instruments of waxing in the favour of 
Iberian man, and making him your obedient servant. 

When on a riding journey, attend to the provend ; take a mosquitero 
or musquito net, and some solution of ammonia, the best antidote to 
their stings ; avoid all resistance to robbers when overmatched ; keep 
your plans and movements secret ; never rub your eyes except with 
your elbows, los qfos con los codos, but use hot water to them frequently, 
or a lotion of calomel and rose-water ; never exercise them in prying 
about barracks, arsenals, and citadels, and still less in sketching any- 
thing connected with military and national defences, which are after all 
generally but beggarly shows of empty boxes. 

Letters of Introduction are desirable^ In cities, where a lengthened 
stay is contemplated, their utility is obvious. They may be procured 
and taken on tours and excursions, but need not always be presented. 
Of service in cases of difficulties, they involve otherwise much loss of 
precious time in visits and in formal intercourse with strangers, whom 
one never saw before and may never meet again ; and for your life avoid 
being carried off from the posada to a hospitable native's house, if 
freedom and taking " ease in mine own inn " have any charms. 

In choice of lodgings, especially in winter, secure upper floors which 
have a southern aspect. The sun is the fire-place of Spain, and where 
his vivifying rays enter, the doctor goes out ; and, dear reader, if you 
value your life, avoid the sangrados of Spain, who wield the shears of 
the fatal sisters. Fly also, from the hrasero, the pan of heated charcoal, 
the parent of headache and asphixia ; trust rather to additional clothing 
than to charcoal, especially to flannel ; keep your feet warm and the head 
cool, by avoiding exposure to midday sun and midnight bottle : above all 
things, carry not the gastronomies of the cold north into the hot south. 
Live as the natives do, consuming little meat and less wine ; sleep the 
midday siesta as they do, and avoid rash exposure to the delicious cool 
night breezes. Sleep high, avoiding the ground floor, as the poisonous 
Malarias of fine climates creep on earth, and more so by night when they 
are condensed, than by day ; throw physic to the dogs, avoiding con- 
stipation and trusting to diet and quiet ; a blue or a rhubarb dinner pill 
generally will suffice. Cod liver oil may as well be taken out by 
consumptive travellers, as it is dear, indifferent, and rare in Spain. 

Next to the Spanish bandit and doctors, with whom your purse or 
life are in danger, avoid investments in Spanish insecurities. Nothing 

Spain, — I. <* 


a ** shop-keeper nation " justly dislikes more than a fraudulent bank- 
rupt or a stock exchange repudiator : it is safer to buy our Three per 
Cent Beduced at 100, than Spanish Five per Cents, at 35. 

When you have letters of introduction to any Spaniards, both ladies 
and gentlemen should be very particular in being well dressed on the 
first visit of etiquette : black is the correct colour of ceremony. Call 
yourself with your credentials. Ladies should come in a carriage, as 
venido en coche is a mark of respect. If the parties called upon be out, 
leave your credentials and card, writing on the comer of the latter E, P., 
which means en persona. When you ring at the door, probably an 
unseen person will exclaim, " Quien esf* "Who's there?" The 
correct countersign is, " Gente de paz," " Persons of peace." As the 
first visit is always formal, observe how you are treated, and practise 
the same behaviour exactly when the call is returned. You will be 
conducted to the best room, the sola de estradoy and then led up to the 
sofa, and placed on the right hand. Very great care will be paid, or in 
our time used to be paid, to your hat — type of grandeeship — which a 
well-bred Spaniard seizes and seats on a chair as if it were a person : be 
careful to pay this compliment always to your visiting friend's beaver. 
When you get up to take leave, if of a lady, you should say, " A los pies 
de V. (ti8ted)f Senora,^* "My lady, I place myself at your feet;" to 
which she will reply, " Beso a V, la mano, CahaUero,^^ " I kiss your 
hand. Sir Knight :" " Vdya F. con Dios, que F. lo pose hien,^^ " May 
you depart with God, and continue well ;" to which you must reply, 
" Quede F. con Dies y la Virgen,^^ " May you remain with God and the 
Virgin." Ladies seldom rise in Spain to receive male visitors ; they 
welcome female ones with kisses both at coming and going. A gentleman 
must beware how he offers to shake a Spanish lady's hand, as it is never 
done, except when the hand is offered for better or worse ; it disarranges 
her mantilla ; nor should he give her his arm when out walking. On 
leaving a Spaniard's house, observe if he thus addresses you, " Mta casa 
estd muy a la disposicion de F. cuando gtiste favorecerla,^^ " This house is 
entirely at your disposal, whenever you please to favour it." Once thus 
invited, you become a friend of the family, una de nosotros, de lafamilia. 
If the compliment be omitted, it is clear that the owner never wishes to 
see you again, and is equivalent to an affront. When a lady makes a 
visit, a well-bred host hands her down stairs to the door of her carriage, 
taking her by the hand ; but properly no pressure is admissible, although 
such things have occurred. Remember always to pay a visit of cere- 
mony to your male and female friends on their birthdays, or el dia de 
su santo, and to attend to your costume and put on your best black : on 
New Year's day bring some small gift with you, as an estrena. If, 
when you call, are admitted, and a Spanish lady happens to be alone, 
you should not shut the door, as according to the laws of all social pro- 
priety it must be left open, or at least ajar. In walking with a Spaniard, 
if you wish to show him respect, take care to let him be inside of the 
two, tu comes exterior : the same nicety of relative position should be 
observed in seating him on a sofa or in a carriage. A well-bred man 
always when he meets a lady makes way for her, passing outside ; 
although the strict rule in street-walking, which, from their narrowness 
and the nice point of honour of touchy passengers, has been well defined. 

Spain. XX7. forms of ooubtesy. 123 

is tbat whoever has the wall on his or her right hand is entitled to 
keep it. 

On passing soldiers on duty, remember that the challenge of a Spanish 
sentry is " Quien vive V* The answer is ** Espaiia." Then follows 
" Que gente f " The answer is " Paisano," The sooner and clearer 
strangera answer the better, as silence rouses suspicion ; and in Spain a 
shot often precedes any explanation. 

When you meet your Spanish friends, stop, uncloak, uncover, and 
attend carefully to the whole process of greetings in the market-placo. 
These things are not done there in our curt and ofif-hand How are 
you ? way. You must inquire after the gentleman's own health, that of 
his wife (como estd mi Senora la esposa de F.), his children, et cetera, 
and then you will be thought to be a hombre tan formal y cumplido 
como nosotros, that is, as well-bred as a Spaniard. If wben walking 
with a Spaniard you pass your own house, do not fail to ask him whether 
he will not step in and untire himself a little, " No quiere V, entrar en 
€sta 8U casa, y descansarse tm ratito ?" You beg him to come into ^«, 
not your house, for thus you offer it to him. 

This offering obtains throughout. If a Spaniard admire anything 
belonging to another, his friend instantly places it at his disposal, estd 
Tnuy a la disposicion de V. The proper reply is a bow, and some sort 
of speech like this : Oractas, esta muy bien empHeado, or Oracia>8, no 
puede mejorarse de dueno. Thanks, it is already in excellent hands ; 
it cannot better its master by any change. In like manner, and espe- 
cially when outside cities, if any Spaniards pass by when you are lunch- 
ing, picnicking, or eating, never fail to invite them to share your meal, 
by saying, Qusten ustedes comber f will your graces be pleased to dine? 
To omit this invitation is a flagrant breach of the laws of hospitality ; 
nor is it always a mere compliment on their part, for every class of 
Spaniard is flattered if you will partake of their fare. However, it is safer 
to decline with the set speech, Muchas gracias^ buenprovecho le haga d 
nstedes, Never at all events, in this or on other occasions, omit these 
titular compliments. Phrases and forms of address are exjAnents of 
national character, and how superb is the pomp and circumstance of 
these swelling semi-Orientals ; here every beggar addresses a brother 
mendicant as SenoTy Don, and CdbaUerOy as a lord or knight. As all 
are peers, all are " Vuestra Merced,*^ " Your Grace," which, when not 
expressed in words, is understood and implied by the very grammar, as 
the mode of addressing in the third person, instead of in our curt second 
" you," has reference to an implied title. In towns there is scarcely 
any dinner society, and luckily ; nor is such an invitation the usual 
compliment paid to a stranger, as with us. Spaniards, however, although 
they seldom bid a foreigner, will accept his bidding. It is necessary, 
however, to " press them greatly ;" for the correct national custom is to 
decline. Kemember also to apply a gentle violence to your guest, to 
induce him to eat, and if you are dimng with him, let your stomach 
stretch a point ; for unless you over-eat yourself, he will fancy that 
you do not like his fare. He will assuredly heap up your mess most 
profusely, for, as in the East, where dinners are scarce, quantity is the 
delicate mark of attention. It was in our time by no means imusual 
for strangers, after eating ices or taking coffee at a public caf^, to find, 
when they went to pay, that the bill had already been discharged by 



some unkuown Spaniard. Accordingly, if you see friends of yours thus 
refreshing themselves, pretty ladies for instance with whom you wish 
to. stand well, you may privately t«ll the waiter that you will be 
answerable for their account. It is very easy afterwards, when you 
meet with your fair friends, to let them infer who was their unknown 
benefactor. It was sometimes rather dangerous to accompany an ex- 
travagant Andaluza out shopping, a las tiendaSy as a well-bred man of 
the old Spanish school was bound never to allow her to pay for anything. 
This custom, however, has got somewhat obsolete since the French 
invasion, good money and manners having become considerably scarcer 
in consequence of that visitation. 

All Spaniards, however, are still prodigal to each other in cheap 
names and titles of honour ; thus even beggars address each other as 
Seiior y CdbaUero^ Lord and Knight. The most coveted style is ExceU 
Uncia, your Excellency, or, as it is pronounced, Vuesenda, and it only 
belongs to grandees and men in highest office. The next is Vuestra 
Senoria, your Lordship, of which the abbreviated form is Usia ; this 
belongs to titulos de CastiUay to men who are titled, but not grandees. 
It is, however, very seldom used, except by the lower classes, who, 
when they want to toady an Englishman, will often say, For vida del 
demonic mas sahe Usia que nosotros — ^by the devil's life, your Lordship 
knows more than we do ; which, if a traveller has this Handbook, is 
very likely to be the fact, as the natives generally know nothing. The 
common form of YOu is Usted ; vuestra merced, your grace. It is 
generally written simply V., or in older books V™d. If you do not 
know a Spaniard's Christian name, it is well-bred to insert the de, the 
German Von. Thus Senor de Munoi is the appellation of a gentleman ; 
8e7wr Mimoz that of a nobody. When the Christian name is used 
with the title Don (Dominus, Lord), this Don becomes exactly equi- 
valent to our knightly Sir, and never must be prefixed to the patro- 
nymic by itself. Thus you must say Don Hernando Munoz, and not 
Don Muiioz, which sounds as ridiculous and ignorant to Spanish ears 
as Sir Peel does to ours. 

Spaniards, when intimate, generally call each other by their Christian 
names, and a stranger may live among them and be known to all the 
town as " Don Bicardo," without half a dozen persons in it being aware 
of what his patronymic is. The custom of tutear — the endearing 
tutoyer, unusual in England except among quakers, is very prevalent 
among familiar friends, and is habitual among grandees, who consider 
each other as relatives, primosty cousins. 

The forms of letter-writing differ also from ours. The correct place 
of dating from should be de esta su casa, from this your house, wherever 
it is ; you must not say from this my house, as you mean to place it at 
the disposition of your correspondent ; the formal Sir is Muy Senor 
mio ; My dear Sir, is Muy Senor mio y de todo mi aprecio ; My dear 
Friend, is Mi apreciaUe amigo : a step more in intunacy is querido 
amigo and quertdo Don Juan, All letters conclude after something in 
this fsishion-^uedando en el interin S. S, S* [su seguro servidor] 
Q, S. M, B. [que su mano hesa\ This represents our " your most 
obedient and humble servant ;" a more friendly form is ** Mande Vmd. 
con toda franqueza a ese S, 8, S, y amigo a/^no. Q^ s, M, j5." AVhen 

lady is in the case, P [pies} is substituted for M, as the gentleman 


Spain. XXV. modes of address, etc. 125 

kisses her feet. Ladies sign sw servidora y amiga ; clergymen, 8u S, S, 
y capeilan ; nulitary men seldom omit their rank. Letters are gene- 
rally directed thus : — 

Al Sefior, 

Don Fulano Apodo 

B. L. M. 


R. F. 
Most Spaniards append to their signature a Ruhrica, which is a sort 
of intricate flourish, like a Runic knot or an Oriental sign-manual. 
The sovereign often only rubricates, as Don Quixote did in the matter 
of the jackasses : then his majesty makes his mark, and does not sign 
his name. 

The traveller is advised at least to visit and observe the objects 
pointed out in the following pages, and never to be deterred by any 
Spaniard's opinion that they are " not worth seeing." He should not, 
however, neglect looking at what the natives consider to be worth a 
foreigner's attention. As a sight-seeing rule in towns, make out a list 
of the lions you wish to see, and let your lacquey de place arrange the 
order of the course-, according to localities, proper hours, and getting pro- 
per permissions. As a general habit ascend towers in towns to under- 
stand topography; visit the Plazas and chief markets to notice local fishes, 
fowls, fruits, and costumes — these are busy sites and scenes in this 
idle, unbusiness-like land ; for as Spaniards live from hand to mouth, 
everybody goes there every day to buy their daily bread, &c., and 
when nightfall comes the royal larder is as empty as that of the poorest 
venta — and then, as elsewhere, be more careful of keeping your good 
temper than sixpences : never measure Spanish things by an English 
standard, nor seek for motes in bright eyes, nor say that all is a 
wilderness from Burgos to Bailen, Scout all imaginary dismals, dangers, 
and difficulties, which become as nothing when manfully met, and 
especially when on the road and in vewto. View Spain and the Spaniard 
e^i couUeur de rose, and it will go hard if some of that agreeable tint be 
not reflected on such a judicious observer, for, like a mirror, he returns 
your smile or fi-own, your courtesy or contuniely ; nor is it of any use 
going to Rome if you quarrel with the Pope. Strain a point or two 
therefore, to " make things pleasant." Little, indeed, short'of fulsome 
flattery, will fully satisfy the cormorant cravings of Spanish self-love 
and praise appetite ; nay, facts and truths, when told, and still more, 
, when printed, by a foreigner, are set down as sheer lies, libels, or ab- 
* surdities — mentiras y dispirates ; and are attributed to the ignorance and 
jealousy of the rest of mankind, all conspired to denigrate " Spain, the 
first and foremost of nations." Remember, also, that " to boast of 
their strength is the national weakness ;" and the Spaniards, in their 
decrepitude, talk and swagger as if Charles V. still wielded their sceptre, 
and as if their country — ^blotted from the map of Europe — were the 
terror, the envy, and admiration of the whole world : whatever, therefore, 
we may think and know to the contrary, it is generally the most pru- 
dent and polite to smile and pass silently on, like Milton, con volto 
schiolto e pensieri stretti. Con qui, huen viaje I 

— -— '* Si quid novisti rectins istis 
Candidus imperti, si non —his utere mecxim.' 

( 126 ) 

Sect. ir. 




Eiugdom of Andalucia ; its Histoiy and Geography ; Character of the People ; 

Language and Country ; Skeleton Tours. 



Cape St. Yincent; Cadiz; Bay of Cttdiz; 
Isla de Leon. 


BarroBa; Trafalgar; The Straits; Tarifa; 
Algedras; Carteia. 

STEAM 163 

San Lucar ; the Gnadalqaivir. 


JjAitd 155 

Xerez ; wines ; Utrera; AlcaU de Gnadaira. 

B0T7TE 5. — ^XEBEZ TO SEVILLB . 161 

Hogner; Lepe; Normans in Spain. 

Niebia; shooting ; Goto del Rey. 


Excursion to Italica 212 

BOUTE 8.— A MINING TOUB . . 216 
Rio Tinto ; Araoena; Llerena ; Almaden. 


Carmona; Ec^a; Cordova; And^Jar; Bai- 
len ; Navas de Tolosa ; La Mancha ; Val- 
depeiias; Ocaila; Arai^ez. 

BEAL 246 





The kingdom or province of Andalucia, in fadlity of access and objects of 
interest, must take precedence oyer all others in Spain. It is the Tarshish of 
the Bible, the " uttermost parts of the earth," to which Jonah wished to flee. 
This " ultima terrse " was called Tartessus in the uncertain geography of the 
ancients, who were purposely kept mystified by the jealous Phoenician merchant 
princes, who had no notions of n-ee trade. This vague general name, Tarshish, 
uke our Indies, was appHed sometimes to a town, to a nyer, to a locality ; but 
when the Ilomans, after the fiedl of Carthage, obtained an undisputed possession 
of the Peninsula, the S. of Spain was caUed Bsetica, from the riyer Beetis, the 
Guadalquivir, which intersects its fairest portions. At the Gothic invasion this 
proyince, and part of Barbary, was oyerrun by the Vandals, whence some assert 
that both sides of the straits were called by the Moors Vandalucia, or JBeMd- 
al-Andaloshf the territory of the Vandal ; but in the word Andalosh, the land 
of the West (Hesperia), a sounder etymology may be found. Here, at all 


a — 




.. Sect 

Andalnda. pbotincial chabacteb. 127 

events, at the fidl of the Gfothic role, as in a congenial soil, the Oriental took 
onoe more the deepest root, and left the noblest traces of power, taste, and 
intelligence, which centuries of apathy and neglect haye not entirely effaced — 
here he made his last desperate struggle. ' 

The Moorish divisions into Los Cuatro ReinoSy the "Four Kingdoms," 
viz. Seville, Cordova, Jaen, and Ch'anada, still designate territorial divisions, 
which occupy the S. extremity of Spain ; they are defended from the cold N. 
table-lands by the barrier mountains of the Sierra Morena — a corruption of 
the Montes Marianos of the Romans, and not referring to the tawny-hrotion 
colour of its siunmer hortus siccus garb. The four kingdoms contain about 
8283 square L, composed of mountain and valley ; the grand productive locality 
is the biEtsin of the Chiadalquivir, which flows under the Sierra Morena. To the 
S.E. rise the moimtains of Bonda and Chranada, which sweep down to the sea. 
As their summits are covered with eternal snow, while the sugar-cane ripens at 
their bases, the botanical range is inexhaustible : these sierras fuso are absolutely 
marble and metal-pregnant. The cities are of the highest order in Spain, in re- 
spect to the fine arts imd objects of general interest, while Gibraltar is a portion 
of England herself. Andalucia is admirably suited to our invaUds ; here winter, 
in our catph-cold acceptation of the term, is unknown. The genial climate 
forms, indeed, one of the multitudinous boasts of the natives, who pride them- 
selves on this ** happy accident" thus lavished on them by r iture, as if the 
bright skies were a making and merit of their own. Justly lough did the 
ancients place their Elysian fields amid these go][den orange grov < ; these were 
alike the seats of " the blessed, the happy, and long-Hved " of A icreon, as the 
homes of the rich and powerful of Holy Writ. These fovou hI regions, the 
sweetest morsel of the Feninstda, have always been the prize i prev of the 
strong man, no less than the theme of poets ; and the. ^ ians, m>m the 

remotest periods of history, have been more celebrated 7 ' 'd intellectual 

qualities than for the practical and industrial. They bx iered by their 

countrymen to be the Qasoons, the boasters and braggarts c 'ain ; and cer- 
tainly, from the time of Livy (xxxiv. 17) to the present, tl are the most 
*' imbeUeSy^ imwarlike, and immilitary. It is in peace and its j*ts that these 
gay, good-humoured, light-hearted children of a genial atmosphere excel ; thus 
their authors revived literature, when the Augustan age ditd at Bome, as 
during the darkest periods of European barbarism, Cordova v^as the Athens 
of the west, the seat of arts and science. Again, when the sui of Raphael set 
in Italy, painting here arose in a new form in the Velazque Murillo, and 
Cano school of Seville, the finest of the Peninsula. 

The Oriental imagination of the Andaludans colours everytning up to their 
bright sun. Their exaggeration, pondercunan, or giving weight to nothings, 
converts their molehills into mountains ; all their geese are swans ; invincible at 
the game of brag, their credulity is commensurate, and they end in even believ- 
ing their own li^. Everything with them is either in the superlative or diminu- 
tive. Nowhere will the stranger hear more frequently those talismanic words 
which mark the national ignoramus character — No se aahcy no se puede^ con- 
formcy the " I don't know ;" " I can't do it ; " " That depends ; " the Maiiana, 
pasado mananoy the "To-morrow and day after to-morrow ;" i e Boukray hal- 
houJcray of the procrastinating Oriental. Their 8dbe DioSy the , " Q-od knows," 
is the " Salem AUah " of the Moors. Here remain the Bakalum or VeremoSy 
"We will see about it ;" the Pek-^yi or muy bieny " Very well ; " and the In- 
shallah, si Dios quierey the " If the Lord will j " the Ojalay or wishing that 
God would do their woric for them, the Moslem's Inxo-Allahy the old appeal 
to Hercules. In a word, here are to be found the besetting sins of the 
Oriental $ his indifferenoe, procrastination, tempered by a religious reeignati^ 

128 THE MAJO. Sect. II. 

to Providence. The natiyes are superstitious and great worshippers of the 
Virgin. Their proyince is her chosen land, La tierra de la Santisimay and prac' 
tieally the female worship of Astarte still exists in the universal absolute Mari- 
olatry of the masses, however differently the Koman Catholic religion may be 
understood theoretically by the esoteric and enlightened. SevUle was the 
head-quarters of the dispute on the Immaculate Conception, by which Spain was 
convulsed. The Andalucians are also remarkable for a reliance on supernatural 
aid, and in all circumstances of difficulty call upon their tutelar patrons, with 
which every town, church, and parish is provided. Yet, if proverbs are to be 
trusted, little moral benefit has been the result of their religious tendencies. Al 
Andaluz cata la Cruz {caia/r is the old Spanish for mirar) — " Observe how the 
semi-Moor Andalucian makes his cross." JDel Andaluz guarda tu capa y 
cap«2;;.keep a look-out after your cloak and other chattels. In no province 
have smugglers and robbers (convertible terms) been longer the weed of the soil. 
In compensation, however, nowhere in Spain is el trato, or friendly and social 
intercourse, more agreeable than in this pleasure-loving, work-abhorring 
province. The native is the gracioso of the Peninsula^ a term given in the 
playbills to the cleverest comic actor. Both the graciay wit, and elegance, and 
the sal Andaluza are proverbial. This salt^ it is true, cannot be precisely called 
Attic, having a tendency to gitanesque and tauromachian slang, but it is almost 
the national language of the smuggler^ bandit, hull-fighter, da/ncer, and Majo^ 
and who haa not heard of these worthies of Baetica P^the fame of Contra' 
handista, Ladron, Torero, Bailarin, and Mojo, has long scaled the Pyrenees, 
while in the Peninsula itself, such persons and pursuits are the rage and dear 
delight of the young and daring, of all indeed who aspire to be sporting cha- 
racters. Andalucia the head-quarters of the *' &ncy," or (ificion, is the cradle 
of the most eminent professors, who in the other provinces become stars, 
patterns, models, and the envy and admiration of their applauding countrymen. 
The provincial dress, extremely picturesque, is that of Figaro in our theatres ; 
and whatever the merits of tailors and miUiners, Nature has lent her hand in 
the good work : the male is cast in her happiest mould, tall, well-grown, strong, 
and sinewy ; the female, worthy of her mate, often presents a form of matchless 
symmetry, to which is added a peculiar and most &scinating air and action. 
The Mc0o is the dandy of Spain. The etymology of this word is the Arabic 
Major, brilliancy, splendour, jauntiness in walk, qualities which are exactly 
expressed in the costume and bearing of the character. He glitters in velvets, 
filigree buttons, tags, and tassels ; his dress is as gay as his sun ; external ap- 
pearance is indeed all and everything with him. This love of show, hoato, is 
by some derived from the Arabic " shouUng ; " as his fiivourite epithet, bizarro, 
"distinguished," is from the Arabic bessard, "elegance of form," The word 
mqjo again, means an out-and-out swell, somewhat of the "tiger," muy 
Janfaron ; fanfaronade in word and thing is also Moorish, as fa/nfar and 
hinchar both signify to " distend" and are applied in the Arabic and in the 
Spanish to la^ narices, the inflation of the barb's nostrils, and, in a secondary 
meaning, to pretencion, puffed out pretention. The Majo, especially if crudo^ 
or boisterous and raw, is fond of practical jokes ; his outbreaks and " larks " 
are still termed in Spanish by their Arabic Tisanes, jarana,jaleOf i, e. khalara^ 
** waggishness." 

The lively and sparkling aemi-Moro Andalucian is the antithesis of the grave 
and decorous old Gotho-Castilian, who looks down upon him as an amusing 
but undignified personage. He smiles at his harlequin costume and tricks as he 
does at his peculiar dialect, and with reason, as nowhere is the Spanish language 
more corrupted in words and pronunciation ; in fact, it is scarcely intelligible 
^*'^ a true Toledan. The ceceo, or pronouncing the c before certain vowels as an 

ArvMwsia. A theee months' toub. 129 

«, and the not marking the th dearlj — for example, plater (placer) for plather 
— is no less offensiye to a fine grammatical ear than the habit of dippmg the 
Queen's Spanish. The Oastilian enmidates every letter and syllable, while the 
Andalucian seldom soimds the d between two vowels ; lo comej he eats it, and 
says, comiOy qtterio, ffanao, for camido, querido, gomado ; no vale nd, no hay ndy 
for no vale nada, no "hay nadd, and often confomids the double I with the y, 
saying galUmgoe for ga/j/a/ngos. 

The fittest towns for summer residence are Granada and Bonda ; Serille 
and Malaga suit inyahds during the winter, or Gibraltar, where the creature 
comforts and good medical advice of Old England abound. The spring and 
autumn are the best periods for a mere tour in Andalucia ; the summers, except 
in the mountain districts, are intensely hot, while the rains in winter render 
locomotion in the interior almost impracticable. The towns on the coast are 
easily visited, as constant intercommunication between Cadiz and Malaca is 
kept up by steamers, which touch at Gibraltar and Algedras. The roads in 
general are infiunous — ^mere mule tracks, owing nothing to art except the turn- 
pike toll ; while canals are wanting, alike for trade or irrigation, and the rivers 
are ceasing to be navigable from neglect. There is much tsdk of the rail, as soon 
as the struggle who is to have the greatest share of plunder in the concessions 
and schemes^ is settled by the "powers that be." 

The river Guadalquivur is provided with steamers to Seville j but with the 
exception of the road from Cadiz to Madrid, and that from Malaga to Granada, 
there are no decent public carriages. The primitive Bedouin conveyance, the 
horse, prevails, and is much to be preferred to the galeras, or carriers waggons, 
which drag through miry ruts, or over stony tracks made by vnld goats ; into 
them no man who values time or his bones will venture. In spite of a fertile soil 
and beneficent climate, almost half Andalucia is abandoned to a state of nature. 
The soil is covered with lentisks, Liquorice and PaJmitoSy the indigenous weeds, 
and other aromatic underwood, and is strewed with remains of Moorish ruins. 
The land, once a paradise, seems cursed by man's ravage and neglect. Here 
those two things of Spain, the dehesas y despohlados, will be frdly understood 
by the traveller as he rides through lands once cultivated, now returned to 
waste, and over districts once teeming with life, but now depopulated, and who will 
thai and there leam completely to decline the verb "rough it " in all its tenses. 

A Thbee Months' Totte. 

This may be effected by a combination of Steam, Biding, and Coaching. 

April. Gibraltar, S. April. Cordova, C. May. LaiJaron, R. June. Loja, C. 

Tarifa,B. Andujar, C. Beija, R. Antequera,R. 

Cadiz, R. Jaen, R, or June. Motril, R. Ronda, R. 

Xerez^C. May. Bailen, C. Velez Malaga, R. Gibraltar, R. 

San Lncar, C. Jaen, C. Alhama, R. 

Seville, 8. Granada, C. Malaga, R. 

Those going to Madrid may ride from Bonda to Cordova by Osuna. Those 
going to Estremadura may ride from Bonda to Seville, by Moron. 


Seville Cordova^ R. Cabo de Gata Marbles. 

Villa Nueva del Rio, R... Coal. Batten, C. Adra, R. Lead. 

Rio Tinto, R. Copper. linares, R Lead. Beija, R. Lead. 

Almadende la Plata, R...Silv. Baeza.R Lead. Granada, R. Marbles. 

Onadakanal, R. Silver. Segora* R. Forests. Malaga, C. 

Almaden, R. .Quicksilver. Baza, R. Marbella, R. Iron. 

Excursion to Logrosan, R. Pnrchena,R. Marbles. Gibraltar, R. 

Phosphate of Lime. Macael, R Marbles. 

^ o 



RoxTTB 1. — Southampton to Cadiz. 

The better plan is to proceed direct 
to Cadiz, wh/^ the change of climate, 
Boenery, men, and manners effected by 
a six dftys' voyage is indeed remarkable. 
Quitting the British Channel, we soon 
enter the *' sleepless Bay of Biscay," 
where the stormy petrel is at home, and 
where the gigantic swell of 'the Atlantic 
is first checked by Spain's iron-bound 
coast, the monntain breakwater of Eu- 
rope. Here The Ocean will be seen in 
all its yast majesty and solitude : grand 
in the tempest-lashed storm, grand in 
the calm, when spread out as a mirror ; 
and nerer more impressive than at 
night, when the stars of heayen, free 
from earth-bom mists, sparkle like dia- 
monds oyer those "who go down to 
the sea in ships and behold the works 
of the Lord, and his wonders in the 
deep." The land has disappeared, and 
man feels alike his weakness and his 
strength ; a thin plank separates him 
from another world ; yet he has laid 
his hand upon the billow, and mastered 
the ocean ; he has made it the highway 
of commerce, and the binding link of 

The average passage of the steamers 
from Southampton to Cadiz, stoppages 
in GkOHcia and Portugal included, is 
about seven days, and the first land 
made is the N.W. coast of Spain, whose 
range of mountains, a continuation of 
the Pyrenean vertebr®, forms, as we 
have said, the breakwater of Europe 
against the gigantic swell of the At- 
lantic. For La Coruna and Vigo see 
Index. Omitting Portugal, as foreign 
to this Handbook, the voyage from 
Lisbon to Cadiz averages between 30 
and 35 hours. When wind and weather 
permit, the cape of St. Yincent is 
approached sufficiently near to see the 
convent perched on the beetling cliff, 
and to hear its matin or vesper bell, 
and see a fine rotary light, ecUpsed 
every two minutes. The Montchiqite 
-ange of mountains rises nobly behmd 

the background. 

ISl Cabo de 8an Vicente, the Cape 

of St. Vincent, is so called from one of 
the earliest Spanish saints, Vinoentius, 
a native of Zaragoza, who was put to 
death by Dacian, fit Yalencia, in 304. 
The body, long watched over by crows, 
was removed to this site at the Moorish 
invasion, miraculously guarded by these 
birds ; and hence the convent buHt over 
the remains was called by the infidels 
Kemsata-l-gordb^ the church of the 
crow. According to their geographers, 
a crow was always placed on the roof, 
announcing the arrival of strangers, 
cawing once for each ; and the point 
to this day is termed by the nativea 
El Monte de los Cuervos. About 1147 
Alonso I. removed the holy body to 
Portugal, two of the crows acting as 
pilots, just as Alexander the Great was 
guided over the desert to the temple 
of Jupiter Ammon. The Spanish crows 
are blazoned on the arms of the city of 
liBbon. These birds continued to breed 
in the cathedral, and had regular rents 
assigned for their support. Dr. Ckddes 
(Tracts, iii. 106) saw many birds there 
" descended from the original breed, 
living witnesses of the miracle, but no 
longer pilots." For the legend consult 
Prudentius, Perist., v. 5; Morales, Coro- 
mcGt X. 341 ; JEep, Saffr, viii. 179, 231. 

This promontory, always in fact a 
"Holy Head," a sort of Samothrace, 
was the Kowcov, Ouneus, of the an- 
cients; here existed a circular druid- 
ical temple, in which the Iberians be- 
heved that the gods assembled at night 
(Strabo, iii. 202) . Hence the Bomans, 
availing themselves of the hereditary 
Behgio Loci, called the mountain Mons 
Sacer, a name still preserved in the 
neighbouring hamlet Sagree, founded 
in 1416 by Prince Henry of Portugal, 
who here pursued those studies which 
led to the discovery of the circumnavi- 
gation of Africa. Sagres was once 
considered the most western point of 
Europe, and to which, as the first meri- 
dian, all longitudes were referred. 

The waters which bathe these shores 
have witnessed three British victories. 
Here, Jan. 16, 1780, Bodney attacked 
the Spanish fleet under Langara, cap- 
tured 6 and destroyed 2 men-of-war ; 

^ndcducia. eoute L— cadiz — inns — auiTARs, etc. 


had the action taken place in the 
day, or had the weather been even 
moderate, *' none^" as he said in 
bis dispatch, *' wouldT have escaped." 
Here, Feb. 14, 1797, Jervis, or rather 
^ebon (although not mentioned in 
Jervis' dispatch), with 15 small ships, 
defeated 27 huge Spaniards, ** rattlmg 
through the battle as if it had been a 
sj)ort," taking 4 prizes, and saving 
Lisbon from Godoy, the tool of France. 
Here, again, July 3, 1836, Napier, with 
6 small ships, b^t 10 Portuguese men- 
of-war, and placed Don Pedro on the 
throne of Portugal. 

Bounding the cape and steering S.E., 
we enter the bay of Cadiz ; the moun- 
tain range of Bonda, landmarks to 
ships, are seen soaring on high, while 
the low maritime strip of Andaluda Ues 
unperceived. For aU this coast, con- 
sult the Derroteros, by "Vicente Tofino, 
2 vols. 4ta, Mad. 1787-9. Soon £adr 
Cadiz rises from the dark blue sea Hke 
a line of ivory palaces ; the steamers 
generally remain here about 3 h., be- 
fore proceeding to Gibraltar. What 
a change from Southampton! What 
local colour, what dazzlmg blues and 
whites, as we near this capital of 
southern seas, so young, so gay, bright 
and clear as Aplu*odite when she rose 
from the waves here ! And how strange 
the people of this new clime, with black 
eyes and ivory teeth, bronzed cheeks, 
shaggy breasts, and sashes red! The 
landing, when the sea is rough, is often 
inconvenient, and the sanitary precau- 
tions tedious. It is carrying a joke 
some lengths, when the yellow cada- 
verous Spanish AecUth officers inspect 
and suspect the ruddy-fekied Britons, 
who hang over the packet gangway, 
bursting from a plethora of beef and 
good condition ; but fear of the plague 
is the bugbear of the South, and 
Spaniards are no more to be hurried 
than our Court of Chancery. Extor- 
tionate boatmen, who sit like cormo- 
rants on the coast, crowd round the 
vessel to land passengers ; the proper 
charge is a peseta a person, and the 
word taHffa is their bugbear. There is 
the uBUtu trouble with the .<i<^»enw, 

ResguardoSy and other custom-house 
officers, who are to be conciliated by 
patience, courtesy, a cigar. 

Cadiz. Inns. — Hotel JSlancOy No. 
60, on the Alameda, with a fine sea 
view ; very good. Blanco himself is 
trustworthy and intelligent; English 
Hotel — Ximenes, No. 164, Alameda ; 
Hotel de Ewropa ; Oriente, in French 
and Spanish style ; Ouatro Na- 
clones. Plaza de Mina. An excellent 
casa de pupilos in the CaUe de San 
Alefandro, kept by Mrs. Stanley, is 
well fitted for private families and 
huiies. Gk>od lodgings and fare may 
be had at Juan Munoz, 117, C. del 
Baluarte. The fans, mantillas of Cadiz 
(Spanish mantillas imported into Eng- 
land pay a duty of 16 per cent.), rank 
next to those of Valencia and Barce- 
lona ; the gloves are excellent, especially 
the white kid, six reals the pair. Ladies* 
shoes are very ^ cheap and good, as the 
feet at Cadiz are not among the ugUest 
on earth. The town is famous for sweet- 
meats, or dulcesy of which Spaniards, and 
especially the women, as in the East, eat 
vast quantities, to the detriment of their 
stomachs and complexions. The Calle 
Ancha is the Begent Street of Cadiz. 

There is a good Casino or club on 
the^ Plaza San Antonio, into which 
strangers are easily introduced by their 

The Cadiz guitars, made by Juan 
Pajra and his son Josef, rank with the 
violins and tenors of Straduarius and 
Amati : the best have a backboard of 
dark wood, called Palo Santo. The 
floor-mattings are excellent : the finest 
are woven of a flat reed or junco (the 
effusus of LinnsBus), which grows near 
Lepe and Elche ; these and the coarser 
Esteras used for winter are designed in 
fanciful Oriental patterns, and can be 
made to any design for 6 to 8 reals 
the va/ra : they last long, and are very 
cool, dean, and pleasant. Visit one of 
the manufactories to see the operatives 
squatted down^ and working exactly as 
the Egyptians did 3000 years ago. 

Books to consvM. — For the antiqui- 
ties, &randezas, by Jn. Ba. Suarez df 
Salazar, 4to., Cadiz, 1610; Empoi 



Sect. II. 

de el Orhe, Q^ronimo de la Conception, 
folio, Amsterdam, 1690 ; Cadiz Fheni- 
cia, Ms. de Mondejar, 3 yoIs. 4to., Mad. 
1805 ; Higtoria de Cadiz, 1598, Orosco, 
4to., 1845 ; Mawuel de la Provincia; 
Luis de Igartvbwru, 4to., Cadiz, 1847. 

A couple of days will suffice for see- 
ing this city, whose glories belong rather 
to the past than the present. 

Cadizy long called Cales by the Eng- 
lish, although the oldest town in Eu- 
rope, looks one of the newest and 
cleanest. The rust of antiquity is com- 
pletely whitewashed over, thanks to an 
Irishman, the Gk)vemor O'Eeilly, who, 
about 1785, introduced an English sys- 
tem. It is well built, payed, lighted, 
and so tidy, thanks to the sewer of the 
circumambient sea, that the natives 
compare Cadiz to a taza de plata, a 
silver dish (Airabic^ tad). It rises on 
a rocky peninsula of concreted shells 
(shaped like a ham), some 10 to 50 feet 
above the sea, which girdles it around, 
a narrow isthmus alone connecting the 
main land ; and in fact Gaddir, in 
Punic, meant an enclosed place (Fest. 
Av. Or. Mar. 273). It was foimded 
by the Phoenicians 347 years before 
Borne, and 1100 before Christ (Arist. 
' De Mir.* 134 ; Vel. Pat. L 2. 6). The 
Punic name was corrupted by the 
Ghreeks, who caught at sound, not 
sense, into Tahi^a, quasi yvs iu^a, a 
neck of land, whence the Koman Gudes. 
Gaddir was the end of the ancient 
world, the " ladder of the outer sea," 
the mart of the tin of England, and 
the amber of the Baltic. The Phoe- 
nicians, jealous of their monopoly, per- 
mitted no stranger to pass beyond it, 
and self has ever since been the policy 
of Cadiz. Gaddir proved false to the 
Phoenicians when Carthage became 
powerful ; and, again, when Rome 
rose in the ascendant, deserted Car- 
thage in her turn, some Gtulitanian 
refugees volunteering the treachery ; 
(Livy, xxviii. 23). ^sar, whose first 
office was a qusestorship in Spain, saw, 
like the Duke (Disp. Feb. 27, 1810), the 
■^•-nportance of this key of Andalucia 
^1, C, ii. 17). He strengthened it 
works, and when Dictator gave 

imperial names to the city, " Julia Au- 
gusta Gkulitana ; " and a fondness for fine 
epithets is still a characteristic of its 
townsfolk. Qiules became enormously 
rich by engrossing the salt-fish mo- 
nopoly of Some: its merchants were 
princes. Balbus rebuilt it with marble, 
setting an example even to Augustus. 

This town was the great lie and lion 
of antiquity ; nothing was too absurd 
for the classical handbooks. It was 
their Venice, or Paris; the centre of 
sin and sensaal civilization ; the pur- 
veyor of gastronomy, ballets, and other 
matters for which the Spaniard of old, 
"Dedecorum pretiosus emptor," paid 
par excellence (Hor. Od. iii. 6, 32). 
Italy imported from it those improhce 
GaditafUB, whose lascivious dances were 
of Oriental origin, and still exist in the 
Romalis of the Andalucian gipsies. The 
prosperity of Ghkdes fell with that of 
Rome, to both of which the foundation 
of Constantinople dealt the fijrst blow. 
Then came the Goths, who destroyed 
the city ; and when Alonso el Sabio — 
the learned not wise — captured Eadia 
from the Moors, Sept. 14, 1262, its ex- 
istence was almost doubted by the in- 
faUible Urban IV. ^ The discovery of 
the New World revived the prosperity 
of a place which alone can exist by 
commerce, and since the loss of the 
Transatlantic colonies ruin has been 
the order of the day. Hence the con- 
stant struggle during the vrar to send 
out troops, and expend on their re- 
covery the means furnished by Eng- 
land for the defence of the Peninsula. 
The population of Cadiz in the war 
time, which exceeded 100,000, has now 
dwindled down to some 53,000, Made 
a free warehousing port in 1829, a 
fillip was given, but the privilege was 
abolished in 1832, since which it is 
rapidly decaying, as it cannot compete 
with Gibraltar and Malaga, while even 
the sherry trade is passing to the 
Puerto and San Lucar. It has a joint- 
stock bank and issues its own notes. 

Cadiz was sacked June 21, 1596, by 
Lord Essex, when Elizabeth repaid, 
with interest, the visit of the Spanish 
invincible armada. The e^>edition was 




80 secretly planned, that none on board, 
saye the chiefs, knew its destination. 
An officer named Wm. Morgan, who, 
having lived in Spain, knew the dila- 
pidated state of her defences, advised 
instant attack ; and so the garrison was 
found wanting in every thing at the 
critical moment, and was instantly 
taken. Antonio de Zuniga, the oorre- 
gidor, having been the first to run and 
&11 to his prayers, when every one else 
followed their leader's example. GDhe 
booty of the conquerors was enormous ; 
13 ships of war, and 40 huge South 
American galleons were destroyed, 
whereby an almost universal bank- 
ruptcy ensued, and the first blow was 
dealt to falling Spain, and from which 
she never recovered. The best account 
is by Dr. Marbeck, physician toLordEs- 
sex, and an eye-wihiess, Hakliiyt, L 607. 

Cadiz was again attacked by the 
English in 1625; the command was 
given to Lord Wimbleton, a grandson 
of the great Burleigh. This was a 
Walcheren expedition, ill-planned by 
the incompetent Buckingham, and mis- 
managed by the general, who, like the 
late Lord Chatham, proved that genius 
is not hereditaij ; (see Journal and 
Belation, &c., London, 4to., 1626). 
Another English expedition fsdled in 
August, 1702. This, says Burnet, 
« was ill-projected and worse executed." 
The attack was foolishly delayed, and 
the Spaniards had time to recover their 
alarm, and organize resistance ; for 
when the English fleet arrived in the 
bay, Cadiz was garrisoned by only 300 
men, and must nave been taken, as the 
Duke of Ormond told Burnet. 

Cadiz in the recent war narrowly 
escaped, and from similar reasons. 
When the rout of Ocana gave Anda- 
lucia to Soult, he turned aside to Se- 
ville to play the "conquering hero." 
So Alburquerque, by taking a short cut, 
had time to r^ich the Isla^ and make a 
show of defence, which scared Victor. 
Had he pushed on, the city must have 
-fallen ; for everything was then, as now, 
-most orientally out of order, the forti- 
:fications b^ng almost dismantled. The 
2K>ld front presented by Alburquerque 

saved the town. He soon after died in 
England, broken-heartedat the injustice 
and ingratitude of the Cadiz Junta. 
Thus Spain generally rewards those who 
serve her best. Previously to his timely 
arrival, the junta, " reposing on its own 
greatness," had taken no precautions, 
nay, had resisted the English engineers 
in their proposed defences, and had 
insulted us by unworthy suspicions, 
refusing to acbnit a British garrison, 
thus marring the Duke's admirable plan 
of defending Andalucia. They despised 
him when they were safe : " Sed ubi 
periculum advenit invidia atque su- 
perbia postfuere" (Sallust, B.C. 24). 
Then they put away their envy and 
pride, and clamoured for aid in their 
miserable incapacity for self-defence 
with bated breath and whispering hum- 
bleness ; and Qeneral Spencer was sent 
from Gibraltar with 2000 men, the 
Duke simply remarking on withdraw- 
ing our troops after they l^ad done the 
work, " it may be depended upon, that 
if Cadiz should ever again be in danger, 
owr aid will be called for" (Disp. Nov. 
11, 1813). And never let this true key 
of Spanish policy be forgotten. That 
semi-Moorish government, so long as 
the horizon at home and abroad is fisur, 
will bully and bluster, will slight and 
ill-use England, its best friend; but 
whenever " the little cloud " arises, 
whether from beyond the Pyrenees or 
the Atlantic, it will hurry to kiss the 
hand it stunig, and will petition for 
help in craven consciousness of impo- 
tence. The real strength of Spain con- 
sists in its weakness, and in the for- 
bearance and endurance of other and 
real Powers. 

The first step the Cortes took was to 
meditate a law to prevent anv foreign 
soldiers (meaning English) from ever 
being admitted into a Spanish fortress ; 
and this aft;er Cadiz, Cartagena, Tarifii, 
Alicante, Ceuta, &c., had been soleljf 
defiended and saved by their assistance. 
Now-a-days, according to Spanish his- 
tories, Cadiz is the " bastion where the 
finest troops in the world were baffled 
by Spaniah valour alone ;" for the Md- 
lados and Co. do not even mention t 



Sect. II. 

English. So it has always been and 
will be : Spain, at the critical moment, 
loves to fold her arms and allow others 
to drag her wheels out of the mire ; she 
accepts their aid uncourteously, and as 
if she was thereby doing her allies an 
honour; she borrows their gold and uses 
their iron ; and when she is deUyered, 
"repudiates;" her notion of re-payment 
is by ingratitude; she draws not even on 
the " exchequer of the poor" for thanks ; 
nay, she filches from her benefactors 
their good name, decking herself in their 
plumes. The memory of French »»;«ri&« 
is less hateful than that of EngUsh bene- 
fits, which wounds her pride, as evincing 
her comparative iuferiority. 

Cadiz, being the " end of the world," 

. has always been made the last asylum 
of gasconading goyermnents, einoethej 
can run no further, because stopped by 
the sea: hither, after prating about 
Numantia, the Junta fled in 1810, set- 
ting the example to their imitators ia 
1823. Then the Cortes- of Madrid 
continued to chatter, and write imper- 
tinent notes to the allied sovereigns, 
until Angoul^me crossed the Bidasoa ; 
when they all forthwith took to their 
heels, fled to Cadiz, and next surren- 
dered. Thus this city, which so long 
resisted the mighty Emperor, because 
defended by England, when left to its 
single-handed valour, succumbed with 
such precipitation that the conquest 
became inglorious even to the puny 
Bourbon. Yet the city still glories hi 
the epithet *^Heroica" one in truth 
so common to Spanish cities, that the 
French, in 1823, when the mayors came 
out with their pompous titles and keys 
to surrender them itutcmier, scarcely 
could refrain from laughter. 

Cadiz, purely a commercial town, has 
Uttle fine art or learning ; les lettrea de 
change y sont lea belles lettrea. It is 
scarry even th&jocosa Gadea of the 
past ; for the society being mercantile, is 
considered by Spaniards as second-rate. 
The women, however, fascinate alike by 
their forms and manners. Cadiz, it is 

-juiid, is rather the city of Venus, the 

^-■er of love, than of the chaste 

; and the frequiency of consump- 

tion in so fine a climate may be traced 
to the early, general, and excessive in- 
dulgence. The wretched foundlings in 
the hospital La Cuna die como chinches;: 
this mortality, it is said — a modem 
massacre of the innocents — averages 75 
per cent. The lower orders have bor- 
rowed from foreigners many vices not 
common in' the inland towns of tem- 
perate and decent Spain. Cadiz, as a 
residence, is but a sea-prison ; the 
water is bad, and the clunate during 
the Solcmo wind (its sirocco), detest- 
able; then the mercury in the baro- 
meter rises six or seven degrees, and the 
natives are driven almost mad, espe- 
cially the women ; the searching blast 
finds out everything that is wrong in 
the nervous constitution. The use of 
the knife is so common during this 
wind, that courts of justice make al- 
lowances for the irritant efiects, as 
arising from electrical causes, the pass- 
ing over heated deserts. Cadiiz used to- 
be much visited by yellow fever — el vo- 
mito negro — which was imported from 
the Havana. The invalid will find the 
soft and moist air somewhat relaxing ;. 
but the city is well ventilated by fresh 
breezes, and the sea is an excellent 

There are very few good pictures at 
Cadiz. The new Museo contains 8om& 
50 or 60 second-rate paintings, hun- 
dreds of books and pictures having 
been left to rot on the floors by the 
authorities ; among the best, or rather 
the least bad, are, by Zurbaran, the- 
San Bruno — Eight Monks, figurea 
smaller than life, from the Cartuja of 
Xerez; twoAngelsdittOjandsixsmaller; 
the Four EvangeUsts, San Lorenzo and 
the Baptist. There is a Virgen de la 
Faja, a copy after Murillo, by Tobar ; 
a San Agustin, by L. Giordano ; a 
San Miguel and Evil Spirits, and the 
Ghiardian Angel. The pride of the- 
Ghiditanians is the Last Judgment^ 
which, to use the criticism of SaLvator 
Bosa on Michael Angelo, shows their 
lack of that article, as it is a poor pro- 
duction, by some feeble imitator of 
Nicholas Foussui. An echo also greatly 
amuses grown up children. 

Anddlucia. route 1. — the cathedrai^ of cadiz. 


Cadiz. is a garrison town, the see of 
a bishop suffragan to Seville. It has a 
fine new Plaza de Toros, built outside 
the town by Montes, who half ruined 
himself thereby. It has two theatres ; 
in the larger, iH Frincipal, operas are 
performed during the winter, and in 
the smaller, el del Balon, Sainetes, 
&roes, and the national JSailes or 
dances, which never fail to rouse the 
most siestose audience. Ascend the 
Torre de la Viffia, below lies the 
smokeless whitened city, with its mira- 
dores and azoteaSy its look-out towers 
and flat roo&, from whence the mer- 
chants formerly signalised the arrival 
of their galleons. While Madrid has 
not one, Cadiz possesses two cathedrals 
near each other. The old one. La 
Viefa, was buHt in 1597, to replace 
that injured during the siege. Its 
want of dignity induced the city, in 
1720, to commence a new one, La 
Nuevas but the plans given by Yicente 
Acero were so bad that no one, in spite 
of many attempts, was found able to 
correct them, so the work was left unfi- 
nished in 1769, and the funds, derived 
from a duty on American produce, 
were regularly appropriated by the 
commissioners to themselves. The 
hull, used as a rope-walk, remained, 
like a stranded wreck on a quicksand, 
in which the merchants* property was 
engulphed, until the interior was com- 
pleted by Bp. Domingo de Silos Moreno, 
chiefly at his own expense, during a 
time of civil war and church sequestra- 
tions. The florid Corinthian is over- 
charged with cornices and capitals, and 
bran-new pictures — daubs. Observe, 
however, in a chapel behind the high 
altar, a fine Concepcion by Mmillo. 
There is a history of this cathedral by 
Jamer de Urrutia, 1843. 

The sea-ramparts which encircle the 
city, extending more than 4 m. round, 
are on this side the most remarkable ; 
here the rocks rise the highest, and the 
battering of the Atlantic is the greatest 
as the waters gain on the land ; their 
maintenance and rebuilding is a con- 
stant source of expense and anxiety. 
Here idlers, seated on the highwi 


dispute with flocks of sea-birds for the 
salmonetef the deUcious red mullet. 
•Their long angling-canes and patience 
are proverbial — la paciencia de un pes- 
cador de cana. 

Los CapuchinoSf the suppressed con- 
vent of San Francisco, were the head- 
quarters of Lord Essex in 1596. Here 
is the Academia de Nobles Artes, with 
a museum, consisting chiefly of rubbish, 
and shabbily managed because of the 
old story " no funds." The building is 
now used as a lunatic asylum. The 
Plaza de Mina has been created out of 
the convent garden : then and there 
the 2>ra^on-tree, bleeding from the 
tomb of Gteryon, the last of its race, 
was barbarously cut down, and even 
the matchless palm-grove shorn of its 
glories. The chapel contains the Mar- 
riage of St. Catherine, the last work of 
Miuillo, who in 1682 fell here from the 
scaffolding, and died in consequence 
at Seville : the smaller subjects were 
finished from his drawings by his pupil 
Fro. Meneses Osorio, who did not ven- 
ture to touch what his master had done 
ui the first lay of colours, or de primer a 
mono. A San Francisco receiving the 
Stigmata is in Murillo's best manner. 
Notice also in a chapel opposite a 
Concepcion. These pictures were the 
gift of Juan Yioleto, a Genoese, and a 
devotee to St. Catherine ; but the chief 
benefiEtctor of the convent was a foreign 
Jew, one Pierre Isaac, who, to con- 
ciUate the Inquisition, and save his 
ducats, took the Virgin into partner- 
ship, and gave half his profits to her, 
or rather to the convent. Some single 
figures by Zmrbaran came from the 
Cartuja of Xerez. 

Following the sea-wall and turning 
to the rt. at the Puerta de la Caleta, 
in the distance the fort and lighthouse 
of San Sebastian rises about 172 ft. 
above the rocky ledge, which proved 
the barrier that saved Cadiz from 
the sea at the Lisbon earthquake in 
1755. Next observe the huge yellow 
Doric pile, the Casa de Misericordia^ 
built by Torquato Cayon. This, one 
of the best conducted refuges of t>t« 
poor in Spain, sometimes contains 1 



inmates, of which 300 to 400 are chil- 
dren. Its great patron was O'Reilly, 
who, in 1785, for a time suppressed 
mendicity in Cadiz. The court-yards, 
the patios of the interior, are noble. 
Here, Jan. 4, 1813, a ball was given 
by the grandees to " the Duke," firesh 
from his victory of Salamanca, by 
which the siege of Cadiz had been 
raised, and Andalucia saved, in spite 
of the marplot Cortes. 

Passing the artillery barracks and 
■arsenal, we turn by the haluarie de 
Candelaria to the Alameda. This 
charming walk is provided with trees, 
benches, fountain, and a miserable 
statue of Hercules, the founder of 
Cadiz, and whose effigy, grapplmg with 
two lions, the city bears for arms, with 
the motto **Ghtdi8 fundator domina- 
torque." Every Spanish town has its 
public walk, the cheap pleasure of all 
classes. The term Alameda is derived 
from the AlamOf or elm-tree. Some- 
times the esplanade is called SI Salon, 
the saloon, and it is an al-fresco, out 
of doors RidoUo. Tomar el fresco, to 
take the cool, is the joy of these south- 
em latitudes. Those who have braved 
the dog-days of the Castiles can best esti- 
mate the delight of the sea-breeze which 
springs up after the scorching sun has 
sunk beneath the western wave. This 
sun and the tides were the marvels of 
Cadiz in olden times, and descanted 
on in the classical handbooks. Philo- 
sophers came here on purpose to study 
the phenomena. Apollonius suspected 
that the waters were sucked in by sub- 
marine winds ; SoUnus thought this 
operation was performed by huge sub- 
marine animals. Artemidorus reported 
that the sun's disc increased a hundred 
fold, and that it set, like Falstaff in 
the Thames, with " an alacrity of sink- 
ing, hot in the surge, like a horse-shoe," 
or stridentem gwrgite, according to Ju- 
venal. The Spanish G-oths imagined 
that the sim returned to the E. by 
unknown subterraneous passages (San 
Isid. Or, iii. 15). 

The prosaic march of intellect has 

"^'^'ed the poetical and marvellous of 

t credulity and admiration; 

still, however, this is the spot for the 
modem philosopher to study the de- 
scendants of those " QadAta/MBi^ who 
turned more ancient heads tluui even 
the sun. The " ladies of Cadiz," the 
theme of our old ballads, have retained 
all their former celebrity, and have 
cared neither for time nor tide. Ob- 
serve, particularly in this Alameda^ 
their walk, about which every one has 
heard so much, and which has been 
distinguished by a competent female 
judge from the "affected wriggle of 
the French women, and the grenadier 
stride of the English, as a graceful 
swinmiing gait." The charm is that 
it is natural J and, in being the true 
unsophisticated daughters of Eve and 
nature, the Spanish women have few 
rivals. They carry their heads with 
the free high-bred action of an Arab, 
from walking alone and not slouching 
and leaning on gentlemen's arms, and 
daintily from not having to keep step 
with the longer-legged sex. They walk 
with the confidence, the power of 
balance, and the instantaneous find- 
ing the centre of gravity, of the cha- 
mois. The thing is done without effort, 
and is the result of a perfect organ- 
ization : one would swear that they 
could dance by instinct, and without 
being taught. The Andaluza, in her 
glance and step, learns, although she 
does not know it, from the gazelle. 
Her pace, el Tiafar, and her pride 
may be compared to the ^aso Cartel- 
lano of an ambling Cordovese barb. 
According to Yelazquez, the kings of 
Spain ought nev^ to be painted, ex- 
cept witching the world with noble 
horsemanship, and, certes, their female 
subjects should never be seen except on 
foot, St vera incessu patuit dea. As few 
people, except at Madrid, can afford 
to keep a carriage, all classes walk, and 
the air and soil are alike clean and dry. 
Practice makes perfect ; hence the elite 
of the noblesse adorn the Alameda, 
while in London the aristocratic foot 
seldom honours the dirty earth. 

The Gtiditana has no idea of not 
being admired. She goes out to see, 
and still more to be seen. Her cos- 




tume is scrupulously clean and neat ; 
she reserves all her untidyness for her 
husband and sweet domestic privacy. 
Her "pace" her aire is her boast : not 
but vrhat first-rate £eistidious judges 
consider her ^raoia to be menos fina 
than that of the more high-bred Sevil- 
lana. Her meiteo, however, is consi- 
dered by grave antiquarians to be the 
unchanged crissatura of Martial. 

The Spanish foot, female, which most 
travellers describe at length, is short, 
and with a high instep ; it is plump, 
not to say pinched or contracted. An 
incarceration in over-small and pointed 
shoes, it faut souffrvr powr itre helle^ 
occasionally renders the ankles pufff ; 
but, as among the Chinese, the correct 
foot-measure is conventional ; and he 
who investigates affairs with line and 
rule will probably discover that these 
Oaditanas will sooner find out the 
exact length of his foot, than he of 
theirs. The Spaniards abhor the 
French foot, which the rest of man- 
kind admire — they term it "«» pie 
eeco" dry measure. They, like Ariosto, 
prefer "il breve asciutto e ritondello 
pede." Be that as it may, there can be 
no difierence in opinion as to the 
stockings of open lace embroidery, 
medias caladas. They leave nothing 
to be desired. The Spanish satin shoe 
and white kid glove deserve the most 
serious attention of all our lady readers ; 
although the former are somewhat too 
pointed, and cut too low in the quarter, 
whereby the pressure is thrown for- 
ward, and the tarsus and meta-tarsus 
uncovered, which occasions bunions j 
but vanity can endure even a com. 

Formerly the Spanish foot female 
was sedulously concealed ; the dresses 
were made very long, after the Oriental 
9'«Sf7^*f>, Talaris fashion; the least ex- 
posure was a disgrace; compare Isa. 
iii. 17; Jer. xiii. 22; Ezek. xvi. 25. 
As among the Germans (Tacitus, Grer. 
19), so among the Spanish Goths, the 
shortening a lady's hasguina was the 
deadliest affiront; the catastrophe of 
the Infftntes of Lara turns upon this 
curtailment of Dofia Lambra's say a. 
The feet of the Madonna are never 

allowed to be painted or engraved; 
and it was contrary to court etiquette 
to allude even to the possibility of the 
Queens of Spain having legs : they 
were a sort of royal «ir«3«, of the bird 
of Paradise species. 

Those good old days are passed ; and 
now the under-garments of the maja 
and haUarina, dancer, are very short, 
they substitute a make-believe trans- 
parent ^co or fringe, after the Oriental 
fashion (Numb. xv. 38), or the old 
Egyptian (Wilk. ii. 81). The Cartha- 
ginian Limbus was either made of gold 
(Ovid, Met, iii. 61) or painted (JS!». 
iv. 237). Those of the maja are en- 
riched with cafwtilloy bugles or gold 
filigree. They are the precise xaXa^trte 
of the Greek ladies, the instita of the 
Roman. This short garment is made 
to look ample, it is said, by sundry 
zaffalefos or intimoSy under-petticoats, 
and ingenious contrivances and jupea 
houffawtes, bustles, and so forth ; no 
todo es oro, lo que reluce. 

The foot, although it ought not to 
be shown, figures much in Spanish 
compliment. A loa pies de Vmd. is a 
caballero's salute to a Senora. JBeso a 
Vmd. lospies is extremely polite. If a 
gentleman vidshes to be remembered to 
his friend's vdfe, he says, Lay me at 
her feet. 

Bemember, in walking on this or 
any other alameda, never to ofier a 
Spanish lady your arm, and beware, 
also, of the honest EngUshman's shake 
of a Spanish lady's hand, noli me tan- 
gere. She only gives her hand with her 
heart; contact conveys an electrical 
spark, and is considered shocking. No 
wonder, vdth these combined attrac- 
tions of person and costume, that the 
" Ladies of Cadiz" long continued to be 
popidar and to exercise that womano- 
crac^, that Twatxox^affM which Strabo 
(iii. 251) was ungallant enough to con- 
demn in their Iberian mothers. But 
Strabo was a bore, and these were the 
old complaintsagainstthe *'mantles and 
whimples," i. e. la^ soyas y mawHllas 
of the Tyrian women, who, as the 
scholar knows (II. vi. 290), embroi- 
dered the mantilla of Minerva's image 



Sect. IT, 

But Cadiz was the eldest daughter of 
Tyre, and her daughters naturally in- 
herited the Sidonian '* stretchiDg forth 
of necks, wanton eyes, walking and 
mincing as they go " (Isa.iu.6). Alas! 
for the sad changes making by the 
commonplace chapeau ! 

Barring these liying objects of un- 
deniable antiquarian and present in- 
terest, there is Uttle else to be seen on 
this Alameda of Cadiz. The principal 
building, JEl Carmen, is of the worst 
churri^tterismo : inside was buried 
Adm. Grayina, who commanded the 
Spanish fleet, and received his death- 
wound at Trafalgar. Continuing to 
the E. is the large Aduana or Custom- 
house, disproportioned indeed to fail- 
ing commerce and scanty reyenu^, 
and where ererything that is yicious 
and anti-commercial in tariffs is wor- 
thily carried out by officials hatefiil 
everywhere to travellers. Here Ferd. 
VII. was confined in 1823 by the con- 
stitutionalists. Thence the artist should 
pass to the Puerta del Mary for cos- 
tume, colour, and grouping. Here will 
be seen every variety of fish, and 
female from the mantilhad Senora to 
the brisk Mttchttcha in her gay panttelo. 
The ichthyophile should examine the 
curious varieties, which also struck 
the naturalists and gourmands of an- 
tiquity (Strabo, iii. 214). Here, as at 
GKbrsJtar, the monsters of the deep 
in form and colour, blubbers, scuttle- 
fishes, and marine reptiles, pass de- 
scription ; (Bs triplex indeed must have 
been about the stomach of. the man 
who first greatly dared to dine on 
them. The dog-fish, the JPintarojo, 
for instance, is a dehcacy of the omni- 
vorous lower classes, who eat every- 
thing except toads. The fish of the 
storm-vexed Atlantic is superior to 
that of the languid Mediterranean. 
The best here are the San Pedro, or 
John Dory, our corruption from the 
Italian Jamtore, so called because it is 
the fish which the Porter of Heaven 
caught with the tribute-money in his 
mouth ; the Salmonetea, the red mul- 
lets (the Sultan al hut, the king of 
" hes of the Moors) are right royal : 

have them fried simply in oil, and give 
directions that the trail, las trvpas, be 
left in them, which Spanish cooks, the 
worst in the world, otherwise take out ; 
here may be seen other fishes not to 
be found in Greenwich kitchens or in 
English dictionaries: e, g, the Juvel^ 
the Savalo, and the Mero, which latter 
ranks among fish as the sheep does 
among animals, en la tierra el camerOy 
en la mar el mero. But Ml doradoy 
the limated gilt head, so called from its 
golden eyes and tmts, if eaten with 
Tomata sauce, and lubricated with 
golden sherry, is a dish fit for a cardinal. 

The new prison and unfinished Ms- - 
cuela de Comercio are cited by natives 
among their hons. The handsome 
street, la CaUe Ancha, and in truth 
the jonly hroad street, is the lounge of 
the city ; here are all the best shops ; 
the ca^a^ consistoriales may be looked 
at. The chief square, and reaUy a 
square, planted, and provided with 
seats, is placed under the protection of 
San Antonio, because hiis statue in 
1648 came down from its pedestal to 
heal some sick. (Feyron, i. 243.) 

The Cortes of Cadiz sat during the 
war of independence in San Felipe 
JSferi. Their debates ended Sept. 14, 
1813: many are printed in 16 vols., 
4to. Diario de las Cortes, Cadiz, 
1811-12. This Spanish Hansard is 
rare, Ferd. VII. having ordered all the 
copies to be burnt by the hangman as 
a bonfire on the first birth-day after 
his restoration. Whoever will open 
only one volume must admit that the 
pages are the greatest satire — ^the Mo- 
niteur excepted — which any set of mis- 
rulers ever published on themselves. 
The best speech ever made there was 
by the Duke (Deo. 30, 1812), after his 
usual energetic, straightforward, Eng- 
Ush fashion. 

The members were perfectly insen- 
sible to the ludicrous (fisproportion of 
their inflated phraseology with facts ; 
vast. in promise, beggarly in perform- 
ance, well might the performers be 
called Vocales, for theirs was vox et 
prseterea nihil : an idiot's tale, full of 
sound and fury, signifying nothing, be- 

AruMuda. route 1. — ^el Puerto de santa maria. 


ing mere Palahras, palaver, or " words, 
words, words;" "a volley of words" 
instead of soldiers ; " a fbe exchequer 
of words " instead of cash. The curse 
of poor Spain are ih&se juntas or cortesy 
caricatures of parliaments, where things 
are talked about not done, or if done, 
done badly; it is adding insult to injury 
when the forms of free men are made 
instruments of tyranny. 

Now as few things alter in Spain, 
and none so httle as any goyeming 
body of any kind, hear the oracular 
Duke, who appears at once to have 
understood the Cortes by the instinct 
of strong sense : " The leading people 
among them have invcMriahly deceived 
the lower orders^ and instead of mak- 
ing them acquainted with their real 
situation, and calling upon them to 
make the exertions and the sacrifices 
which were necessary even for their de- 
fence, they have amused them with idle 
stories of imaginary successes, with 
yisionary plans of offensive operations, 
which those who offer them for consi- 
deration know they have no means of 
executing, and with the hopes of driving 
the French out of the Peninsula by 
some unlooked-for good** (Disp., May 
11, 1810). Again, " It is extraordi- 
nary that the revolution in Spain 
should not have produced one man 
with any knowledge of the real situ- 
ation of his countiT ; it really appears 
as if they were all drunk, thinking and 
talking of any objects but Spain : how 
it is to end (Jod knows !" (Disp., Nov. 
1, 1812). This, however, still is and 
has long been the hard lot of this ill- 
fated country. Spain, says Justin 
(xliv. 2), never, in a long series of ages, 
produced one great general except Y iri- 
atas, and he was but a guerrillero, 
like the Cid, Muia, or Zumalacarregui. 
The people, indeed, have honest hearts 
and vigorous arms, but, as in the East- 
em £fible, a head is wanting to the body. 
The many have been sacSnficed to the 
few, and exposed to destitution in peace 
and to misfortune in war by unworthy 
rulers, ever and only intent on their 
own selfish interests, to the injuiy 
of their fatherland and countrymen. 

Every day confirms the truth of the 
Duke's remark (Sept. 12, 1812) : " I 
really beHeve that there is not a man 
in the coimtry who is capable of com- 
prehending, much less of conductiag^ 
any great concern." 


A rail is in contemplation for thi» 
circuit ; but in Spain, a land where, a» 
in the East, time is of no value, and 
want of funds the chronic complaint,, 
the natives seldom do to-day what can 
be put off for to-morrow, their beloved 
Manana ; and well did our wise Bacon 
wish that his tardy death might come 
&om Spain: me venga la muerte de 
Espana. Even rail matters here move 
like our Court of Chancery; in fact> 
all love to leave something for poste- 
rity to do, and do not go to work, as- 
they say, con esaJUria que por dhi se 
acostumbra, como si el mundo sefuera 
adabar; so mean time take a boat. 

The outer bay is rather exposed!; 
the S.W., but the anchorage in the 
inner portion is excellent. Some dan- 
gerous rocks are scattered opposite the 
town, in the direction of BiOta, and 
are eddied Jjas Puercas, the Sows — 
Xufetiii ; for these porcine appellations 
are as common in Spanish nomencla- 
ture as among the ancients, and the 
hog-back is not a bad simile for many 
of such rocky formations. Mota lie& 
on the opposite (west) side of the bay, 
and is distant about five miles across.. 
Here the tent wine used for our sacra- 
ments is ma^e ; the name being nothing^ 
but the Spanish tintUla, from tinto^. 
red. The next point is La Puntilla^ 
and then that defended by the battery 
Sa, Catalina, 

El Pubbto db S*^- Mabia, Port 
St. Mary, and usually called el FuertOy. 
the port (o-Porto), was the Portus Me- 
nesthei (Le Min Asta, Portus Asts), a 
Pimic word, which the Greeks, who, aa 
usual, caught at sound, not sense, con- 
nected with the Athenian Menestheus. 
It lies distant from Cadiz 8 1. by land,. 
2 1. by sea. 

Inns. — Near the landing-place ifl the 
Vista alegre, which to a cheerful look- 



Sect. n. 

out unites cleannesB and sundry English 
conveniences rare on the continent. 
Here the Ghiadalete enters the hay ; 
the har is dangerous, and much ne- 
glected. In the days of sailing-hoats, 
prayers to the blessed souls in purga- 
tory and making crosses were chiefly 
resorted to ; now small steamers go 
backwards and forwards three times 
a day ; the passage takes from half 
to three-quarters of an hour. The 
Puerto is pleasant and well built ; 
pop. 18,000. The river is crossed by 
a suspension bridge : in the Plaza de 
Toros was given a grand bullfight to 
the Duke, described by Byron, better as 
apoet, than as a correct torero. The soil 
of the environs is rich, and the water 
so excellent that Cadiz is supplied 
with it to the cost of 10,000^. a-year, 
while ancient Glides was suppUed 
by an aqueduct, wliich O'Beilly would 
have restored hsid he remained in office. 

The Puerto f one of the three great 
towns of wine export, vies with Xerez 
and San Lucar. The principal houses 
are French and English. The vicinity 
to Cadiz, the centre of exchange, is 
favourable to business, while the road 
to Xerez is convenient for conveying 
down the wines, which i»*e apt to be 
staved in the water-carriage of the 
Guadalete. Among the best houses 
may be named Osborne and Duff Gor- 
don, whose AmowtUlado is matchless, 
Mousley, Oldham, Burdon and Gray, 
Pico, Mora, Heald, Gorman and Co. 
The hodegas or wine-stores deserve a 
visit, although those of Xerez are on a 
grander scale. The town is vinous 
and uninteresting : the houses resemble 
those of Cadiz : the best street is the 
Calle Larga ; the prettiest alameda is 
la Victoria. Here Ferd. VII. landed, 
Oct. 1, 1823, when dehvered &om the 
Constitutionalists by the French, and 
forthwith proceeded to violate every 
solemn pledge to friend and foe. Here, 
July 30, 1843, Baldomero Espartero, 
the Regent Duke, driven out by the 
intrigues of Louis Philippe and Chris- 
tina, concluded his first career on board 
a British line-of-battle ship. 

The bay now shelves towards Cdbe- 

zuela, and narrows as it draws to the 
inner division ; the mouth is defended 
by the cross-fires of the forts Mata- 
gorda and Puntales. At the latter 
Lord Essex landed in 1596 and did take 
Cadiz ; which Victor bombarded from 
the former and did not take. Now row 
up the Trocadero, which divides an 
islet from the main land. Fort San 
Luis, once a flourishing place, was 
ruined by Victor, an enemy, in 1812, 
and annihilated by Angoul^me, an ally, 
in 1823. Of his taking the Troca- 
deroy the glory of the Bestoration, 
even Messieurs Bory de St. Vincent 
and Laborde are ashamed. The French, 
led by the ardent and aquatic Gen. 
Goujon, passed through four and a 
half feet of water. " Les constitu- 
tionnels prirent alors la fuite," so the 
assailants, *'sans avoir perdu un seul 
homme," carried the strong fort, " sans 
effusion de sang." Those who fight and 
run away, may Hve to fight another day. 
Yet Mr. Campbell, when Bacchi plenus 
it is to be presumed, apostrophised 
these truly quick heroes as dead ones : 

*• Brave men, who at the Trocadero fell 
Beside your cannon, conquered not, though 

Matagorda was dismantled by Victor ; 
a few fragments may be seen at very 
low water. 

At the head of the Trocadero, and 
on an inner bay, is Puerto JReal^ 
founded in 1488 by Isabella. This, 
despite of its royalty^ is a tiresome 
poor and fishy place of parallel and 
rectangular streets. It was the head- 
quarters of Marshal Victor, who, by 
way of leaving a parting souvenir, de- 
stroyed 900 houses. Here a new basin 
for steamers blessed by the Bishop in 
1846, and waltzed in by the ladies, 
still excites the wonder of Cadiz. 
Opposite is the river or canal SawH or 
Sancti Petri (the Sancto Petro of olden 
chronicles), which divides the Isla from 
the main land. On the land-bank is 
one of the chief naval arsenals of Spain, 
La Carraca, the station of the Cor- 
racaSf the carrackSf galleons, or heavy 
ships of burden : a word derived from 
the low Latin carricare, to load, quoH 




sea-carts. The Normans myaded these 
coasts of Spain in huge vessels called 
kardkir, Tiina town, with the opposite 
one of San Carlos, was founded by 
Charles III. to form the Portsmouth 
and Woolwich of his kingdom. Pre- 
viously to the Bourbon accession Spain 
obtained her navies, ready equipped, 
from Flanders, but uised on by France, 
and made the tool of the family com- 
pact, she soon warred with England ; 
and now La CcMrraca^ like £1 Ferrol 
and Cartagena, tells the result of quar- 
relling with her natural Mend. These 
are emblems of Spain fallen from her 
pride of place through Bourbon friend- 
ship. Every thing speaks of a past 
magnificence. A present silence and de- 
solation contrast with the former bustle 
of this once-crowded dockyard, where 
were floated those noble three-deckers, 
Nelson's " old acquaintances." The 
navy of Spain in 1789 consisted of 76 
line-of-battle ships and 52 frigates ; now 
*' the Spanish fleet ye cannot see, because 
it's not in sight j" it is nearly reduced 
to that armada^ decreed to be built in 
birthday gazettes of 1853. In truth 
non-commercial Spain (Catalonia ex- 
cepted, which is not Spain) never was 
r^lly a naval power. The Arab and 
Berber repugnance to the sea, and the 
confinement of the ship, still marks 
the Spaniard ; and now the loss of her 
colonies has rendered it impossible for 
Spain to have a navy, which even 
CSiarles III. in vain attempted to force, 
although Mons. Gautier was his ship- 

How changed the site and scene 
from the good old times when Mago 
here moored his fleet, and Csesar his 
long gaUeys ; when Philip anchored the 
'Hwelve apostles," the treasure-galleons 
taken by Essex ; when Drake, in April, 
1587, with 80 small ships destroyed 
more than lOOFrench and Spanish "big 
braggarts," singeing, as he said, '* the 
King of Spain's whiskers ;" here were 
collected in after times the 40 sail of 
the line prepared to invade and conquer 
England — St. Vincent and Trafalgar 
settled that; here, in June, 1808, 5 
French ships of the line^ runaways 

from Trafalgar under Mons. Bosilly, 
surrendered nominally to the Spaniards, 
for Collingwood, by blockading Cadiz, 
had rendered escape impossible. 

The Santi Petri river, the water key 
of La Isla, is deep, and defended at its 
mouth by a rock-built castle. This, 
the site of the celebrated temple of 
Hercules, was called by the Moors 
" The district of idols." Those remains 
which the sea had spared have chiefly 
been used up by the Spaniards as a 
quanv. Park of the foundations were 
seen in 1755, when the waters retired 
during the earthquake. For the rites 
of tins pagan convent, see our paper 
in the Quar. Bev. cxxvi. 283. The 
river is crossed by the Puente de 
2ktazo^ so called from the alcaide Juan 
Sanchez de Zuazo, who restored it in 
the fifteenth century. It is of Boman 
foundation, and was constructed by 
Balbus to serve both as a bridge and 
an aqueduct. The water was brought 
to Cadiz from Tempul, near Xerez, but 
both were destroyed in 1262 by the 
Moors. The tower was bxiilt by Alonso 
el Sabio, who had better have restored 
the aqueduct. This bridge was the 
pons asinorum of Victor, as the En- 
glish never suffered him to cross it. 
Here the Marshal set up his batteries, 
having invented a new mortar capable 
of throwing shells even into Cadiz. 
The defeat of Marmont by the Duke 
at Salamanca recoiled on M. Victor 
— ctbntj excesgit, evcuUf erupit. Now 
his failure is explained away by the 
old story, "inferior numbers." The 
aUies, according to M. Belmas (i. 138), 
amounted to 30,000, of which 8000 
were English " men in buckram," 
« Victor ayant k peine 20,000." For 
once Napoleon told the truth at St. 
Helena when he said, Victor etait wn 
hSte, sons talens et sans tSte, 

IVom this bridge return by land 
through La Isla de Leon, so called be* 
cause granted in 1459 to the Ponce de 
Leon family, but resumed again by the 
crown in 1484. This island was the 
Erythreea, Aphrodisia, Cotinusa, Tar- 
tessus of the uncertain geography of 
the ancients. Here Geryon (ri^y, a 



Sect. II. 

fine old fellow, the Stranger in the He- 
brew) fed those fat kine which Hercules 
** lifted;" and whose golden fleeces-^ 
fine wool — tempted the Phoenecian ar- 
gonauts; and bis descendant the Giron 
(Duque de Osuna) is still the great 
Lord of Andalucia ; but the breed of 
cattle is extinct, for Bsetican beef, or 
rather vaca, cow, is now of the leanest 
kine, and the bulls are better for bait- 
ing than basteing. 

San Fernando, the capital of the Isla, 
is a straggling decaying town, but gay- 
looking with its fimtastic lattices and 
house-tops, and the bright sun which 
gilds the poverty. Here the Junta first 
halted in their flight, and spouted 
(Sept. 24, 1810) against the French 
cannon. Salt, the staple, is made in 
the Salinas and the marshes below, 
where the conical piles glisten like the 
white ghosts of the British tents, when 
our red jackets were quartered here. 
CThe salt-pans have all religious names, 
like the line-of-battle sbips (when there 
were any), the wine-cellars of Xerez, or 
the mine-shafts of Almaden, e,g. JEl 
dulce nombre de Jesus, &c. In these 
marshes breed innumerable small crabs, 
^angrejos, whose fore-claws are tit-bits 
for the Andaluz ichthyophile. These 
bocas de la Isla are torn off firom 
the hying animal, who is then turned 
Adrift, that the claws may grow again 
for a new operation ; chiuneleons also 
Abound. At No. 38, just below the 
Plaza, Kiego lodged, and proclaimed 
the "constitution" in 1820. The 
secret of this patriotism was a dislike 
in the ill-supplied semi-Berber army, 
to embark in the South Americ&n ex- 
pedition with which Ferdinand hoped 
to reinforce the blunderer Morillo. 

Passing the Torregorda, the busy, 
dusty, crowded, narrow road La Cal- 
zada is carried along the isthmus to 
Cadiz. Still called el camino de Creoles, 
it runs where ran the via Heraclea of 
the Romans, which led to his temple : 
nor is the present road much more 
.'Spanish, since it was planned in 1785 
by O'Beilly, an Irishman, and executed 
hy Du Bouriel, a Frenchman. 

A. magnificent outwork, La Corta- 

dura, cuts the isthmus, which, suppos- 
ing it had guns and men, and either 
were in efficient order, it would defend. 
Now Cadiz is approached amid heaps 
of filth, which replace the pleasant 
gardens demohshed during the war. 
To the left of the land-gate, between 
the Aguada and San Jose, is the Eng- 
Ush burial-ground, acquired andplanted 
by Sir John Brackenbury, father of the 
present consul, for the bodies of poor 
heretics, who formerly were buried in 
the sea-sands beyond high-water mark. 
Now there is " snug lying " here, which 
is a comfort to all Protestants who con- 
template dying at Cadiz, and are curious 
about Christian burial. 

Cadiz is soon entered by the land- 
gate, the Puerta de Tierra. The walls 
and defences are sadly dilapidated, and 
might be taken by a bold boat's crew. 
The grand secret in any warfare against 
Spanish fleets, forts, or armies, is to at- 
tack them instantly, as they will " al- 
ways be found wanting in eyerything 
at the critical moment." 

Cadiz is a good point of departure 
for ships. Vessels sail regularly for the 
Havana ; steamers proceed to England 
and Egypt, te Portugal and the Basque 
provinces and France ; also to Grib- 
raltar^ Valencia, and Marseilles. Others 
navigate the G-uadalquiver up to Seville, 
while diUgences run by land to Xerez 
and on to Madrid. The days and 
hours of departure will be seen pla- 
carded on every wall and are known at 
every inn. 

Route 2. — Cadiz to Q-ibealtab, by 
Los Babbios and Tabifa. 

Ghiclana '. 
Va. de Vejer 
Va. Taibilla 
Va. OJen . 
Los Barrios 
Gibraltar . 

The most expeditious mode is by steam, 
and the passage through the straits is 
splendid. The ride by land, for there 
is no carriage road, has been accom- 
plished by commercial messengers in 



16 .. 


U .. 


11 .. 


9 .. 


12 .. 





16 hours. Taking that route, the better 
plan is to leave Cadiz in the afternoon, 
sleep at CMclana the first night, and 
the second at TaHfa. Those who 
diyide the journey into two days, 
halt first at Vejer; jfrom hence there 
are two routes, which we give approxi- 
matively in miles — and such miles! 
The first route is the shortest. At the 
Venta de Ojen the road branches, a 
track leads to Algeciras, 10 m. ; it is a 
wild and often dangerous ride, espe- 
cially at the IVocha pass, which is 
infested with smugglers and charcoal- 
burners, who occasionally become ra^e- 
ros and robbers. At aU events, " attend 
to the provend," fill the bota with wine, 
and the basket with prog. The most 

interesting route is — 


Chiclana 13 .. 

Va. de Ve;Jer .... 16 .. 29 

Va-TaibiUa . . . . U .. 43 

Tarifa 16 .. 69 

Algeciras 12 .. 71 

Gibraltar 9 .. 80 

Quitting the Isla at the bridg3 of 
2uazo we reach ChiclcMa^ on a gentle 
sandy eminence. Pop. 4000. It is the 
laiiding ^not watering, place of the Cadiz 
merchants, who, weary of their sea- 
prison, come here to enjoy the terra 
firma. The air is pure and the baths 
luxurious. It is, moreover, a sort of 
medical Botany bay, to which the An- 
dalucian faculty- transports those many 
patients whom they cannot cure : in 
compound fractures and chronic dis- 
orders, they prescribe bathing here, 
. ass's nulk, and a broth made of a long 
harmless snake, which abounds near 
Barrosa. We have forgotten the ge- 
neric name of this valuable reptile of 
Esculapius. The naturalist should 
take one alive, and compare him with 
the vipers which make such splendid 
pork in Estremadura (see Montan- 
ches), or with lea viperes de PoUoUy to 
whose broth Mde. de Sevign^ attri- 
buted her good health. (Let. July 
8th, 1685.) From the hill of Santa 
Ana is a good panorama; 3 L. ofi*, 
sparkling, hke a pearl set in gold, on a 
lull where it cannot be hid, basks Me- 
dina Sidoma, Medinatu-Shidunah, the 

city of Sidon, thought by some to be 
the site of the Phoenician Asidon, but 
all these tit bits for the antiquarian 
are "Caviare to the general." Ths 
sulphur-baths here, especially the JVt- 
en^ amarga^ are much used in cuta- 
neous and cachetic complaints. 

The town looks pretty from afar 
with its white houses, gardens, and 
painted railings, but it is iU-paved, 
worse drained and lighted, and, in 
fact, is not worth visiting, being a 
whitened sepulchre full of decay ; and 
this may be predicated of many of 
these hill-fort towns, which, ghttering 
in the bright sun, and picturesque in 
form and situation, appear in the en- 
chantment-lending distance to be fiiiry 
residences : all this illusion is dispelled 
on entering into these dens or dirt, 
ruin, and poverty : reaUty, which like 
a shadow follows all too highly-excited 
expectations, darkens the bright dream 
of poetical fancy. Yet what would life 
be without hope^ which still cheers 
man on, undaunted by experience. 
Again, once for all, it may be said 
that generally the correlative of the pic- 
turesque is the uncomfortable, and the 
better the food for the painter's eye 
outside the town, the worse the chance 
of bed and board inside. 

Nothing can be more different than 
the aspect of Spanish villages in fine 
or in bad weather; as in the East, 
during wintry rains they are the acmes 
of mud and misery : let but the sun 
shine out, and all is gilded. His beam 
is like the smile which lights up the 
habitually sad expression of a Spanish 
woman. Fortunately, in the south of 
Spain, fine weather is the rule, and 
not, as among ourselves, the excep- 
tion. The blessed sun cheers poverty 
itself, and by its stimulating, exhila- 
rating action on the system of man, 
enables him to buffet against the moral 
evils to which coimtries the most fa- 
voured by climate seem, as if it were 
from compensation, to be more ex- 
posed than those where the skies are 
dull, and the winds bleak and cold. 
Medina Sidonia gives the ducal title to 
the descendants of Ghtzman el BuenOj 



Sect. 11. 

to whom all lands lying between the 
Gnudalete and Guadairo were granted 
for his defence of Tarifa. The city 
was one of the strongest holds of the 
fS&mily. Here the fascinating % Leonora 
de Guzman, mistress of the chivalrous 
Alonso X[., and mother of Henry of 
Trastamara, fled from the yengeance of 
Alonso's widow and her son Don 
Pedro. Here again that cruel king, 
in 1361, imprisoned and put to death 
his ill-fated wife Blanche of Bourbon, 
— ^the MaiT- Stuart of Spanish ballads, 
— ^beautiful, and, like her, of suspected 
chastity ; this execution cost Pedro his 
life and crown, as it furnished to France 
an ostensible reason for invading Spain, 
and placing the anti-English Henry of 
Trastamara on the throne. 

Leaving Chiclana, the track soon 
enters into wild sandy aromatic pine- 
clad, snake-peopled solitudes : to the 
r. rises the immortal knoll of Barrosa. 
When Soult, in 1811, left Seville to 
reUeve Badajoz, an opportunity was 
offered the Spaniards, by attacking 
Victor in the flank, of raising the siege 
of Cadiz. The expedition was in an 
evil hour entrusted to Manuel de la 
Pena, a fool and a coward, but the 
fitvoured creature of the Duchess of 
Osuna. The expedition was misman- 
aged by this incapable from beginning 
to end. In February, 11,200 Spani- 
ards, 4300 English and Portuguese, 
were landed at the distant Tarifa, 
when La Pena, instead of resting at 
Conil, brought the English to the 
ground after 24 hours oi intense toil 
and starvation. Graham, contrary to 
his orders, had injudiciously ceded the 
command in chief to the Spaniard, 
who, on arriving in the critical mo- 
ment, skulked himself away towards 
the Santi Petri, ordering Graham to 
descend from the Sierra del Puerco 
the real key, to the Torre Bermeja^ 
distant nearly a league. The French, 
who saw the error, made a splen- 
did rush for this important height : 
but the gallant Grrseme, although left 
alone in the plain with his feeble, 
starving band, and scarcely having time 
to form his lines, the rear rank fighting 

in front, instantly defied the united 
brigades of Buffi^ and Laval, com- 
manded by Victor in person, and having 
riddled the head of their columns with 
a deadly fire, then charged with the 
bayonet in the " old style :" an hour and 
a half settled the affair by a " sauve 
qui pent." Victor decamped, while 
La Pena did not even dare to follow 
up and finish the flying foe. No single 
stroke was struck that day by Spanish 
sabre: but assistance from Spain ar- 
rives either slowly or never. Socorros 
de Sspana tarde o "STTSQk, This is a 
very fisivourite Spanish proverb ; for 
the shrewd people revenge themselves 
by a refran on the culpable want of 
means and forethought of their incom- 
petent rulers : Gonzalo de CJordova 
used to compare such help fco San Telmo 
(see Tuy), who, like Castor and Pol- 
lux, never appears until the storm is 
over. Blessed is the man, said the 
Moorish general, who expects no aid, 
for then he will not be disappohited. 

Graham remained master of the 
field. Then, had La Pena, who had 
thousands of fresh troops, but moved 
one step, Barrosa would indeed have 
been contemporaneous with Torres 
Vedras, for on that very day Massena 
too began his retreat. Victor, when 
he saw that he was not followed, re- 
covered from his panic, and indited a 
bulletin, "how he had beaten back 
8000 Englishmen." Now-a-days our 
lively neighbours claim a more com- 
plete victory, and, entering into details, 
relate how Graham's triple hne, witli 
3000 men in each," was culbute by the 
French, who were " un centre deux," 
and that " the loss of the eagles was 
solely owing to the accidental death of 
the ensigns." How very unlucky ! 

Touching the real truth of this en- 
gagement at Barrosa, what says the 
Duke (Disp., March 25, 1811), to whom 
Graham had thought it necessary to 
apologise for the rashness of attacking 
with his handfrd two entire French 
divisions? — "I congratulate you and 
your brave troops on the signed victory 
which you gained on the 6th ; I have 
no doubt whatever that their succesa 




would have, liad the effect of raising 
the siege of Cadiz, if the Spanish troops 
had made any effort to assist them. 
The conduct of the Spaniards through- 
out this expedition is precisely the 
same as I have ever observed it to be : 
they march the troops night and day 
without provisions or rest, and abusing 
everybody who proposes a moment's 
delay to afford either to the fatigued 
or famished soldiers ; they reach the 
enemy in such a state as to be unable 
to make any exertion or execut-e any 
plan, even if any plan had been formed j 
they are totally incapable of any move- 
ment, and they stand to see their allies 
destroyed, and afterwards abuse them 
because they do not continue, unsup- 
ported, exertions to which human na- 
ture is not equal." La Peiia, once 
safe in Cadiz, claimed the victory as 
Jiia! and now the EngUsh are either 
not mentioned at all by Spanish his- 
torians (Tgartuburu, p. 179, Madoz, 
vii. 324), or the ultimate failure of the 
expedition is ascribed to our retreat! 
(Maldonado, iii. 29.) La Pena, el delin- 
cuente honrado, was decorated with the 
star of Carlos III.! and Ferd. VII., 
in 1815, created a new order for this 
brilliant Spanish victory ! ! The Cortes 
propounded to G-raham a grandeeship, 
as a sop, which he scornfully refused. 
The title proposed, Duque del derro 
del JPuerco (Duke of Pig's-hill), was in 
truth more euphonious among bacon- 
loving Spaniards than ourselves. 

Buonaparte attributed Victor's eiefeai 
to Sebastiani (Belm. i. 518, 25), who, 
influenced by jealousy of his colleague, 
confined himself to advancing to San 
JRoque^ where he remained pillaging. 

Barrosa was another ot the many 
instances of the failures which the 
disunion of Buonaparte's generals en- 
tailed on their arms. These rivals 
never would act cordially together : as 
the Duke observed when enclosing an 
intercepted letter from Marmont to 
Foy, " This shows how iAndsegemtry are 
going on ; in fact, each marshal is the 
7iaturalenQrD.j of the king (Joseph) and 
of his neighbouring marshal" (Disp., 
Nov. 13, 1811). 

Spain, — I. 

The ride from Barrosa to Tarifa 
passes over uncultivated, unpeopled 
wastes. The country remains as it was 
left after the discomfiture of the Moor, 
or looks as if man had not yet been 
created. To the r. is Conil. 3 L. from 
Cliiclana, and 1 L. from Cape Trafalgar. 
Pop. 3000. Bmlt by Guzman el Bueno, 
it was famous for its tunny fisheries. In 
May and June the fish return into the 
Atlantic from the Mediterranean . The 
almadrabay or catching, a most Arabic 
affair, as the name implies, used to 
be a season of great festivity. For- 
merly 70,000 fish were taken, now 
scarcely 4^000 j the Lisbon earthquake 
of 1755 having thrown up sands on 
the coast, by which the fish are driven 
into deeper water : the " aiun escahe- 
chado" or pickled tunny, is the Tct^t- 
Xi*»*i the " Salsamenta," with which 
and dancing girls, Gfides suppHed the 
Roman epicures and amateurs. Ar- 
chestratus, who made a gastronomic 
tour, thought the under fillet to be the 
incarnation of the immortal gods. 
Near Conil much sulphur is found. 

The long, low, sandy lines of 2Va- 
falgar (Promontorium Junonis, hence- 
forward Nelsonis) now stretch towards 
Tarifa; the Arabic name, Taraf-al- 
ghar, signifies the promontory of the 
cave. This cape bore about 8 m. N.E. 
over those hallowed waters where Nel- 
son, fehx opportunitate mortis, sealed 
the empire of the sea with his life- 
blood ; for things so great can only be 
carried through by death: Nelson was 
that glorious concentration of national 
spirit, which made and will make every 
EngUsh sailor do his duty to the end 
of time. 

Trafalgar — tanto nomini nullum par 
eulogium — changed Buonaparte's vi- 
sion'ary invasion of England, into the 
real one of France; England left now 
with no more enemies on the«<?a, turned 
to the land for an arena of victory. 
The spirit of the Black Prince and of 
Marlborough, of Wolfe and of Aber- 
crombie awoke, the sails were furled, 
and that handftd cf infantry landed 
on the most western rocks of the Pen- 
insula which marched in one triumph- 



Sect. II. 

ant course until it planted its red flag 
on the walls of Paris. This doing the 
old thing in the old style is thus plea- 
santly referred to by M. Foy, i. 197 : 
** Bientot cet art nouveau ! pour les 
Anglais allait leur devoir n^cessaire 
presque h, I'egal de la science navale." 

Nelson, on the memorable Oct. 21, 
1805, commanded 27 small ships of the 
line and only four frigates : the latter, 
his "eyes" were wanting as usual ; he 
had prayed for them in vain, from our 
wretched admiralty, as the Duke did 
afterwards. The enemy had 33 sail of 
the line, many of them three-deckers, 
and seven frigates. Nelson, as soon, 
as they ventured out of Cadiz, consi- 
dered them "his property ;" he "bar- 
gained for 20 at least." He never re- 
garded disparity of numbers, nor count- 
ed an enemy's fleet except when prizes 
after the battle — synonymous with him 
with victory. He, with hope deferred, 
had long chased them over wide seas, 
in full cry, every rag set, every sail burst- 
ing with impatience, and No. 16 sig- 
nal for "close action" hoisted; and now, 
when at last he saw them, it was to 
give his "Nelsonic touch" no "drawn 
battles now," but simple — Annihilation. 

Nelson was wounded at a quarter 
before one, and died 30 minutes past 
fom\ He lived long enough to know 
that his triumph was complete, and 
the last sweet sounds his dying ears 
caught were the guns fired at the flying 
foe. He died on board his beloved 
"Victory," and in the arms of its pre- 
siding tutelar, only 47 years old : "yet," 
says Southey, "he cannot be said to 
have fallen prematurely whose work 
was done, nor ought he to be' lamented 
who died so ftdl of honours at the 
height of human fame, and if the cha- 
riot and the horses of fire had been 
vouchsafed for Nelson's translation, he 
could scarcely have departed in a 
brighter blaze of glory. He has left us 
not, indeed, his mantle of inspiration, 
but a name and example which are at 
this hour inspiring thousands of the 
youth of England ; a name which is our 
pride, and an example, wliich will con- 
' lue to be our shield and our strength. 

Thus it is that the spirits of the great 
and wise continue to live and to act after 
them." This indeed is immortality. 

The Spaniards fought well at Tra- 
falga/r^ the nadir of their marine, as 
Lepanto was its zenith : Qravina, their 
gaUant noble admiral was wounded and 
died, refusing to have his arm amputa- 
ted, and telling Dr. FeUowes, that he 
was going to join Nehon, the "greatest 
man the world has ever produced." 

The French vice-admiral, Dumanoir, 
having kept out of the action, fled at 
the close, " backing liis topsails," says 
Southey, "to fire into the captured 
Spanish ships as he passed," when 
the indignant crews intreated to be al- 
lowed to serve against their quondam 
allies. This Dumanoir, with four run- 
aways, was caught, Nov. 4, ofl* Cape 
Finisterre by Sir Richard Strachan, 
when all were taken, liis own ship, the 
" Formidable" being the first to strike. 
This man, who, Southey thought, 
"ought to have been hanged in the 
sight of the remains of the Spanish 
fleet," was acquitted at Toulon, l]«cause 
he had ^^ manoeuvre selon V impulsion d/u 
DEYOIB et de fhonneur!^* and was 
made a coimt in 1814 by Louis XVIII. 
Nelson's notions of honour, duty and 
manoeuvring were after a different fa- 
shion. His manoeuvre — a nautical no- 
velty indeed — was to break the long 
line of the foe with a short double line ; 
a manoeuvre which few foreign fleets 
will try against an Enghsh squadron, 
whose guns would sink their opponents 
as they approached singly ; however 
accordmg to M. de Montferrier, *Dic- 
tionnaire de la Marine,' Paris 1841, 
" C'est ik cette science, la m^noeuvre^ 
que la marine Fran9aise doit toutes ses 
victoires; en effet, il n'y a point 
d'exemple, oil, k forces ^gales, une ar- 
m^ Anglaise nous ait battus !" 

Be that as it may, some how 
or another, this Tra&lgar ^^ settled 
JBonetf*^ by sea, to use the Duke^s 
phrase, when he did him that ser- 
vice by lands all his paper projects 
about "ships, colonies and commerce," 
all his fond phrases of "French lakes," 
were blown to the winds; accordingly. 

Andalucia. route 2. — ^French versions of Trafalgar. 


he omitted all allusion to Trafalgar 
in the French papers, as he after- 
wards did the Dune's victories in 
Spain. Thus Pompey never allowed 
his reverses in the Peninsula to he pub- 
lished (Hirt. B, H. 18). Buonaparte 
received the news of his misfortunes at 
Vienna, which clouded le soleil (TAus- 
terlitz with an EngUsh fog: his fury 
was imboimded, and he exclaimed, 
"Je saurai bien apprendre aux ami- 
rau^ Fran^ais k vaincre" (F, et C. 
XTI. 197). 

Five months afterwards he slightly 
alluded to this accidental disaster, as- 
scribing it, as the Spaniards falsely do 
the destruction of their invincible ar- 
mada, not to English tars, but the 
winds : " Les temp^tes nous ont fait 
perdre quelques vaisseaux, apr^s un 
combat imprudemment engage." Yet 
YiUeneuve had that decided numerical 
superiority without which, according 
to Buonaparte's express orders, an 
English fleet was never to be attacked 
and our sole unsubsidised allies, "les 
tempStes," in real truth occasioned to 
us the loss of many captured ships ; 
a storm arose after the victory, and the 
disabled conquerors and vanquished 
were buffeted on the merciless coast : 
many of the prizes were destroyed. 
The dying orders of Nelson, " Anchor, 
Hardy! Anchor!" were disobeyed by 
CoUingwood, whose first speech on as- 
suming the command was, "Well! 
that is the last thing that I should have 
thought of!" Collingwood also made 
another small mistake in his dispatch : 
Nelson did not "die soon afrer his 
wound 5" .he lived to gain the whole 

Although none on either side of the 
Pyrenees have yet claimed Trafalgar as 
their victory, yet all are convinced, had 
real nautiool valour and science not 
been marred by fortune and accident, 
that it ought not to have been ours. 
Every lie circumstantial was published 
at the time ; thus the Journal de JPa- 
ris, Dec. 7, 1805, added 8 ships of the 
line to the English squadron, whUe 
the Gazetta de Madrid, of the 19th, 
added 12. Although all these inven- 

tions are disposed of by Sir Harris Ni- 
colas in Nelson's Dispatches, immortal 
as those of the Duke, the controversy 
is not ended ; and the Spaniards have 
taken such offence at their allies' ver- 
sion of Trafalgar, as given by M. Thiers 
in his Histoire du Consulat, Lib. xxii., 
and especially at the sneer that five 
Spanish men of war then and there fled, 
having " sauv^ leur existence .beaucoup 
plus que leur honneur ; " that a grave 
refutation was put forth at Madrid in 
1850 by Manuel Marliani, and it is a 
very pretty quarrel as it stands ; mean- 
time both of the beaten parties contend 
that each of their single ships was at- 
tacked by five or six English. The real 
heroes of the day and their defaite hero- 
ique were either Senores Churraco, Q«- 
liano, &c., or Messieurs Lucas, Magon, 
&c., small mention being made of the 
nobody Nelson, a sort 01 loup-marin, a 
man, according to M.Thiers, assez home 
when off his quarter-deck. The French 
Admiral YiUeneuve was said to have 
killed himself in despair at his disgrace, 
but, says Southey, " there is every rea- 
son to conclude that the tyrant added 
him to the numerous victims of his 
murderous pohcy," and the silence ob- 
served in the *Moniteur' strengthens 
this suspicion (see Vict, et Conq^, XTi. 

The country now presenj^s a true 
picture of a Spanish dehesa y despo- 
hlado. The rich soil, under a vivifying 
sun, is given up to the wild plant and 
insect : earth and air teem with life. 
There is a melancholy grandeur in 
these solitudes, where Nature is busy 
at her mighty work of creation, heed- 
less of the absence or presence of the 
larger insect man. Vejer — Bekkeh — 
offers a true specimen of a Moorish 
town, scramBling up a precipitous em- 
inence. Pop. 9000. The venta Ues 
below, near the bridge over the Bar* 
bate. Here Quesada, in March, 1831, 
put down an abortive insurrection. Six 
himdred soldiers had been gained over 
at Cadiz by the emissaries of Torrijos. 
The loss in the whole contest, on which 
for the moment the monarchy hung, 
was one killed, two wounded, and tw 

H 2 



Sect. n. 

bruised. According to Queseda's bul- 
letin, worthy of his namesake Don 
Quixote, his troops performed ^^prodi- 
gios de valor!" a shower of crosses 
were bestowed on the conquering 
heroes. Such are the guerrillas, the 
truly "little wars" wluch Spaniards 
wage infer se ; and they may be well 
compared to the wretched productions 
of some of the minor theatres, in which 
the vapouring of bad actors supphes 
the place of dramatic interest, and the 
plot is perpetually interrupted by 
scene-shifting, paltry coups de thedtre, 
and an occasional explosion of mus- 
ketry and blue lights, with much smoke 
(of cigaritos). 

A mile inland is the Laguna de 
Janda. Near this lake, Taric, landing 
from Africa, April 30, 711, encountered 
Boderick, the last of the G-oths. Here 
the action commenced, July 19, which 
was decided July 26, on the Guadalete, 
near Xerez. This one battle gave 
Spain to the Moslem ; the secret of 
whose easy conquest lay in the civil 
dissensions among the Goths, and the 
aid the invaders obtained from the 
monied Jews, who were persecuted by 
the Gothic clergy. Taric and Musa, 
the two victorious generals, received 
from the caliph of Damascus that re- 
ward which since has become a stand- 
ing example to jealous Spanish rulers ; 
they were recalled, disgraced, and died 
in obscurity. Such was the fia,te of 
Columbus, Cortes, the Great Captain, 
Spinola, and others who have con- 
quered kingdoms for Spain. 

At the Va. de Taibilla the track 
branches ; that to the 1. leads to the 
an'ocha, while a picturesque gorge to 
the rt., studded with nagments of 
former Moorish bridges and causeways, 
leads to the sea-shore, jtt the tower 
Xa Peua del Ciervo, the Highar Egg61 
of the Moors, the coast opens in all 
its grandeur. 

" Where Mauritania's giant shadows frown. 
From mountain-cliffs descending sombre 

And here let the wearied traveller 

""^ipose a moment and gaze on the mag- 

-'ent panorama! Africa, no land 

I of desert sand, rises abruptly out of 
the sea, in a tremendous jumble, and 
backed by the eternal snows of the 
Atlas range ; two continents lie before 
us : we have reached the extremities of 
the ancient world ; a narrow gulf di- 
vides the lands of knowledge, liberty, 
and civilisation, from the imtrodden 
regions of barbarous ignorance, of 
slavery, danger, and mystery. Yon 
headland is Trafftlgar. Tarifa juts out 
before us, and the plains of Salado,< 
where the Cross triumphed over the 
Crescent. The whit« walls of Tangiers 
glitter on the opposite coast, resting, 
like a snow-wreath, on dark moun- 
tains : behind them lies the desert, 
the den of the wild beast and of 
wilder man. The separated continents 
stand aloof^. frowning sternly on each 
other with the cold injurious look of 
altered kindness. They were once 
united ; " a dreary sea now flows be- 
tween," and severs them for ever. A 
thousand ships hurry through, laden 
with the commerce of the world : every 
sail is strained to fly past those waters, 
deeper than ever plummet sounded, 
where neither sea nor land are friendly 
to the Etranger. Beyond that point 
is the bay of Gribraltar, and on that 
gray rock, the object of a himdred 
fights, and bristling with twice ten hun- 
dred cannon, the red flag of England, 
on which the sun never sets, still braves 
the battle and the breeze. Far in the 
distance the blue Mediterranean 
stretches itself away like a sleeping lake. 
Europe and Africa recede gently frtjm 
each other ; coast, cape, and mountain, 
face, form, and nature, how alike ! Man, 
his laws, works, and creeds, how dif- 
ferent and opposed ! 

It is geologically certain that the 
two continents were once united by a 
dip or valley, as is proved by the vari- 
ations of soundings. The "wonder- 
working" Hercules (t. e, the Phoeni- 
cians) is said to have cut a canal 
between them. The Moors had a 
tradition that this was the work of 
Alexander the Great (Ishkhander), who 
built a bridge across the openuig, then 
Tery narrow j it gradually widened un- 




til all further increase was stopped by 
the high lands on each side. On these 
matters consult Pliny, * N. H.* iii. 3, 
and the authorities cited in our paper, 
Quar. Rev. cxxvi. 293. ' 

The Moors called the Mediterranean 
the White iSe^jBahr elAbiad, and Bahr 
Hum, the JRoman Sea; they termed 
this SstrechOy this Strait, which our 
tars have vulgarised into the " Gut," 
Bab-ez-zakak, the " gate of the narrow 
passage." The length of the straits 
from Cape Spartel to Ceuta in Africa, 
and from TraMgar to Europa Point 
in Spain, is about 12 L. The W. en- 
trance is about 8 L. across, the E. about 
5 L. ; the narrowest point is at Tarifa, 
about 12 m. A constant current sets 
in from the Atlantic at the rate of 
2J m. per hour, and is perceptible 150 
m. down to the Cabo de G-ata j hence 
it is very difficult to beat out in a 
N.W. wind. Some have supposed the 
existence of an under current of denser 
water, which sets outwards and relieves 
the Mediterranean from this accession 
of water, in addition to aU the rivers 
from the Ebro to the Nile in a coast 
circuit of 4500 L. Dr. Halley, however, 
has calculated that the quantity evapo- 
rated by the sun, and Hcked up by 
hot drying winds, is greater than the 
supply, and certainly the Mediterranean 
has receded on the E. coast of the 
Peninsula. The absorption on a surface 
of 1,149,287 square statute miles, by 
Halley's rule, would amount to 7966 
million tons a day j yet, on the whole, 
the level of the Mediterranean remains 
unchanged, for Nature's exquisite sys- 
tem of compensation knows no waste. 

Between Za Peita del Ciervo and 
Tarifa lies a plain often steeped in 
blood, and now watered by the brackish 
Salado. Here Walia, in 417, defeated 
the Yandali Silingi and drove them into 
Africa ; here the chivalrous Alonso XI. 
(Oct. 28, 1340) overthrew the miited 
forces of Yusuf I., Abu-1-hajaj, King of 
Granada, and of Abu-1-hassan, King of 
Fez, who made a desperate and last 
attempt to reinvade and reconquer 
Spain. This victory paved the way for 
the final triumph of the Cross, as the 

Moors never recovered the blow. The 
accounts of an eye-witness are worthy 
of Froissart (see Chron. de Alonso XI„ 
ch. 248, 254). Cannon made at Da- 
mascus were used here, for the first 
time in Europe, as is said by Conde, 
iii. 133. According to Mariana (xvi. 7) 
25,000 Spanish infantry and 14,000 
horse now defeated 400,000 Moors and 
70,000 cavalry. The Christians only 
lost 20 men, the infidels 200,000. Such 
bulletins are to be ranked with those 
of Livy or Buonaparte's "military 
romances.'* These multitudes could 
never have been packed away in such a 
limited space, much less fed. To count 
is a modem practice — the ancient and 
" bulletin " mode was to guess num- 
bers, and to augment or diminish as 
suited best. 

Taeifa, Pop. 9,000, the most Moor- 
ish town of Andalucia — that Berheria 
Cristiana — was the ancient Punic city 
called Josa, which Bochart (Can.i. 477) 
translates the " Passage ; " an appro- 
priate name for this, the narrowest 
point of the straits : the Romans re- 
tained this signification in their Julia 
Traducta: the Moors called it after 
Tarif Ibn Malik, a Berber chief, the first 
to land in Spain, and quite a distinctper- 
son from Taric. Tarifa bears for arms 
its castle on waves, with a key at the 
window ; and the motto, " Sedfuertea 
en la guerraj"* be gallant in fight. Like 
Calais, it was once a frontier key of 
great importance. Sancho el Bravo 
took it in 1292, when Alonso Perez 
de Guzman, as aU others dechned, 
offered to hold this post of danger for a 
year. The Moors beleaguered it, aided 
by the Infante Juan, a traitor brother 
of Sancho's, to whom Alonso's eldest 
son, aged 9, had been entrusted pre- 
viously as a page. Juan now brought 
the boy under the walls, and threatened 
to kill hinn if his fiither would not 
surrender the place. Alonso drew his 
dagger and threw it down, exclaiming, 
" I prefer honour without a son, to a 
son with dishonour." He retired, and 
the Prince caused the child to be put to 
death. A cry of horror ran through the 
Spanish battlements: Alonso rush^^^' 



Sect. II. 

forth, beheld his son's body, and re- 
turning to his childless mother, calmly 
observed, " I feared that the infidel had 
gained the city." Sancho the King 
likened him to Abraham, from this 
parental sacrifice, and honoured him 
with the " canting " name " ElBueito,^ 
The Q-ood (^Ghuzman, Ghitman, Good- 
man). He became the fomider of the 
princely Dukes of Medina Sidonift, now 
merged by marriage in the Villafrancas. 
On this spot the recording ballads in 
Duran, v. 203, will best be read. 

Tari/a, nearly quadrangular, contains 
some 12,000 inhab. ; the narrow and 
tortuous streets are enclosed by Moorish 
walls. The Alameda runs under the 
S. range between the town and the sea : 
the Alcazar, a genuine Moorish castle, 
lies to the E., just within the walls, 
and is now the abode of galley slaves. 
The window from whence Guzman 
threw the dagger has been bricked up, 
but may be known by its border of 
azulejos; the site of the child's murder 
is marked by a more modem tower — 
called La Torre de Guzman. The 
** Lions " of Tarifa are the women, or 
las TarifenaSy who are proverbial for 
gracia y meneo. They continue to 
wear the mantilla as the Arabs do the 
boorko, and after the present Egyptian 
fashion of the tob and Hhabarah, in 
which only one eye is discovered ; that 
however is generally a piercer, and as it 
peeps out from the sable veil like a star, 
beauty is concentrated into one focus 
of light and meaning. These tapadaSy 
being all dressed alike walk about as 
at a masquerade, most effectually con- 
cealed, insomuch that husbands have 
actually been detected making love to 
their own vrives by mistake. These 
Parthian assassin-glances have fur- 
nished jokes abundant to the wits of 
Spain. Quevedo compares these rifle- 
women to the ahadefo, which means 
both a water-wagtail and the Spanish- 
fly ; and thus combines the meneo and 
the stimulant. Such, doubtless, was 
the mode of wearing the mantilla 
among the Phoenician coquettes. 
" Woe," says Ezekiel (xiii. 18), who 
-^w Tyre so weU, " Woe to the women 

that make kerchiefs upon the head of 
every stature to hunt souls." Next in 
danger to these tapadas were the bulls, 
which used to be let loose in the streets, 
to the delight of the people at the win- 
dows, and horror of those who met the 
uncivil quadruped in the narrow lanes. 
The crumbling walls of Tarifa might 
be battered with its oranges, which al- 
though the smallest, are beyond com- 
parison the sweetest in Spain, but de^ 
fended by brave men, they have defied 
the ball and bomb. Soult, taught by 
Barrosa the importance of this landing- 
place, was anxious to take it, and had 
he done so, must soon have been master 
of all Andalucia, Gibraltar excepted. 
Gen. Campbell, in defiance of higher 
authorities, most wisely determined to 
garrison it, and sent 1000 men of the 
47th and 87th, undei Col.Skerrett : 600 
Spaniards under Copons were added. 
Skerrett, brave but always unfortunate, 
despaired ; but Charles Felix Smith of 
the Engineers was skilful, and Col., 
now Lord Gough, a resolute soldier. 
Victor and Laval, Dec. 20, 1811, in- 
vested the place with 10,000 men; 
between the 27th and 30th a practi- 
cable breach was made near the Retiro 
gate; then the Spaniards under Copons, 
who were ordered to be there to defend 
it, were not there —they, however, sur- 
vived to claim all the glory (Madoz, 
xiv. 609 ; Nap. xii. 6) ; but Gough in 
a good hour came up with his 87th, 
the "Eagle-catchers," and, with 500 
men, beat back 1800 picked Frenchmen 
in a manner " surpassing all praise," 
and has lived to conquer China and 
Gwalior. Yictor, Fictus as usual, re- 
treated silently in the night, leaving 
behind all his artiQery and stores. This 
great glory and that astounding failure 
were such as even the Duke had not 
ventured to calculate on : he had dis- 
approved of the defence, because, al- 
though " we have a right to expect that 
our officers and troops wiLL perform 
their duty on every occasion, we had no 
right to expect that comparatively a 
small number would be able to hold 
Tarifa, commanded as it is at short 
distances, and enfiladed in every direc* 




tion, and unproyided with artillery, 
and the walls scarcely cannon-proof. 
The enfemy, howeyer, retired with dis- 
grace, infinitely to the honour of the 
brave troops who defended Tarifa" 
(Disp., Feb. 1, 1812). The vicinity of 
Trafalgar, and the recollection of Nel- 
son's blue jackets, urged every red coat 
to do that day more than his duty. 
Now-a-days the Tarifeuos claim all the 
glory, nor do the Paez MeUados and 
Co. even mention the English : so 
Skerrett was praised by Lord Liverpool, 
and Campbell reprimanded ; sic vos 
non vobis ! The English not only de- 
fended but repaired the breach. Their 
masonry is good, and their inscription, 
if not classical, at least teUs the truth : 
'* Hanc partem muri a Q-allis obsiden- 
tibus dirutam, Britanni defensores con- 
struxerunt, 1812." In 1823, when no 
87th was left to assist these heroic 
Tarifeuos, the French, under the puny 
Angouleme, attacked and took the place 
instantly : the inference is conclusive. 

The real strength of Tarifa consists 
in the rocky island which projects into 
the sea, on which a fortress has long 
been building. There is a good light- 
house, 135 ft. high, visible for 10 L., 
and a small sheltered bay. This castle 
commands the straits under some cir- 
cumstances, when ships are obliged to 
pass within the range of the batteries, 
and if they do not hoist colours are at 
once fired into, especially those coming 
from Gibraltar. They fire even into 
our men of war : thus, in Nov. 1830, 
the "Windsor Castle," a 74, taking 
home the 43rd, was hulled without I 
any previous notice. The "Windsor 
Castle," like a lion yelpt at by a cur, 
did not condescend to sweep the Tarifa 
castle from the face of the earth, yet 
such is the only means of obtainmg 
redress : none is ever given at Madrid. 
England is nowhere treated more con- 
tumeliously than by Spain and Por- 
tugal, the two weakest and most un- 
grateM governments in Europe, and 
saved by her alone from being mere 
French provinces. The Duke, even 
while in the act of dehvering them, was 
entirely without any influence (GK* Sept. 

5, 1813), and not " even treated as a 
gentleman." "There are limits, how- 
ever," as even he said, " to forbearance." 
Tarifa, indeed, is destined by the Spa- 
niards to counterbalance the loss of the 
Mock. This fortress is being built out 
of a tax levied on persons and things 
passing from Spain into Gibraltar : 
thus the English are made to pay for 
their own annoyance. Tarifa, in war 
time, swarmed with gun-boats and 
privateers. "They," says Southey, 
" inflicted greater loss on the trade of 
Great Britain than all the fleets of the 
enemy, by cutting off' ships becalmed 
in these capricious waters." A frigate 
steamer at Gibraltar will soon abate 
that nuisance. Tliose who wish to 
examine Guzman Castle, or to draw it, 
may as well obtain the governor's per- 
mission, since the vicinity of Gibraltar, 
which has been made the hot-bed of 
revolutionists of all kinds, from Torri- 
jos downwards, has rendered every 
Spanish garrison near it almost as sen* 
sitive as the Phoenicians, who wel- 
comed every stranger who pried about 
the straits by throwing him into the sea. 
The Spaniards in office are apt to have 
a delirium tremens when they see the^ 
man of the pencil and note-book : they 
instantly suspect that he is making a 
plan to take the castle. 

The ride to Algeciras over the moun- 
tain is glorious ; the views are splendid* 
The wild forest, through which the 
Guadahnacil boils and leaps, is worthy 
of Salvator Bosa. Gibraltar and its 
beautiful bay are seen through the 
leafy vistas, and the bleeding branches 
of the stripped cork-trees, fnnged with 
a most ddicate fern : the grand Bock 
crouches 6 guisa de Leon cuando se 
posa. How imposing this mountain 
mass ere the sun has risen from behind! 
"Poussin," say the French, "could 
not paint it; Chateaubriand could 
not describe it ;" or M. JoinviUe take 
it. This is indeed the sentinel and mas- 
ter of the Mediterranean, the " Great 
Sea" of the Bible, the bond of nations, 
the central cradle of civilisation ; and 
different indeed would have been the 
world's condition,had this expauseber 



Sect. II. 

a desert sand ; and happy the eye and | 
the moment when any catch their first i 
sight of this most classic sea, to behold 
whose shores was truly, as Dr. John- 
son said, the grand end of travelling. 
These are the waters on which com- ' 
merce first wafted with white-winged ' 
sails all the art and science that raises 
us aboTC the savage. How grand the 
page of history that records the mighty 
deeds they have witnessed ! how beau- 
tiful in picture and poetry this blue 
and sunlit sea ! The general colour is 
the deepest ultramarine, with a singular 
phosphorescent luminosity produced 
by the myriads of infusoria : a green 
tint indicates soundings, and a deep 
indigo blue, profound depth. 

Algedras Hes in a pleasant nook. 
Inns : Fonda Francesa near the beach. 
Fonda de Fspaua. This, the Portus 
Alhus of the Romans, was the green 
island of the Moors, Jeziratu-1-Kha- 
dra; an epithet still preserved in the 
name, of the island opposite. La Isla 
Verde, also called de las Palomas. 
The King of Spain is also King of 
Algeciras, a remnant of its former im- 
portance, it being the Moors' key of 
Spain. It was taken by the gallant 
AJonso XI., March 24, 1344, after a 
siege of 20 months, at which foreign 
crusaders from all Christendom at- 
tended, who no doubt did the best 
of the work, for the benefit and glory 
of Nosotros. It was the siege of the 
age, and 40 years afterwards Chaucer, 
describing a true knight, mentions his 
having been at " Algecir " — a Waterloo, 
a Trafalgar man. Our chivalrous Ed- 
ward III. contemplated coming in per- 
son to assist AlonsoXI.,a monarch after 
his own heart. The chronica de Alonso 
XI. gives the Froissart details, the gal- 
lant behaviour of the English under 
the Earls of Derby and Salisbury 
(Chr. 301), the selfish misconduct of 
the French under Q-aston de Foix, who 
kept aloof at the critical moment (Chr. 
311). The want of every thing in the 
Castilian camp was ternfic: cosas de 
FspaTia, Alonso destroyed the Moor- 
ih town and fortifications. 

''odem rectangular common-place 

Algeciras, pop. 11,000, has risen like a 
rhoenii, having been rebuilt in 1760 
by Charles III., to be a hornets' nest 
against Gibraltar, and such it is, 
swarming with privateers in war-time, 
and with guarda costas or preventive 
service cutters in peace. What a con- 
trast from old Moorish Tarifa; in a 
morning's ride we jump from one 
age and people to another. The hand- 
some plaza has a fountain erected by 
Castafios, who was governor here in 
1808, when the war of independence 
broke out. He, as usual, was without 
arms or money, and utterly unable to 
move, imtil the English merchants of 
Gibraltar advanced the means ; he then 
marched to Bailen, where the incapa- 
city of Dupont thrust greatness on him. 
The artist should sketch Gibraltar 
from near the aqueduct and Molino 
de San Bernardino. The walk to the 
water-falls is picturesque, the cork- 
trees grand, the picknicks pleasant. 

Between Algeciras and Tarifa, June 
9, 1801, the gallant Saumarez attacked 
the combined French and Spanish 
fleets under Linois ; the enemy con"- 
sisted of 10 sail, the English of 6. The 
" Superb," a 74, commanded by Capt. 
Kichard Keats, out-sailed the squadron, 
and alone engaged the foe, taking the 
" St. Antoine," a French 74, and burn- 
ing the " Real Carlos " and " San Her- 
menigildo," two Spanish three-deckers 
of 112 guns each. Keats had sHpped 
between them, and then out again, 
leaving them in mistake from the dark- 
ness to fire at and destroy each other. 
Algeciras is the naval and military 
position from whence Gibraltar is 
watched and worried, for the foreigtier's 
possession of that angulus rankles 
deeply, as well it may. In the tena- 
cious memory of Spain, which never 
forgives or forgets, it is hardly yet 
a fait accompli. During sunmier, the 
cool stone-houses of Algeciras are in- 
finitely better suited to the climate, 
than the Btuffj dwellings on the arid 
rock; and here the foreign steamers 
touch, which ply backwards and for- 
wards between Cadiz and Marseilles. 

The distance to Gibraltar is about 




5 m. across by sea, and 10 round by 
land. Tlie coast-road is intersected by 
the rivers G-uadaranque and Palmones : 
on crossing the former, on the eminence 
JEl HocadillOf now a farm, the com 
grows where once Carteia flourished. 
This was the Phoenician Melcarth (Me- 
lech Kartha), King's- town, the city Of 
Hercules, the type, symbol, and per- 
sonification of the navigation, coloniza- 
tion, and civilization of Tyre : the 
Phoenicians, be it remembered, called 
it Tartessus, Heracleon. Humboldt, 
however, reads in the Car the Iberian 
prefix of height. This was afterwards 
among the earUest and one of the few 
Greek settlements tolerated in Spain 
by their deadly rivals of Tyre. 

Carteia was sacked by Scipio Africa- 
nus, and given (171 b.c.) to the illegiti- 
mate children of Boman soldiers by 
Spanish mothers (Livy xliii. 3). Here 
the younger Pompey fled, wounded, 
after his defeat of Munda, whereupon 
the Carteians, his former partisans, at 
once proposed giving him up to Caesar: 
they have had their reward ; and the 
fisherman spreads his nets, the punish- 
ment of Tyre, on her false, fleeting, 
and perjured daughter. The remains 
of an amphitheatre, and the circuit of 
walls about 2 miles, may yet be traced. 
Tho Moors and Spaniards have alike 
destroyed the ruins, working them up 
as a quarry in building Algeciras and 
San Boque. The coins found here are 
very beautiful and numerous (see Flo- 
rez, Med. i. 293). Mr. Kent, of tJie port- 
office at Gibrsdtar, formed a Carteian 
museum, consisting of medals, pottery, 
glass, &c. Consult, for ancient au- 
thorities, Ukert (i. 2. 346), 'and 'A 
Discourse on Cmrteia^ John Conduit, 
4to., London, 1719; and the excellent 
* Journey from Oibr altar to Malaga^ 
Francis Carter, 2 vols., London, 1777. 

From ^l JRocadillo to Gibraltar is 
about 4) m. through the Spanish hues. 
The whole ride from Tarifa took us 
about 10 h. 

Midway towards Abyla the great 
sea-fight took place between LoeHus 
and Adherbol (Livy xxiii. 30), and 
again betiYeen l^idius and Varus, and 
that fearful subsequent storm which, 

as after Trafalgar, buffeted victors and 
vanquished (Florus, iv. 2). 

RoTJTB 3. — Cadiz to Seyille by 

While waiting for the completion of 
a railway there are several ways of 
getting to Seville; first, by land, in 
the diligence, through Xerez; secondly, 
by water, by steamers up the Ghiadal- 
quivir ; and thirdly, by a combination 
of land and water. 

Those who prefer the land, may take 
the diligence to San Lucar, which it 
reaches, having passed through the Isla 
and made the circuif of the bay there, 
a route interesting only to crab-fanciers 
and salt-refiners. The country, vege- 
tation, and climate are tropical. Be- 
tween the Puerto and San Lucar the 
traveller wiU remember the Oriental 
ploughings of Elijah, when he sees 20 
and more yoke of oxen labouring in 
the same field (1 Kings, xix. 19). 

San JJucar de Barrameda^ Luciferi 
Fanum, rises amid a treeless, sandy, 
undulating country, on the 1. bank of 
the Guadalquivir. White and gUtter- 
ing, it is an ill-paved, dull, decaying 
place ; pop. 16,000. Lm, JFonda del 
Comercio ; the best cafe is JEl Oro^ on 
the Plazuela. This town, taken from 
the Moors in 1264, was granted by 
Sancho el Bravo, to Guzman el Bueno. 
The importance of the transatlantiq^ 
trade induced Philip IV., in 1645, to 
resume the city, and make it the 
residence of the captain-general of 
Andalucia. Visit the ancient English 
Hospital of St. George, founded in 
1517 by Henry VIII. for English 
sailors. Godoy, in 1799, sold the pro- 
perty, and promised to pay interest on 
the proceeds. In 1854 the unpaid 
capital and arrears due from the go- 
vernment amounted to 2400^. From 
San Lucar Fernando Magalheans em- 
barked, Aug. 10, 1519, on the first cir- 
cumnavigation of the world : the Vic- 
toria was the only ship which returned 
Sept. 8, 1522, Fernando having been 
kUled, like Capt. Cook, by some savages 
in the Philippine Islands. San Lucp- 
exists by its wine-trade, and is t' 

■n- O 




mart of the inferior and adulterated 
vintages which are foisted off in Eng- 
land as sherries. Nota bene, here, at 
least, drink manzanilla, however much 
it may be eschewed in England, which 
being, fortunately, not a wine growing 
coimtry, imports the very best of all 
others, leaving the inferior for native 
consumption. The name describes its 
peculiar light camomile flavour, which 
is the true derivation, for it has no- 
thing to do with manzanay an apple, 
and still less with the town Manzanilla 
on the opposite side of the river. It is 
of a delicate pale straw colour, and is 
extremely wholesome; it strengthens 
the stomach, without heating or ine- 
briating; hence the Andalucians are 
passionately fond of it. Excellent 
manzanilla is to be procured in Lon- 
don, of G-orman, 16, Mark Lane. 
Drink it, ye dyspeptics ! 

The climate of San Lucar is ex- 
tremely hot : here was established, in 
1806, the botanical Garden de Aclima- 
tacion, in order to acclimatize South 
American and African animals and 
plants : it was arranged by Boutelou 
and Eojas Clemente, two able gar- 
deners and naturalists, and was in high 
order in 1808, when the downfall of 
Godoy, the founder, entailed its de- 
struction. The populace rushed in, 
killed the animals, tore up the plants, 
and pulled down the buildings, because 
the work of a hated individual. But 
at all times Spanish, like Oriental ven- 
geance is blind even to its own interests, 
and retaliates against persons and their 
works even when of pubhc utility. 

San Lucar is no longer the point of 
embarkation, which is now about a mile 
up the river at Bonanza, so called from 
a hermitage, Luciferi fanum, erected 
by the South American Company at 
Seville to Na. 8a. de Bonanza, or our 
Lady of fine weather, as the ancients 
did to Yenus. Here is established an 
aduana, where luggage is examined. 
The district between Bonanza and San 
Lucar is called Algaida, an Arabic 
word meaning a deserted waste, and 
such truly it is : the sandy hiQocks are 
■"^^'^thed with aromatic brushwood, 
ry pines, and wild grapes. The 

view over the flat marisma, with its 
agues and fevers, swamps and shifting 
sands, arenas voladeras, is truly desert- 
like, and a fit home of birds and beasts 
of prey, hawks, stoats, robbers, and 
custom-house officers. M. Fenelon, in 
his *T^emaque' (Ub. viii.), describes 
these localities as the Elysian Fields, 
and peoples the happy valleys with 
patriarchs and respectable burgesses. 

For the journey by water, the de- 
partures and particulars of the steamers 
to Seville, are advertised in the Cadiz 
papers and placarded in all the posadas. 
Aner crossing La JBahia the Guadal- 
quivir is entered, near Cipiona Point. 
Here was the great Phoenician light- 
house called Cap JEon, the " Rock of 
the Sun." This the vain-glorious 
Greeks, who never condescended to 
learn the language of other people, 
" barbarians," converted into the Tower 
of Cepio, Tov KetTiMvts ftv^yos, the ** Cae- 
pionis Turris" of the Romans. Those 
who wish to avoid the rounding this 
point by sea may cross over to the 
Puerto, and take a calesa to San Lucar, 
and there rejoin the steamer. Seville is 
distant about 80 m. The voyage is per- 
formed in 7 to 8 hours, and in less 
when returning down stream. Fare, 
first cabin, 3 dollars ; there is a good 
restaurant on board. 

LaPuebla Ui L. 

Coria 2 

Gelbes i 

San Juan de Alfarache . . i 

The smoke of the steamer and actual 
inspection of the localities discharge 
the poetry and illusion of the far-famed 
and much overrated Guadalquivir of 
classical and modem romance. " Thou 
Bsetis," sing the native poets, " crowned 
with flowers and olives, and girdled by 
beauteous nymphs, waftest thy Hquid 
crystal to the west, in a placid amorous 
current." Spaniards seldom spare fine 
words, when speaking of themselves or 
their country ; and this pellucid river, 
in sober reality and prose, is here dull 
and dirty as the Thames at Sheemess, 
and its " Elysian Fields" are as unpic- 
turesque as those at Paris or our " Isle 
of Dogs." The turbid stream slowly 
eats its way through an alluvial level^ 




given up to herds of cattle and aquatic 
fowls : notliing can be more dreary : 
no white sails enliven the silent waters, 
no villages cheer the desert steppes j 
here and there a choza or hut offers a 
poor refuge from the red hot sun. In 
this riverain tract, called La MarUma, 
swamps, ague, and fever are perpetual. 
In these plains, £Eivourable to animal 
and vegetable life, fatal to man, the 
miserable peasantry, like those on the 
Pontine marshes, look yellow skeletons 
when compared to their fat kine. Here 
in the glare of summer a mirage mocks 
the thirsty sportsman. This Sarah or 
vapour of the desert with its optical 
deceptions of atmospheric refractions 
is indeed the trick of fairies, a Fata 
Morgana^ and well may the Arabs term 
it Moyet-Eblis^ the Devil's water. On 
the r. hand, in the distance, rise the 
mountains of Bonda. The G-uadal- 
quivir, the " great river," the Wdda-l- 
Kebir or Wada-l-adhem of the Moors, 
traverses Andalucia from E. to W. The 
ZincaU, or Spanish gipsies, also call it 
Len JBaro, the " great river." The Ibe- 
rian name was Certis (Livy xxviii. 16), 
which the Komans changed into Bsetis, 
a word, according to Santa Teresa, who 
understood imknown tongues, derived 
from Bseth, " blessedness ;" but the 
G^eneralissima of Spain had revelations 
which were denied to ordinary mortals, 
to geographers like Bennell, or to phi- 
lologists, hke Humboldt and Bocluurt, 
who suspects (Can. i. 34^ the etymology 
to be the Punic Lebitsin, the lakes or 
swamps of the Bsetis termination, 
whence the Idbt/sfitio lacu of Pest. 
Avienus (Or. Mar. 289). The river 
rises in La Mancha, about 10 L. "N. of 
Almaraz, flows down, and at Ecija 
receives the Gtenil and the waters of 
the basin of Granada : other numerous 
affluents come down from the mountain 
valleys on each side. Under the An- 
cients and Moors, navigable . to Cor- 
dova, it formed a portavena to that 
district, which overflows with oil, com, 
and wine. Under the Spanish mis- 
government these advantages were lost, 
and now small craft alone reach Seville, 
and with difficulty. They have been 

talking for the last 300 years of im- 
proving the navigation, see Las obras 
del Maestro JPerez Feman de Oliva, 
4to, Cordova, 1586, p. 131; and in 
1820 a new company — conservators of 
the river — was formed for the purpose, 
and a tax laid on the tonnage of ship- 
ping, which has been duly levied, al- 
though not much more has been done 
beyond jobbing : meantime the bed is 
filling, the banks falling in, with no side 
canal, no railroad, to supply the want and 
shorten the line of this tortuous river. 

1 The river below Seville has branched 
off, forming two unequal islands. La 

; Isla Mayor and Menor. The former 
the Xaptal of the Moors, and Captel of 
old Spanish books, has been cultivated 
with cotton by the company, who also 
cut a canal through the Isla Menor, 
called La Cortadura, by which 3 L. of 
winding river are saved. Foreign ves- 
sels are generally moored here, and their 
cargoes are conveyed up and down in 
barges, whereby smugglmg is vastly fa- 
ciUtated. At Coria, lamous under the 
Bomaus for bricks and pottery, are 
still made the enormous earthenware 
jars in which oil and olives are kept : 
these tinajas are the precise amphorce 
of the ancients, and remind one of 
Morgiana and the Forty Thieves. The 
river next winds under the Moorish 
Hisnu-1-faraj, or the "Castle of the 
Cleft," or of the prospect "a! Faradge," 
now called San Juan de Alfarache ; 
and then turns to the r., and skirting 
the pleasant public walk stops near the 
Torre del Oro, gilded with the setting 
sun, and darkened by Aduaneros, who 
worry passengers and portmanteaus. 

BouTE 4. — Cadiz to Sbville by 

SanFemando . . . . 2i 

Puerto Real 2 .. 4* 

Puerto de Sa. Maria . . 2 .. 6i 

Xerez 2 .. 8i 

Va. del Cuervo . . . . 3i . . 12 

Fa. de la Vizcaina ... 1 .. 13 

Torres de Alocaz . . . 2i . . 15^ 

Utrera 3* .. 19 

AlcaUi de Guadaira . . 2 .. 21 

SeviUa 2 .. 23 

This is a portion of the high road from 



Sect. II. 

Cadiz to Madrid ; the whole distance 
is 108J L. There is some talk of a 
railroad, to be made and paid for by 
Englishmen, hMifestina lente is a Spa- 
nish axiom, where people are slow to 
begin and nerer finish. The journey is 
uninteresting, and sometimes danger- 
ous : leaving Xerez the lonely road across 
the plains skirts the spin's of the Bonda 
mountains, sometimes the lair of mala 
petite, Moron being generally their 
head-quarters, for smuggling and the 
intricate country favour these wild 
weeds of the rank soil. 

The best plan of route from Cadiz 
to Seville, is to cross over to the Puerto 
by steam and take a calesa to Xerez, 
paying 1 dollar ; although the road is 
indifferent the drive is pleasant, and 
the view from the intervening ridge, 
La huena vista, is worthy of its name : 
the glorious panorama of the bay of 
Cadiz is a perfect belvedere. There is 
a decent posada at this half-way rest- 
ing-place. From Xerez drive in a ca- 
lesa to Bonanza, about 3 L. of weaii- 
some road, and there rejoin the steamer. 
The best Posada at Xerez is of San 
Dionisio on the Plaza La Consolacion. 
F. Travieso — 3, CaUe de la Lenzeria. 
The great hospitable wine-merchants 
seldom, however, permit any one who 
comes with an introduction "to take 
his ease in mine own inn." 

Xerez de la Frontera, or Jerez — ^for 
now it is the fashion to spell all those 
Moorish or German guttural words, 
where an X or Q- is prefixed to an open 
vowel, with a J: e, g.^ Jimenez for 
Ximenez, Jorge for George, &c. — is 
called of the frontier^ to distinguish it 
from Jerez de los Caballeros, in Estre- 
madura. It was termed by the Moors 
Sherish Mlistin, because sdlotted to a 
tribe of Philistines. The new settlers 
from the East, preserved alike the names 
of their old homes, and their hatred of 
neighbours. Jerez, pop. 34,000, rises 
amid vine-clad slopes, studded with 
coriijos y haciendas, with its white- 
washed Moorish towers, blue-domed 
Colegiata, and huge JBodegas, or wine- 
stores, looking like pent-houses for 
men-of-war at Chatham* Supposed 

by many to have been the ancient 
Astaregia Ceesariana, some mutilated 
sculpture exists in the Calle de Biz' 
cocheroa and Calle de los Idolos, for 
the Xeresanos call the old graven 
images of the Pagans idols, while they 
bow down to new sagradas imagenes 
in their own churches. Part of the 
original, walls and gates remain in the 
old town ; the suburbs are more regu- 
lar, and here the wealthy wine-mer- 
chants reside. Xerez was taken from 
the Moors, in 1264, by Alonso el Sabio, 
the Learned. The Moorish alcazar, 
which is near the public walk, is well 
preserved, and offers a good specimen 
of these turreted and walled palatial 
fortresses. It belongs to the Duque de 
San Lorenzo, on the condition that he 
cedes it to the king whenever he is at 
Xerez. The Casa de Miquelmes, "with 
its torre de Homenaje, may also be 
visited. Observe the Berruguete facade 
of the Casas de Cdbildo, erected in 
1 575. Notice the £Ei9ade of the churches 
of Santiago and San Miguel, especially 
the Gothic details of the latter. The 
Colegiaia, begun in 1695, is vile chur- 
rigueresque; the architect did not by 
accident stumble on one sound rule, or 
deviate into the commonest sense : but 
the wines of Jerez are in better taste 
than the temples, and now-a-days more 
go to the cellar than to the church< 
The vinous city has a few books and 
coins. The legends and antiquities of 
Xerez are described in Los Santos de 
Xerez, Martin de Roa, 4to., Seville, 
1671 ; and there is a new history by 
Adolf de Castro. Xerez was renowned 
for its Majos, who were considered, 
however, of a low caste, muy-cruos, 
crudos, raw, when compared to the 
Majo fino, the mug cocio^ocido, the 
boUed, the well-done one of Seville — 
phrases as old as Martial. The Majo 
Xerezano was seen in all his flash 
glory at the much frequented fairs of 
Ma^ 1 and Aug. 15 ; but picturesque 
nationalities are giving place to the 
common-place coats and calicos of civi- 
lization. He is a great bull-fighter, 
and a fine new Plaza has recently been 
built here. His requiehros are, how- 




ever, over-flavoured with sal Andaluqay 
and his jaleos and jokes rather prac- 
tical : iurlas de manosy hurlas de 
JCerezanos. The quantity of wine is 
supposed to make these valienfes more 
boisterous and occasionally ferocious, 
than those of all other Aiidaluciaus : 
" for all this valour" as Falstaff says, 
"comes of sherris." They are great 
sportsmen, and the shooting in the 
Marisma, especially of deer, bustards, 
wild fowl, and woodcocks, is first-rate. 
Parties are made, who go for weeks to 
the Coto de Doua Ana and del Rey, 

The growth of wine amounts to 
some 500,000 arrohas annually; tiiis 
Moorish name and measure contains a 
quarter of a hundred weight : 30 go to 
a bota or butt, of which some 34,000 
are annually produced, running from 
8000 to 10,000 really fine. This wine 
was first known in England about the 
time of our Henry VII. It became 
popular under Ehzabeth, when those 
who under Essex sacked Cadiz brought 
home the fashion of good " sherris 
sack." It is still called seco here, 
which is the old English seek, the 
French sec, a word used in contradis- 
tinction to the sweet malvoisies. It was 
ousted by Madeira wine, but brought 
back into fashion by Lord Holland, 
whose travels in Spain abroad, and 
table at home, gave him the right to 
dictate in dinnering at least. Mean- 
while the bulk of good Spaniards 
scarcely know sherry beyond its im- 
mediate vicinity. It is, in fact, a 
foreign wine, and made and drunk by 
foreigners; nor do Spaniards like its 
strength, and stUl less its high price. 
Thus, even at Granada, it is sold as a 
liqueur. At Seville, in the best houses, 
one glass only is, or in our time used 
to be, handed round at dinner as the 
golpe medico, or chasse, the »m^ '"' 
?^K6i of Athenseus (1. 20). The first 
class, called " Vino seco, fino, oloroso 
y generoso" is very dear, costing half 
a dollar a bottle on the spot. Pure 
genuine sherry, from 10 to 12 years 
old, is worth from 50 to 80 guineas 
)er butt, in the hodega ; and when 
^ight, insurance, duty, and charges 

are added, will stand the importer from 
100 to 130 guineas in his'cellar. A 
butt win run from 108 to 112 gallons, 
and the duty is 5#. Qd, per gallon. Such 
a butt will bottle about 62 dozen. 

The excellence of sherry wines is 
owing to the extreme care and scientific 
methods introduced hj foreigners, who 
are chiefly French and Scotch. The 
great houses are Pedro Domecq, Pe- 
martin, Gordon, Garvey, Isasi, Bermu- 
dez, Beigbeder. A Bodega, the Boman 
horrea, the wine-store or apotheca, is, 
unlike our excavated cellars, always 
above groimd. The interior is deli- 
ciously cool and subdued, as the heat 
and glare outside are carefully excluded ; 
here thousands of butts are piled up 
during the rearing and maturing pro- 
cesses. Sherry, when perfect, is made 
up from many difierent butts: the 
"entire" is in truth the result of 
Xerez grapes, but of many sorts and 
varieties of flavour. Thus one barrel 
corrects another, by addition or sub- 
traction, until the proposed standard 
aggregate is produced. All this is 
managed by the Capataz or head man, 
who is usually a Montaues from the 
Asturian mountains, and often becomes 
the real master of his nominal masters, 
whom he cheats, as well as the grower. 
He passes this life of probation in 
tasting : he goes round the butts, mark- 
ing each according to its character, cor* 
recting and improving eaeh at every 
successive visit. 

The callida junctura ought to unite 
fulness of body, a nutty flavour and 
aroma, dryness, absence from acidity, 
strength, spirituosity, and durability. 
Little brandy is necessary : the vivi- 
fying power of the unstinted sun of 
Andalucia imparting sufficient alcohol, 
which ranges from 20 to 23 per cent, 
in fine sherries, and only 12 in clarets 
and champagnes. Pine, pure old sherry 
is of a rich brown colour. The new 
raw wines are paler ; in order to flatter 
the tastes of some English, " pale old 
sherry " must be .had, and the colour 
is chemically discharged at the expense 
of the dehcate aroma. The amontil' 
lado is so called from a peculiar, bitter- 



almond, dry flayour, somewhat like the 
wines of MontiUa, near Cordova : much 
sought after, it is dear, and used in 
enriching poorer and sweetish wines. 
There is always a venerable butt that 
contains some Madre vino, or rich wine, 
by which young butts are reared as 
by mother's milk. The contents are 
very precious, and the barrels named 
after Ferdinands, Nelsons, Wellingtons, 
kings and heroes. The visitor is just 
allowed a sip, by way of bonne bouche. 
The sweet wines of the sherry grape 
are deUcious. The best are the Mos- 
cadel, the Pedro Ximenez, so called 
from a G^erman vine-grower, and the 
JPajarete ; this term has nothing to do 
with the pajaros, or birds which pick 
the most luscious grapes, but simply 
is the name of the village where it was 
first made. 

Every traveller will of course pay 
a visit to a great Bodega, the lion of 
Xerez and big as a cathedral, a true 
temple of Bacchus : those of P. Domecq 
or Charles Gordon are the finest. The 
foi*mer gentleman has some pictures, 
but his best gallery is that of butts of 
sherryj There the whole process of 
making sheny wiU be explained. The 
lecture is long, and is illustrated by 
experiments. Every cask is tasted, 
from the raw young wine to the ma- 
ture golden fluid. Those who are not 
stupified by drink come out much 
edified. From the result of many 
courses of lectures, we recommend the 
student to hold hard during the^r^^ 
samples, for the best wine is reserved 
for the last, the qualities ascending in 
a vinous climax. Perhaps the better 
plan would be to reverse the order, and 
begin with the best while the palate is 
fresh and the judgment sober. All the 
varieties of grape and^oil are carefully 
described in the JSnsayo sobre las vari- 
edades de la Vid en Andalucia, Simon 
Bojas Clemente, 4to., Mad., 1807 ; in 
the Memorias sobre el Cultivo de la Vid, 
Esteban Boutelou, 4to., Mad., 1807 ; 
see also our notices in the ' Quarterly 
Keview,' cxxvi. 308 j and in the * Ga- 
therings,' ch. xiv. The student will 

-» do well to drive out and visit some 

crack vineyard, and inspect the vinous 
buildings and contrivances. Many of 
the great growers have villas on their 
vineyards, such as JEl Eecreo, Valse^ 
quillo. La Qrayiga, &c.; this latter 
belongs to Mr. Domecq, whose vine- 
yard, Maehcurnudo, is the primest, and 
really the Johannisburg ot Jerez; the 
Carrascal, Barbiana alta y baja, Los 
Tercios, Cruz del Husillo, Anina, San 
Julian, Mochiele, and Carraola, are 
also deservedly celebrated. 

No one should fail to visit the Car- 
tuja convent, which lies about 2 m. to 
the E., although this once magnificent 
pite is now desecrated. The finest oiE" 
the Zurbaran pictures have passed into 
England, having been 6old dog-cheap 
at the sales of Louis Philippe and Mr. 
Standish, in 1853 ; some lew others, 
the refuse, are in the Museo at Cadiz. 
This Carthusian monastery was founded 
in 1477 by Alvaro Obertos de Valeto; 
whose figure in armour was engraved 
in brass before the high altar : one 
Andres de Bibera, in the time of 
Philip II., added the Doric Hejrrera 
portal : the more modem fa9ade is very 
bad. This Cartuja was once very rich 
in excellent vineyards, and possessed 
the celebrated breeding-grounds of An - 
dalucian horses, to which the French 
dealt the first blow. The decree of 
suppression, in 1836, destroyed, at one 
fell swoop, both monk and animal. 
The establishments have been broken 
up, and the system ruined. The loss 
of the horses will long be felt, when 
that of the friars is forgotten. On the 
Carthusian convents and monks of 
Spain, consult Primer Instituto de la 
Sagrada Religion d^ la Cartuja, Jo- 
seph de Valles, 4(o., Mad., 1663. 

Below the Cartuja rolls the Guada- 
lete. A small hill, called el real de 
Don Modrigo, marks the head-quarters 
of the last of the Goths : here the battle 
was terminated which put an end to his 
dynasty (see p. 148). Lower down is 
el Portal, the port of Xerez, whence 
the sherries were embarked for elPuerto 
before t^e railroad conveyed the butts 
to the very shipboard. 

The Guada2e^,from the terminating 




syllables, has been connected, by those 
who prefer sound to sense, with the 
Lethe of the ancients, which, however, 
is the Limia, near Viana, in Portugal, 
and obtained its oblivious reputation, 
because the Spanish army, their leader 
being killed, forgot on its banks the 
object of the campaign, and disbanded 
most orientally each man to " his own 
home.*' Cosas de JEspana. 

This Limsea, or Limia, was the fur- 
thest point to which Brutus advanced, 
as his troops trembled, fearing that 
they should forget their absent wives. 
Florus (ii. 17. 12) records this unmili- 
tary fear. Strabo (iii. 229) observes 
that some called the Limia BiXiSvet, 
which Oasaubon happily amends oliXto- 
v£v9ti the riuvius Obhvionis of Pliny, 
Mela, and Liyy. The Grteco-Roman 
name of the Gaudalete was Ohrysos, 
and golden is the grape which grows 
on its banks : it is that fluid, and not 
what flows between them, which erases 
their absent dames from the memories 
of bad husbands. It is stated by Flo- 
rez (Esp. Sag. ix. 53) that the liame 
Chrysos was changed by the victorious 
Moors into Wad-al-lededy JEl rio de 
deleite, the river of dehght ; but this 
is a very doubtful etymology, and the 
Moorish name really was Wada-leJcah. 
A wild bridle-road through Arcos com- 
municates with Honda. See p. 263. 

The Camino real, on leaving Xerez, 
on one side skirts a waste called La 
Llanura de Caulina; it is well pro- 
vided with bridges, by which the many 
streams descending from the moun- 
tains to the rt. are crossed. The lonely 
expanse is truly Spanish, and in spring 
teems with beautiful flowers, of which 
the botanist may fill a* vasculum and a 

UtrerayVtricvlBf during the Moorish 
struggle, was the refuge of the agricul- 
turist who fled from the Spanish talas 
and border forays, and is inhabited by 
rich farmers, who rent the estates 
around, where much com, oil, fruit, 
and wine is produced ; here vast flocks 
are bred, and those fierce bulls so re- 
nowned in the Plaza. Pop. 11,000. 
The streets and alamedas are kept 

clean and fresh by running streams. 
Formerly flourishing and very popu- 
lous, it fell into decay, but withSn 10 
years has been much improved by an 
alcalde named Cuadra. The Carmelite 
convent was tiumed into a prison, and 
the Sn. Juan de Dios into a philhar- 
monic theatre. The Sa. Maria de la 
Mesa has a good Berruguete portal, 
called el Perdon, and a tomb of a Ponce 
de Leon, with an armed kneeUng figure. 
Tliere is a ruined castle. Utrera, in a 
military point, is of much importance. 
The high road from Madrid to Cadiz 
makes an angle to reach Seville, which 
can be avoided by marching from Ecija 
direct through Arahal. The saints of 
Utrera have long rivalled the buUs : 
thus the Yirgen de la Consolacion at 
the Convento de Minimos, outside the 
town, N.E., is the Palladium of the 
ploughmen. Built in 1561, it used to 
be frequented by thousands on the 8th 
of Sept., when a fair was held, and 
votive offerings made : now httle more 
takes place than the sale of children's 
toys ; nay, there is a scheme of tiuming 
the building into a madhouse. Tem- 
pora mutantur. Consult an especial 
book on this " Santuario " by Bodrigo 
Caro, 8vo., Osuna, 1622. Consult JSpi- 
logo de Utrera^ Pedro BomanMelendez, 
4to., Sevilla^ 1730. About 2 L. from 
Utrera is a fine oUve hacierida of the 
Conde de Torre Nueva, which is well 
managed j at Morales 1 L. to 1. are the 
ruins of a most ancient castle. There 
is a short bridle-road to Seville, by which 
Alcaic is avoided and left to the rt. 

Alcald de Ghiadaira, where the Po- 
sada is very tidy, signifies the " castle 
of the river Aira," and was the Punic 
Hienippa, a " place of many springs." 
It is idso called de los Panaderos, " of 
the bakers,^' for it has long been the 
oven of Seville : bread is the staff 
of its existence, and samples abound 
everywhere ; JRoscas, a circular-formed 
rusky are hung up hke garlands, and 
hogazas, loaves, pla43ed on tables out- 
side the houses. " Panis liic long^ 
pulcherrimus ; it is, indeed, as Spa- 
niards say, Pan de IHos — the "angels" 
bread of " Esdras." Spanish href " 



Sect. II. 

was esteemed by the Itomans for its 
lightness (PUn. 'N. H.' xvui. 7). All 
ckisses here gaia their bread by making 
it, and the water-miUs and mule-mills, 
or (Uahona9f are never still ; they ex- 
ceed 200 in number : women and chil- 
dren are busy picking out earthy parti- 
cles from the grain which get mixed, 
from the common mode of threshing 
on a floor in the open air — the era, or 
Boman area. The com b very care- 
fully ground, and the flour passed 
through several hoppers in order to 
secure its fineness. Visit a large bake- 
house, and observe the care with which 
the dough is kneaded. It is worked 
and re- worked, as is done by our biscuit- 
bakers: hence the close-grained caky 
consistency of the crumb. The bread 
is taken into Seville early every morn- 
ing. Alcala,'pop. about 6000, is pro- 
verbial for salubrity, and is mucli re- 
sorted to as a summer residence, and 
it always escapes the plagues which 
so often have desolated Seville; the 
air, freshened by the pure Bonda 
breezes, is rarefied by the many ovens, 
of which there are more than 50. For 
local information consult the Memorias 
Historicas de Alcalde Leandro Jose de 
Flores, duo, Sevilla, 1833-4. 

The castle is one of the finest Moor- 
ish specimens in Spain, and was the 
land-key of Seville. It surrendered, 
Sept. 21, 1246, to St. Ferdinand, the 
garrison having ^* fraternised^* with 
Ibn-1-Ahmar, the petty king of Jaen, 
who was aiding the Christians against 
the SeviUians, for internal divisions 
und local hatreds have always been 
causes of weakness to unamalgamating 
Spain. The Moorish city lay imder 
the castle, and no longer Exists. A 
small mosque, now dedicated to San 
Miguel, on whose day the place was 
taken, and made into a barrack by the 
French, is all that remains. Observe 
the tapia walls, the mazmorras, subter- 
ranean com granaries, the cisterns, al- 
ffibes, the inner keep, and the huse don- 
jon tower, la torre mocha (mota), built 
by the Spaniards. The river below 
makes a pretty sweep round the rocky 
e, and long lines of walls run down, 

following the slopes of the irregular 
ground. The gardens are all that Flora 
and Pomona can combine. 

In the town observe the pictures in 
San Sebastian by Fr**. Pacheco, father- 
in-law to Velazquez, and also a " Pur- 
gatory" by him in the church of San- 
tiago. In the convent de las monjas 
is a Betablo with six small bas-reliefis 
by Montanes. The " Sa. Clara receiv- 
ing the Sacrament" is the best; his 
small works are rare and beautifiil. 

Alcala, the " city of springs," sup- 
plies temperate Seville both with bread 
and water, prison or Iberian fare. The 
alembic hill is perforated with tunnels : 
some are 2 L. in length. The line 
of these underground canals may be 
traced on the outsides of the hill by 
the lumbreraSf louvres, or ventilators. 
Do not fail to visit the Molino de la 
Mina, whence Pedro de Ponce Leon, 
in 1681, took the title of marquis. 
The excavations in the bowels of the 
rock are most picturesque, and no 
crystal can be clearer than the streams. 
Some of these works are supposed to 
be Boman, but the greater part are 
Moorish. The collected fluid is car- 
ried to Seville by an aqueduct; the 
first portion is enclosed by a brick 
caueria. The Boman works were com- 
pletely restored in 1172 by Jusuf Abu 
Jacub (Conde, ii. 380) ; but all was 
permitted, as usual, to go to decay 
under the Spaniards : the coping was 
broken in, and the water became turbid 
and unwholesome. In 1828, Don Jose 
Manuel de Arjona, Asistente of Seville 
and its great improver, set apart about 
40,000 dollars from a tax on meat, for 
the restoration of this supply of vital 
importance to an almost tropical city ; 
but this ready money was seized upon, 
in 1830, by the needy Madrid govern- 
ment, and spent in putting down 
Mina's rebellion aft«r the three glorious 
days at Paris. The aqueduct, on ap- 
proaching Seville, is carried in on some 
400 arches, called " Canos de Car- 
mona" because running along the 
road leading to that city. The sports- 
man may walk with his gun over the 
flats between AlcaU and Seville to the 






1. of ths high-road, which are full of 
snipes and wild-fowl in winter. 

The v&lley of the Chaadaira above 
Alcald should be visited by the artist, 
to see the Moorish mills and towers 
which Iria/rte sketched, who, accord- 
ing to Murillo, was fit to paint Para- 
dise, so relative is praise. Iriarte^ a 
second-rate artist, was almost the only 
landscape-painter Spain lias produced. 
There, as among the ancients, land- 
scape was used as a mere background 
or accessory, and deemed beneath the 
dignity of art. Neither the Church 
nor the people were worshipers of 
Nature, or had any genuine percep- 
tion of her charms. 

Leaving Alcala, the noble causeway 
winds gently round the hill, hanging 
over the river. In the plains below, 
amid orange and ohve-groves, rise the 
sun-gilt towera of stately Seville. The 
Moorish Giralda is pre-eminently the 
emphatic point. To the r. of the road, 
about 2 miles from Seville, is the Mesa 
del Rey, a square stone table on which 
the bodies of criminals are quartered, "a 
pretty dish to set before a long ;" this is 
an Arabic custom, andsuch atableexists 
at Cairo (Lane, i. 332). Next, we reach 
La Cruz del Campo, placed in an open 
Moorish-looking temple, but erected in 
1482. It is also callea el Humilladero : 
here travellers used to kneel, and thank 
the Virgin and Santiago for safe arrival 
at their journey's end, having escaped 
the pains and perils of Spanish travel ; 
now both these dangers and their piety 
are much decreased; here the liJsta- 
Clones (see p. 187) from the Casa de 
JPilatos terminate. 

The bridle-road from Xerez to Se- 
ville is much shorter than the circuit 
made by the dihgence ; it crosses the 
plains, but is scarcely carriageable ex- 
cept in summer, 

EorTE 5. — Xeeez to Sbvillb. 

Lebrija 5 

Cabezas de Sn. Juan . . 2 

A los Palacios .... 3 

Sevilla 4 


An uninteresting ride over the Ma- 

risma leads to Lebrija, nicely placed on 
a slight eminence, with a dLeaent posada. 
This is the ancient Nebrissa-Veneria, 
according to Pliny (* N. H.,* iii. 1) ; 
others read Venaria, and connect it, 
with the huntings of the Nimrod Bac- 
chus and his wines (Sil. Ital. iii. 393). 
Bochart derives the name from the 
Punic N'ae-Pritzaf a " land of over- 
flowing," to wliich these riverain flats 
are subject. Here was bom the great 
grammarian and restorer of letters in 
Spain, Antonio Cala Jarana del Ojo, 
better known as Nebritsensis. Observe 
Ija Mariquita del MarmolejOy a head- 
less Boman statue, now christened the 
Uttle marble Mary; notice the florid 
plateresque Hetablo of the Parroquia, 
once a mosque, ' with some of the ear- 
liest carvings in cedar and mahogany 
of Alonso Cano, 1630-36, especially 
the Virgin and Child, with all his mild 
and melancholy grace, and the St. 
Peter and St. Paul. Behind the church 
is a pretty orange planted cloister, with 
a good crucifix by Montaiies. Leaving 
Lebrija, the plains become more mono- 
tonous. Of Cabezas de San Juauy a 
miserable hamlet, the proverb says, No 
se hace nada en el consejo del rey^ sin 
Cabezas. To judge by the results of 
most of the councils of Madrid, the ca- 
binet has too often been selected from 
this wrong-headed village. It was one 
of the first places which responded to 
the cry of Biego, for which he was 
ha»ged, and so many others lost their 
heads on the scaffold. Before arriving 
at Los Palacios, is a long-ruined Ro- 
man and Moorish causeway, La alcan^ 
tarilla (Arabic^, the Uttle bridge), 
raised on accoimt of the inundations 
above the level of the Marisma, and 
now half dilapidated. Los Palacios 
are any thing now but palaces. The 
common occurrence of the term de- 
notes either the past magnificence of 
Spaniards, or their habit of calling 
their geese swans* 



Sect. II. 

Route 6. — San Lucae to Aya- 


Torre be Solavar ... 2 

Torre de Carboneros . . 1 . . 3 

De la Higuerita. . . . 2 . . 6 

Del Oro .,,,,. 3 .. 8 

Moguer 3 .. 11 

Huelva 1 .. 12 

Alfaraque 1 .. 13 

Gartaya 2 .. 15 

Lepe ...... 1 .. 16 

Redondela 1 .. lY 

Ayamonte 3 .. 20 

It remains to describe, as shortly as 
possible, the dreary roadless country 
which lies on the r. bank of the Gua- 
dalquivir, and which extends to the 
G-uadiana and the Portuguese frontier. 
This is called the Marisma or marsh 
district, and also the Condadoy or 
county of Niebla: formerly it was a 
petty Moorish kingdom and with most 
of this district passed into the great 
Guzman family. Let none go there 
except driven by dire necessity, or on a 
sporting excursion. Spanish mis-go- 
vernment and neglect have here done 
their worst. 

There is constant communication by 
water in picturesque Misticos; those 
who go by land must ride. The accom- 
modations are everywhere wretched : 
attend, therefore, to the provend, as 
nothing of comfort will be found but 
what the wayfarer brings with him. 
The wide plains are almost uninhabited 
and uncultivated, but the inherent fer- 
tihty of the soil is evidenced by the 
superb stone-pines and fig-trees, which 
may be termed indigenous. The coast- 
road is guarded by AtaUiyasy or 
" watch-towers," Arabic^ Talidh^ from 
taleai to " look out from above :" they 
are of remotest antiquity, as the coasts 
of Spain have always been exposed to 
piratical descents from Africa, where 
the descendants of the Carthaginians 
never forgot their dispossession by the 
Bomans. The Berber Moors recovered 
the country of their Oriental fore- 
fathers ; and their descendants, again 
dispossessed by the Spaniards, remem- 
"^^er a land which they still consider 
ir rightful property. 

Hannibal buiit so many of these 
atalayas on the coast from Cadiz to 
Saguntum that they went br his name, 
" turres, speculas Hannibalis " (Plin. 

* N. H.' ii. 71) ; Csesar followed his 
example (Hirt. *B. H.' 7) ; from these, 
signals were made by fire at night, by 
smoke by day. These were the " sign of 
fire" (Jer. vi. 1), the ^^vzrat of Thueyd. 
(iii. 22), and see Polyb. (x. 43, 45), 
and the magnificent lines of jEschylus 
(Ag. 291). Pliny describes these *4gnes 
prsenunciativos" as used "propter pira- 
ticos terrores," and so Charles V. re- 
paired these marteUo towers when 
threatened by the invasions of Barba- 
rossa. Thus they have occupied the 
same sites, and testify the continuance 
of the same fears of unchanged Iberia, 
whether Carthaginian, Koman, Moor- 
ish, Gothic, or Spanish ; many are very 
picturesque, perched on headlands and 
eminences; they stand forth on the 
blue sky, like lonely sentinels and mo- 
numents of the dangers of this ever- 
troubled land. They now are generally 
occupied by preventive service guards. 

They are commonly built in tapia^ 
a sort of African or Phoenician con- 
crete, introduced with the system of 
the towers themselves, and like them 
continued imchanged in the cognate 
lands of Spain and Barbary. The 
component mixture of stones, mortar, 
and rubble, is placed moist in a move- 
able frame of wood kept together by 
bolts ; it is then rammed down, the 
bolts withdrawn, and moved onwards 
or upwards as the case requires. Hence 
the Bomans called them "parietes 
formacei," walls made in frames (PUny, 

* N. H.* XXXV. 14) ; he particularly de- 
scribes those of Spain, and notices their 
indestructibility : they, in fact, become 
sohd masses, petrifactions. The Goths 
continued the practice, calling the 
method " formatum j" and horma still 
means a mud wall. The word tapia is 
Arabic ; it is still called toU in Egypt, 
and signifies an earthen wall, Devonic^, 
Coh, These walls continue to be now 
built both in Andalucia and Barbary 
after the same ancient method (see our 
paper in the Quart. Bev. cxvi. 537, for 




the learning and practice of these Ta- 
rieties of Coh). 

» Moguer — Lontigi Alontigi — the pre- 
sent word means in Arabic caves^ of 
which there are many in the neigh- 
bourhood — rises gently above the Rio 
G?into, and traffics in wine and fruit ; 
the town and castle are much dilapi- 
dated. The parish church-tower is 
built after the Giralda of Seville. Be- 
low Moguer is the port, Palos, Palus 
Streplaca. Visit, one short L. from 
JPalos, the Franciscan convent Santa 
Maria Mdbida, a Moorish name so 
common in Spain, and signifying 
"frontier or exposed situations," R4b- 
bitah, Bebath, which were defended by 
the Babitos ; these were the Marabi- 
tins, the Morabitos, the Almorabides 
of Conde, a sort of Ghilzee, a half fa- 
natic soldier-monk, from whom the 
Spaniards boirowed their knights of 

This convent was ordered, in 1846, to 
be preserved as a national memorial, 
and is to be fitted up forinvalidsoldiers; 
it has already given shelter to those 
great men whom Spain could once 
produce ; but it is now fasi going to 
ruin, and the wood of the cells stripped 
off. Here, in 1484, Columbus, craving 
charity with his little boy, was received 
by the Prior Juan Perez de Marchena. 
^fh\a monk, when the wisest kings and 
councils had rejected as visionary the 
scheme of the discovery of the New 
World, alone had the vdt to see its 
probability, the coiu*age to advocate 
the plan, and the power to prepare the 
experiment. He must, indeed, share 
in the glory of the discovery of Ame- 
rica, for by his influence alone with 
Isabella, was his proteg^ Columbus en- 
abled to sail on this expedition. The 
armament consisted of two caravels, or 
light vessels without decks, and a third 
one of larger burden j 120 persons em- 
barked and started "on the 3rd of 
August, 1492, fi^m this port of Palos, 
and bidding adieu to the Old World, 
launched forth on that unfathomed 
waste of waters, where no sail had 
ever been spread before " (Prescott, ii» 
214). Columbus was accompanied by 

some adventurers of the name of Pin- 
zon, a family not yet extinct in these 
locaUties ; and to this very port, on 
March 15, 1493, 7 months and 11 
days afterwards, did he return, having; 
reaUsed his grand conception, con- 
ferred a new world on his sove- 
reigns, and earned immortality for 
himself — services soon to be repaid by 
breach of faith and ingratitude. Co- 
sas de JSspana. At Palos, again, 
Cortes landed in May, 1528, after the 
conquest of Mexico, and also found 
shelter in the same convent walls where: 
Columbus had lodged on his return 
35 years before, and like him returned 
to be also shghted and ill-rewarded^ 
By a strange coincidence, Pizarro, the^ 
conqueror of Peru, was also at Palos at 
this moment, commencing that career 
of conquest, bloodshed, and spoUation, 
which Cortes was about to close. Pi- 
zarro was assassinated. Those accom-> 
plished Americans, Prescott and Wash- 
ington Irving, have with singular grace 
and propriety illustrated the age ot 
Ferdinand and Isabella, when their 
country was discovered. For the best 
works on its early history, consult 
catalogue published by Mr. Eich, in 
London, 1832 : or, in the * JBiblio'^ 
theque Americainey by M. Temaux.. 
Paris, 1837. Palos now is a poor 
fishing port, and a thing of decrepid. 

Jffuelva, Onuba, of Phoenician origin 
(consult " Disertacion sohre Onuha^^' 
Barco y Qasca, 4to. Sev. 1755 j and 
* JSuelva ilvtstrada^ Juan. Ag. de Mora.. 
4to. Sev. 1762), stands on the conflu- 
ence of the Odiel and Tinto. Some 
antiquaries read in the word Onuha 
" abimdance of grape bunches." As- 
tarloa prefers the Basque, and trans-^ 
lates Wuelba as a "hill placed under 
a height." It is a seaport, and the 
capitfii of its triangular province; there- 
are two TxaAd^ng posadas ; pop. 7000.. 
It is a busy tunny-fisliing town, and 
in constant communication with Por- 
tugal, Cadiz, and Seville, sending much 
fruit and floor mattings to the latter- 
places. Thew^ater is deUcious. The 
vestiges of a Roman aqueduct are faf' 



Sect. II. 

disappeai*ing, having long served as a 
quarry to the hoorish cultivators of 
the rich environs. Meantime the mo- 
dest motto of the place is "Portus 
Maris et terree cust-odia !" 

Jffueha is 15 L. from Seville ; the 
road is merely a bridle one. The chief 
traffic is carried on by passage-boats, 
which navigate the Guadalquivir. The 
land route is as follows : — 

Saa Juan del Puerto . . 2 

Niebla 2 .. 4 

Villarasa 2 .. 6 

LaPalma 1 .. 7 

Manzanilla 2 .. 9 

San Lucar la Mayor . . 4 . . 13 

Seville 3 .. 16 

The country is uninteresting, al- 
though of extraordinary fertility in 
titheable oil, wine, fruit, and grain. 
NiehUty accordingly, has 5 parish 
churches, and had 2 convents, a decent 
spiritual supply for 580 inhab. Niebla, 
the ancient Ilipla, (Livy xxv. 1), lies 
between the rivers VUlarasa and Beas^ 
and has a castle ruined by the French, 
and a most ancient but dilapidated 
bridge. It is the chief town of its 
county or condado^ which formed a 
small principahty under the Moors ; 
here much bad wine is made, wliich is 
sent to San Lucar, and converted for 
the EngUsh market into fine sherry, 
neat as imported, at only 36 j. the dozen, 
bottles included. Palma, with some 
3500 souls, is equally dull, which, in- 
deed, may be predicated throughout 
this fat district, which a judicious tra- 
veller will carefully avoid. 

Continuing R. vi., after leaving 
Huelva and crossing the Odiel is Lepe^ 
Leppa, Leptis, near the Bio de Fiedra : 
it is a poor town in a rich district, 
having been twice sacked by the French. 
The population, some 3000, are fisher- 
men and smugglers. Lepe furnished 
the Londoners in Chaucer's time with 
" rede and white wine," which, accord- 
ing to the Pardoner's tale, was sold in 
" Fish Street and Chepe," and " crept 
eubtelly" into the brains of the citizens. 
These drinks probably came from Be- 
dondella, where the wines are excel- 

"^t, and the fruit delicious, especially 

the figs, the best of which are the Lozio 
and Pezo mudo. Here grows the reed, 
juncOy of which the fine Andaluciaji 
esteraSf floor-mattings, are made. Ayo' 
monte, Sonoba, Ostium Anse, was the 
city whence the Roman miUtary road 
to Merida commenced. An island on 
the Guadiana is still called Tyro, and 
vestiges of ruins may be traced. Popu- 
lation, nearly 5000. There are 2 par- 
roquias and a ruined castle, and al- 
though a frontier fortress it is in a most 
Spanish and Oriental state of neglect, 
yet it calls itself the key and port of 
the Guadiana : the neighbouring pine- 
forests provide timber for building mw- 
ticos and coasting craft. 

In the ninth century the Normans 
or Northmen made piratical excursions 
on the W. coast of Spain. They passed, 
in 8-43, from Lisbon down to the straits, 
and everywhere, as in France, over- 
came the unprepared natives, plunder- 
ing, burning, and destroying. They 
captured even Seville itself, Sept. 30, 
844, but were met by the Cordovese 
Kalif, beaten and expelled. They were 
called by the Moors Majus, Madjous, 
Magioges (Conde, i. 282), and by the 
early Spanish annalists Ahnajuzes. The 
root has been erroneously derived from 
Mecycfy Magus, magicians or superna- 
tural beings, as they were almost held 
to be. The term Madjous was, strictly 
speaking, applied by the Moors to 
those Berbers and Africans who were 
Pagans or Muwallads, i, e. not believers 
in the Koran. The true etymology is 
that of the Gog and Magog so fre- 
quently mentioned by Ezekiel (xxxviii. 
and xxxix.) and in the Bevelations (xz. 
8) as ravagers of the earth and nations, 
May-Gogg, " he that dissolveth." — The 
fierce Normans appeared, coming no 
one knew fi*om whence, just when the 
minds of men were trembling at the 
approach of the millennium, and thus 
were held to be the forerunners of the 
destroyers of the world. This name 
of indefinite gigantic power survived 
in the Mogigangas^ or terrific images, 
which the Spaniards used to parade in 
their religious festivals, hke the Gogs 
and Magogs of our civic wise men of 




the East. Thus Andalucia being the ' 
half-way point between the N. and S.E., I 
became the duel meeting-place of the , 
two great ravaging swarms which have 1 
desolated Europe : here the stalwart ' 
children of frozen Norway, the wor- 1 
shippers of Odin, clashed against the ' 
Saracens from torrid Arabia, the fol- I 
lowers of Mahomet. Nor can a greater 
proof be adduced of the power and 
relative superiority of the Cordovese 
Moors over the other nations of Eu- 
rope, than this their successful resist- 
ance to those fierce invaders, who over- 
ran without difficulty the coasts of 
England, France, Apulia, and Sicily: 
conquerors everywhere else, here they 
were driven back in disgrace. Hence 
the bitter hatred of the Normans against 
the Spanish Moors — ^henoe their aUi- 
ances with the Catalans, where a Nor- 
man impression yet remains in archi- 
tecture ; but, as in Sicily, these barba- 
rians, unrecruited from the North, 
soon died away, or were assimilated as 
usual with the more pohshed people, 
whom they had subdued by mere su- 
periority of brute force. 

RorTE 7. — San LrcAB to PoETrGAL. 

Palacio de Dofia Anna . 4 

AlRocio 3 .. 7 

AlnronLe 3 .. 10 

Rociana . ... 2 .. 12 

Niebla 2 .. 14 

TrigueroB 2 .. 16 

Gibraleon 2 .. 18 

Sao Bartolom€ .... 3 .. 21 

A los Caatillegos ... 3 .. 24 

San Lucar de Guadiana . 3 . . 27 

The first portion is some of the finest 
shooting country in Andalucia. Ma- 
rismillas is an excellent preserve. The 
palace of I>ona Ana, a corruption of 
Onana, was the celebrated sporting seat 
of the Duque de Medina Sidonia, where 
he received Phihp IV. in 1624. To 
the N. lies the Goto del Bey, or Lomo 
del Gfrullo. The shooting-box of this 
royal preserve was built last century 
by Francisco Bruna, the alcaide of the 
alcazar of Seville, under whose jurisdic- 
tion these woods and forests ar3 or were. 
Parties who come with a permission 

from the Alcaide can be lodged in this 
Palacio, as it is here called ; but this 
Spanish palace, as often elsewhere, 
means, in plain English, - cuatro pa- 
redes, four bare walls. A prudent man 
— experto crede — will always send on 
a galera laden with everything from a 
cook to a mattress : take especially 
good wine, for fuel and game alone 
are to be had. This coto is distant 8 
L. from Seville, and the route runs 

BoluUos . .... 3 

Aznalcazar 2 

Villa Manrique .... 1 

El Coto 2 



The ride is wild ; the first 5 L. run 
through the Ajarafe, Arabic^ Sharaf, 
" the hilly country." This fertile dis- 
trict, once called the garden of Her- 
cules, was reserved by St. Ferdinand as 
the hon's share at the capture of Seville. 
It produced the finest Beetican olives 
of antiquity, and imder the Moors was 
a paracUse, but now all is riiin and de- 
solation. The Spaniards in their tolas, 
or raids, ravaged everything, and broken 
roads and bridges mark their former 
warfEire. The ruins have remained un- 
removed, unrepaired, after six centuries 
of neglect and apathy ; meanwhile there 
is not only excellent lodging for owls in 
the old buildings, but capital cover for 
game of every kind, which thrive in 
these wastes, where Nature and her feriB 
are left in undisputed possession. No 
man who is fond of shooting wiU fail 
spending a week either at the Coto del 
Mey, or that of I>ona Ana, 

Leaving the last place, and passing 
the sanctuary of our Lady of Dew, we 
reach Almonte, in the **Condado" of 
Niebla, which is described at p. 162. 

Triffueros (Cunistorgis) was the port 
whence the ancients shipped the ores 
of the Sierra Morena, the Montes Ma- 
rianos. GHbraleon, as the Arabic name 
signifies, "the hiU of Color," pop. 
2500, is a decayed but ancient place. 
San Ijucctr de ChMdiana is the poor, 
ill-provided frontier town, on its river, 
which divides Spain from Portugal, 
and is navigable to the picturesque 
rock-built Mertola, 5 L. Ayamonte lie» 



Sect. II. 

l)elow San Lucar, distant about 6 L. 
"by water (see Rte. vi.) : we again re- 
peat, let none visit this rt. bank of the 
•Q-uadalquivir, except to shoot. 


" Quien no ha visto d SeviUa^ 
No ha visto d maraviUa," 

*' He who has not at Seville been, 
Has not, I trow, a wonder seen." 

Inns. — Fonda de Madrid, Plaza de 
Magdalena ; the best but dearish ; 
Fonda de JEuropa, Calle Q-allegosj 
good, charges 30 reals a day; La 
Meynay Calle de Jimios, an old and 
more genuine Spanish ^o^oo^a, is kept 
by a civil Portuguese ; coldish in winter, 
it is pleasant enough in summer. Po- 
sada de la Union, Calle de la Union. 
There are many decent casas de pu^n- 
loss the charges vary from 15 to 26 
reals a day ; lodgings also may be had 
in plenty, and bad dinners sent from 
the restaurateurs. The traveller should 
lodge near the Plaza San Franpisco, 
and if he intends to reside here a winter, 
in the Calle de las Armas, or at all 
events in the parish San Vicente, which 
is the aristocratic quarter. Avoid the 
flat districts near the Macarena, as 
subject to inundations, and the neigh- 
bourhood of the Torre del Oro, near 
which the open Ta^a/rete — little better 
than a Fleet-ditch — exhales fever and 

In the quarters we recommend, while 
few large houses are to be let furnished, 
the rent for those unfurnished is mo- 
derate — from 40^. to 50^. a year: a 
palace, as far as size goes, may be had 
for lOOZ. a year ; a Spanish house, at 
best, is poorly furnished, according to 
our wants and notions, but carpets, 
&c., are a nuisance here to every living 
being except fleas. 

Those about to furnish will find tole- 
rable and second-hand articles supplied 
at the brokers' shops, which form a 
street of themselves, running out of the 
Plaqa de la Fncamadon: and these 
chalanes wOl, when the stranger leaves, 
take the things off* his hands; let no 
new comer buy or sell with these un- 
conscionable people, but commission 

some respectable native; thus a house 
may be furnished in a day or two. 

Seville, this marvel of Bstica, the 
Zeviya de mi alma of the Andalucians, 
being a place of easy access and of many 
attractions, is more visited than most 
cities of Spain: accordingly the demand 
of foreigners has created a supply of 
that useful personage the regular lac- 
quey de place, who is rarely to 'be met 
with in other towns. Amon^ them 
Antonio Bailly, to be heard of at the 
Reyna, or at his house, No. 6, CaUe 
Reynoso, can be recommended, not only 
as a good guide in the town, but for a 
courier or travelling servant through- 
out Spain : he has much experience in 
that line, and makes a capital factotum 
and dragoman to those who cannot 
discourse eloquent Spanish. Antonio 
is i&t and good-humoured, speaks Eng- 
lish well, can sing a good Andalucian 
song, manage to get up a gipsy /wmow 
en Triana, &c. &c. This dance is the 
real thing, and the unchanged exhibi- 
tion of the ImprobcB GaditancB of an- 
tiquity. A public Baile is given in the 
Salon Oriente every Saturday evening, 
admittance one dollar. English ladies 
had fer better not go. Another intelli- 
gent guide, Ghtstave de Willinskif maybe 
heard of at the Europa; By birth a Pole, 
he was formerly a professor of languages, 
of which he speaks many. Jose Lasso 
de la Vega, an officer who once served 
under Sir C, Campbell, and who is to 
be heard of at the Union, speaks excel- 
lent CastUian. Pascual Rose, at the 
Madrid, a- native of Gibraltar, speaks 
five languages, is a good cook and a 
capital servant. Ditto FredericJc Bar- 
low, who was bom in Spain of an Eng- 
lish father. Qaetano PeicJcler, an an- 
cient and good Cicerone, lives at No. 3, 
Calle de los Menores ; he is a Spaniard 
by birth, although of German origin, 
and speaks English weU: he traffics 
also in copies of pictures, clay figures, 
&c. All travellers should consult Don. 
Julian Williams, our most excellent and 
obliging Vice-Consul. There is a Ca- 
sino here in the Plaza del Duque, in 
the old ducal palace; but no one is 
admitted in the Majo (the genuine 

Andalucia, route 7. — Seville — tradesmen — history. 


dress of Seville) dress, all nowadays is 
80 civilised and denationalised! 

The £Gur ses will find the Calles 
Francos and de la Sierpe the most 
fashionable and best supplied shopping 
streets. Grenerally speaking the dif- 
ferent trades dwell, as anciently in the 
East (Jer. xxxvii. 21), in streets appro- 
priated to themselves; thus booksellers 
congregate in the Calle de Genoa — 
their Paternoster-row ; silversmiths live 
under the arcades of the Plaza and in 
the adjoining Calle Chicarreros; hard- 
ware dealers, here called los Alemanes^ 
reside opposite the cathedral ; saddlers 
and makers of the gaiter, the embroi- 
dered national botin, in the Calle de la 
Mar: of these Bernardo Delgado is 
the best ; Penda, Calle de la Borcigue- 
neria (a Moorish boot), was the crack 
tnajo tailor ; Martinez, Calle de Genoa, 
ranks high for more European raiment. 
The names of many of the streets — 
Calle Francos, Genoa, Alemanes, Flo- 
centines, &c., offer the surest evidence 
that traffic was chiefly managed by 
foreigners, Flemings especially, who had 
factories and privileges, and this even 
in vaunted commercial Seville. 

The invalid will find Seville a very 
eligible place for winter residence. Dr. 
Francis (p. 37) gives full hygienic 
details, and justly enlarges on the vo- 
luptuous softness of the air, of a nature 
which exhilarates both morally and phy- 
sically. He dwells on the effects of its 
sunshine, which rekindle strength and 
youthful feelings. Calmness forms a 
marked character of the climate, which 
is dryer ahd warm^ than Cadiz, and 
very suitable for cases of bronchitis 
and atonic dyspepsia; another pecu- 
liarity is the kindly manner in which 
serious wounds heal. 

The man of letters will not lack food 
for the mind, as few cities have had 
more chroniclers than Seville. The 
best works are Historia de Sevilla, 
Alonso Morgado, foL, Sev. 1587 ; His- 
toria de Sevilla, Pablo de Espinosa 
de los Monteros, fol., 2 parts, Sev. 
1627-30; Antiffuedadesde Sevilla, 'Ro- 
drigo Caro, fol., Sev. 1634; Anales 
FcclesiasticoSf Diego Ortiz de Zuniga, 

fol., Sev. 1677 ; this excellent work was 
continued down to 1700 in the 2nd 
ed. by Espinosa y Carcel, 6 v. 4to., 
Mad. 1795-96. Anales Ecclesiasticos 
y Seglares, firom 1671 to 1746, by Lo- 
renzo Bautista. Zuniga, fol., Sev. 1748 j 
also Compendia Historico, Sev. 1766 ; 
and the new ed. under the name of 
Varflora : this author also published a 
work on the Worthies of Seville, Hijos 
de Sevilla, 1796. Of modem guides 
there is the poor * Guia,' by Herera 
Davila, Sev. 1832 ; Seville and its Vtci- 
nity, by F. H. Standish, Lond. 1840, a 
still more dull, inaccurate compilation. 

The capture of Seville from the 
Moors by St. Ferdinand, a campaign 
of romance, has been illustrated by the 
ballads and fine arts of Seville. The 
student will consult the Froissart-like 
Chronica del Sancto JRey, by Don 
Lucas, Bishop of Tuy, an eye-witness, 
fol., YaUadoUd, 1555 ; the Memorial, 
Juan Pineda, fol., Sev. 1627 ; Acta S, 
Ferdinandi, Daniel Paperbroch, fol., 
Antwerp, 1688 j the Fiestas de la 
Santa Iglesia de Sevilla, Fernando de 
la Torre Farfan, foL, Sev. 1672-3: this, 
one of the few really artistical books of 
Spain, is illustrated with etchings by 
Sevillian painters. For the fine arts 
there are the excellent Descrvpcion 
Artistica de la Catedral de Sevilla, 
Cean Bermudez, 8vo., Sev. 1804, and 
his Uttle volume on the Fintura de la 
Escuela SevUlana, Cadiz, 1806, and the 
Sevilla Artistica, J. Colon y Colon, 
Sev. 1841 ; for Ecclesiastical Antiqui- 
ties consult Florez, Fsp. Sag. ix. j 
Ponz, Viage, ix.; Sevilla Fintoresca, 
Jose Amador de los Bios, 4to., Sev. 
1844. The Arabic in it is inaccurate: 
the author then had no Gayangos to 
help him. Consult also Noticia Artis- 
tica by Gonzalez de Leon, and the good 
article on Seville in Madoz, xiv. 209, 
which is a book of itself. 

There are two plans of Seville; one 
very large and accurate, by Vargas y 
Machuca, 1788$ the other more con- 
venient for the pocket, by Herrera y 
Davila, 1832. The streetology is diffi- 
cult as the town is a labyrinth of lanes, 
each of which resembles the other; and 



Sect. II. 

as the names of many of them were 
very absurdly changed in 1845, the 
little duodecimo street guide, or Calle- 
jero, pubhshed in 1846 by Alvarez,' 
will be useful. 

Before examining Seville as it is, a 
brief epitome of the past may be pre- 
fiftced : the history and date of its foun- 
dation is lost in the obscurity of remote 
antiquity, as is pretty clear, when men 
go to Hispan and Hercules, who pro- 
bably never existed. The old name 
HiBpal sounds very Punic, and is de- 
rived by Arias Montano from Sejphela 
or Speia, a plain, which is much more 
likely than the derivation, a pcUis, the 
piles on which it is not built; this, a 
mere coincidence of soimd, not sense, 
misled San Isidoro (Or. xv. 1), a dread- 
ful " maker of shots," but who, being its 
archbishop, might have known better. 
Sut sound etymological principles are 
quite modem, and when Niebuhr 
alluded to "that unspeakable spirit 
of absurdity which always came over 
even the most sagacious Greeks and 
Romans the moment they meddled 
with etymology," he might well have 
added "patristic and mediaeval scho- 
lars and even saints." Be that as it 
may, Hispal, if not of Iberian founda- 
tion, was certainly a Phoenician settle- 
ment connecting Gaddir with Cordova : 
the Greeks changed the name into 
l^craka, and the Bomans into Hispalis, 
of which the Moors made Ishbiliah, 
whence Sibilia, Sevilla. 

Of its ante-Boman history little is 
known beyond the fact that it was soon 
eclipsed by Italica^ a mihtary town, by 
Gades, a sea-port, and by Cordova, the 
residence of patrician settlers. JuUus 
Csesar patronised Seville, because Cor- 
dova had espoused the side of Pompey ; 
having captured it Aug. 9, forty-five 
years before Christ, he became its 
second foimder, made it his capital, a 
conventus juridicuSy or town of assize, 
and gave it the title Somulaf the little 
Bome; but even then it was more a 
Pimic than Boman city, and by no 
means splendid, according to Italian 
notions (Strabo, iii. 208) j it was, how- 
ler, walled round (Hirt. * B. H.' 35). 

Seville was the capital of the Silingi, 
and of the Goths imtil the sixth cen- 
tury, when Leovigild removed his court 
to Toledo, as being more centrally situ- 
ated, while HermenegilduB, liis son and 
heir, remained as viceroy ; he soon re- 
linquished the Arian faith, and declared 
against his father, by whom he was 
put to death as a rebel ; but when the 
Athanasian Creed was finally intro- 
duced, he was canonized as a martyr. 
These religious wars were headed by 
the brothers San Laureano and San 
Isidoro, men of powerful intellects, 
successively Archbishops of Seville, 
and now its sainted tutelars. The 
former is called the "Apostle of the 
Goths," the latter the "Egregious 
Doctor of Spain." (See Index, Jw- 

Seville, with all Spain to the west, was 
conquered by the Mahomedans under 
the same Kalif Walid, who subjugated 
Scinde also to the east. The unwarlike 
city surrendered to the Moors at once, 
after the defeat of Don Boderick on 
the Guadalete : there was treason and 
dissension within its walls, for the de- 
throned monarch's widow, Egilona, 
soon married Abdu-1-aziz, the son of 
the conqueror Musa-Ibn-Nosseir. Se- 
ville continued its allegiance to the 
Xahf of Damascus until the year 756, 
when 'Abdu-r-rahman established at 
Cordova the western Kali&te of the 
Beni Umeyyah family, to which Se- 
ville remained subject until 1031, when 
that dynasty was overturned, and with 
it the real dominion in Spain of the 
Moor. Then the ill-connected fabric 
spht into sects, almohades and ahnO" 
roffides, and separate adventurers set 
themselves up as kings — sheiks — over 
each province and town, to become 
rivals and enemies of each other. The 
Sevillian separate monarchy was short- 
lived. The house divided against itsdf 
could not stand, and still less at a mo- 
ment when the kingdoms of Leon and 
Castile were consohdated under St. Fer- 
dinand, one of their best of kings, and 
bravest of soldiers. 

^ He advanced into Andaluoia, taking 
city after city, the petty rulers being 




unable to resist single-handed : nay, 
partly from tribe hatred and partly 
from selfish policy, they assisted as 
fdlies of the Christians, each bidding 
against each other ; thus Ibn-1-ahmar, 
the upstart Sheikh of Jaen, mainly 
contributed to the capture of Seville. 
The city was besieged from the S.E. 
side, at Tablada, Aug. 20, 1247 : the 
details are quite a romance, especially 
the vision of the Virgin, the breaking of 
the bridge of boats by Eamon Bon^Eiz, 
and the prowess of Diego, M Mach-acaj 
the brother of Garci Perez de Vargas, 
the model of Don Quixote (i. 8) . These 
are the subjects and heroes of baUads, 
and of the poem of the Conde de la 
Boca, SI Fernando^ 6 Sevilla Restau- 
raday Milan, 1632: an author who 
modestly likened himself to Tasso, and 
took San Isidoro for his Apollo. Se- 
ville surrendered Nov. 23, 1248, on el 
dia de San Clemente, The citizens 
had previously been subject to the 
Emperor of Morocco, but at the death 
of Arrashid, their African liege lord, 
in 1242, they had chosen a king of 
their own, whom they soon displaced, 
establishing a sort of republican Junta, 
headed by Sakkaf, the Axataf of Spa- 
nish annals. Thus Seville was lost to 
the Moors after a possession of 636 
years. After the capture St. Ferdinand 
divided the houses and lands among 
his soldiers, and this curious * JReparH- 
mieniOf' or Doomsday Book of Seville, 
exists, printed in the 2nd vol. of Espi- 
nosa's work; and many families can 
trace their actual houses and posses- 
sions up to this original partition. 
For the nobility of Andalucia, see iVb- 
hleza del Andaluzia, G-onzalo Argote 
de Molina, fol., SevUla, 1588 : it has 
plates of their coats of arms, and is a 
fine and rarish book. 

St. Ferdinand granted to the city for 
arms, himself seated on his throne, with 
San Laureano and San Isidoro for his 
supporters. He died here, while medi- 
tating an invasion of Africa, worn out 
by long services, May 31, 1252, and 
was canonized in 1668 by Clement IX. ; 
his body was removed to its present 
shrine, in 1729, by Philip V. All these 

Spain — I. 

events and persons form subjects for 
the authors and artists of Seville, and 
are therefore briefly stated. They have 
been tersely summed up in the distich 
which is inscribed over the Puerta'de 
la Came — 

" Condidit Alcides— renovavit Julius urbem, 
Restituit Christo Femandus tertius heros." 

This is thus paraphrased over the 
Puerta de Xerez : — 

** Heradeg me ecUficd, 
Julio C^sotr me cercd 

De muros y torres altos; 
{Un Rey Godo meperdid), omitted. 
£1 Rey Santo me gan6t 
Con Oarci Perez de Vargas." 

** Hercules built me ; Julius Csesar surrounded 
me with walls and lofty towers ; a Gothic king 
lost me ; a saint-like king recovered me, assisted 
by Gard Peree de Vargas." 

Seville, in the unnatural civil wars 
after the conqueror's death, was the 
only city which remained faithful to 
his son and successor, Alonso el Sabio, 
the Uamedy but not wise. He was like 
our pedant James I., so well described 
by Gondomar, as " The most learned 
fool in Christendom," and both would 
have made better professors than kings 
— capaces imperii^ nisi imperassent. 
Alonso gave Seville the badge, which is 
to be seen carved and painted every- 
where. It is called JSl Nodo, and is 
thus represented : No. 8 do ; the hiero- 
glyphic signifies No-m^ha dexa-Do, " It 
has not deserted me." Madexa in old 
Spanish meant a knot, and is the G-o- 
thic Mataxa, Nodus (San. Isid. Or% 
xix. 29). Thus was reproduced unin- 
tentionally the old Phoenician mer- 
chant mark, the Nodus Herculis — the 
knot which guaranteed the genuineness 
of the contents of every bale : hence 
the Mark of these foimders of com- 
merce became the symbol of peace, 
trade, and of the god of thieves, and 
was perpetuated by the Greeks in the 
twisted ornaments of the herald Cadu" 
ceus of Mercury (Macrob. Sat. i. 19). 

Seville continued to be the capital of 
Spain, and especially of Don Pedro, 
who was more than half a Moor, until 
Charles V. removed the court to Val- 
ladolid i yet it remained fiuthful — ^true 




Sect. II. 

to the sun, although not shone upon — 
during the outbreak of the comunerosy 
and was rewarded by a motto, "Ab 
Hercule et Csesare nobilitas, a se ipsd 
fidelitas." The discorepy of the New 
World raised Seville to a more than 
former splendour ; it became the mart 
of the golden colonies, and the residence 
of princely foreign merchants. Buona- 
parte's invasion and the subsequent 
loss of the transatlantic possessions cast 
her down from her palmy pride of 
place. The Junta risked the battle of 
OcaJia in despite of the Cassandra 
warnings of the Duke, and were de- 
feated ; the conquerors then overran 
Andalucia, and in a few days the heroic 
city surrendered (Feb. 2, 1810), with- 
out even a show of fight. Soult 
then became its petty king, for he set 
Joseph at defiance. "Mercy," says 
Schepeler, " was erased from Ms orders 
of the day :" here he levied gigantic 
contributions, and " inexorably," as he 
boasted, carried into efiect his Draco 
decree of May 9, 1810, ordering " all 
Spaniards taken in arms to be shot, 
without any form of trial;" for this 
he himself was excluded from the law 
of nations by the Regency. Aug. 15. 
Well might Toreno (xvi.) exclaim, 
describing the illegal execution of Juan 
Manuel Lopez, Nov. 29, 1811 : " Des- 
garra el corazon crudeza tan desapia- 
dada y ha/rhara." — Toreno (xx.) esti- 
mates theFrench plunder at six millions 
sterling; and he gives the details; so 
does Schepeler (iii. 129) . Soult* s name is 
held at Seville in the same detestation as 
Murat*s is at Madrid, and Sebastiani's 
at Qranada. These calculations do not 
include the stolen pictures ; Soult as- 
ked the dealer, Mr. Buchanan, 100,000 
napoleons for the Munllos alone. 
As Moore at Sahagun had once before 
saved the Andalucians, now the Duke 
at Salamanca, delivered them again, a 
little fact entirely omitted by Madoz 
(xiv. 429), and Soult fled from Seville 
Aug. 27, 1813, closely followed by Col. 
Skerrett. Sir John Downie, when his 
Spanish legion of Loyal Estremenians 
would not fight, joined the Enghsh, 
'ho would, and charged the bridge 

three times ; he was wounded and 
taken prisoner, yet threw back to his 
followers his sword, that its honour 
might remain unsullied; it was that 
of Pizarro, and had been given to him 
in reward of previous valour, and now 
is in the Armeria at Madrid, No. 1769 : 
Downie was afterwards made Alcaide 
of the Alcazar, not Alcalde^ as CoL 
Gurwood, not the accurate Duke, notes 
(Disp. June 11, 1809). The office of 
Alcaide is one of high honour ; it is 
the Moorish Kaid, Dux Arcis, the 
other a petty village magistrate : it is 
almost the difference between the Con- 
stable of the Tower, and a Tower con- 
stable. Downie began life as a clerk 
in the commissariat, and was a true 
Andaluz. The English entered Seville 
amid the rapturous acclamations of 
the inhabitants, thus deUvered from 
Soult's terrorism, scaffolds, and con- 

Seville, in 1823, was made the asylum 
of the bragging Cortes, who halted here 
in their flight from Madrid, and who 
again fled at the first approach of An- 
gouldme ; but this capital of the ever 
unwarUke Andalucians never held out 
against any one except Espartero in 
July, 1843. That siege lasted about 
9 days, and during 6 only were any 
bombs fired. Accordingly, less than 
100 Sevillians were wounded, of whom 
only 20 died: of the assailants only 
29 were killed. Such was the efficacy 
of the attack and defence on a city 
containing nearly 100,000 souls. 

Seville, the marvel of Andalucia, can 
be seen in less than a week, but the 
invaUd, artist, and antiquarian may 
employ some weeks there with plea- 
sure and profit. The best time to 
visit this town is in the spring, be- 
fore the great heats commence, or in 
autumn, before the November rains 
set in. The winter is occasionally 
very wet ; ice and snow, however, are 
almost unknown, except for eating, 
when brought as luxuries from the 
mountains of the Sierra Morena : the 
lower part of the town, near the Ala- 
meda Vtefa^ is often flooded by the 
river inundations, but the streets are 




proyided with maleoones or hatches, 
which are then shut down and keep 
out the water. The summer is so very 
hot, that it is ^most impossible to &ce 
the sun, which, with every precaution, 
can with difficulty be reduced to 84° 
Fahr. in-doors. However, the town is 
never more healthy than during these 
great heats. Then the inhabitants 
keep still in their cool houses until 
the evening ; but this confinement 
is against the curious sight-seeing 
stranger. Seville is one of the most 
agreeable towns in Spain for a length- 
ened residence, except in the dog-days. 
It is near Cadiz and Gibraltar, and of 
easy access to the Englishman. The 
shooting to the rt. of the Guadalquivir 
is good and novel; the theatres are 
tolerable; the masquerading at car- 
nival-time entertaining ; the dances, 
both those of the stage and the gip- 
sies, are truly nation^ and Oriental. 
The fairs of Mairena and Italica (the 
latter now the fashion) exhibit the 
M(ifo and Maja gUttering in their 
native sun, shorn, indeed, of former 
glory, by the fatal invasion of calico 
and civilisation, the worst foes to bar- 
baric splendour and costume. Seville 
is the alma mater of the bull-fight, 
and the best animals and masters of 
the art are furnished from Beetica. 
The religious functions are unrivalled, 
especially in the Holy Week — Corpus, 
St. John's Day — Christmas, with its 
Nitcimientog, carols, and shepherd- 
dances — and the winter Bosarios. The 
ceremonial of the Semana Santa is 
second in interest to that of Bome 
alone, and is in many respects quite 
peculiar, such as in the Pasos, or 
painted and graven images, which are 
carried through the streets in solemn 
procession ; then also the numumentOy 
or sepnlclure, in which the hoRt is 
buried, is lighted up in the cathedral, 
and forms a splendid sight, which must 
be seen to be really understood. 

These form a large item of the scanty 
and moderate amusements of the bulk 
of Sevillians. Their life is very Orien- 
tal ; they delieht in cool repose and the 
cigar. They nate bustle, exertion, or 

being put out of their way : from, not 
being overdrugged with amusements — 
all tasted, nought enjoyed — they are 
not liable to bore, which haunts the 
most mis-named, most ennuyed people 
on earth, our gay world: pleasure to 
them is an exception, and is enjoyed 
with the rapture of children. They 
plunge at one bound from habitual 
gravity into boisterous joy — du sublime 
au ridicule. This alternation of sloth 
and violent exercise — inedia et labor 
(Just. xUv. 2) — was one of the marked 
features of the Iberian character, as it 
also is of Asiatic nations. To be dri- 
ven about and abroad, in a thirst for 
pubUc amusements, is the desperate re- 
source of the higher states of wealth, 
luxury, and civilisation. 

The city itself lies on the 1. bank of 
the Guadalquivir^ which flows along 
the arc of its irr^ular, ^most circular 
shape ; the circumference is about 5 m. : 
it is enclosed in Moorish walls of con- 
creteortapia, which, towards the Fuerta 
de Cordova, are some of the most per- 
fect in Spain, and are provided with 
66 towers and 15 gates. Seville is the 
see of an archbishop, having for suffira- 
gans Cadiz, Malaga, Ceuta, the Canary 
Islands, and Tenenfie. It was once 
one of the most levitical cities of Spain, 
and contained 140 wealthy convents 
and churches. It is the residence of a 
captain-general, of an audiencia, whose 
chief judge is (xRedeUte^efUe; it con- 
tains 28 parishes and 10 suburbs of 
arrabales, of which Triana, on the 
opposite bank, is like the Trastevere of 
Rome, and the abode of picturesque 
gipsies and snuigglers, and where the 
artist leaves his heart. Seville has the 
usual provincial civil and military esta- 
blishments of all kinds, such as bar- 
racks, prisons, hospitals, and so forth, 
which do not deserve much notice of 
foreigners, who manage all these things 
so much better. But Spain is not the i 
place for political economists, lovers 
of statistics, poor-laws, and drainage; 
suaves res. Seville possesses a Boyal 
Alcazar, n Plaza de Toros, 2 theatres, a 
liceo, public library and museum, a uni- 
versity, and beautiful walks : it glorie'' 

I 2 



Sect. II. 

in the titular epithets of mu,y leal y 
nohle, to which Ferd. VIF. added muy 
heroica, and Senor Lopez, in 1843, " in- 
victai'* after the repulse of Espartero. 
All this would seem ironical to those 
who do not know Spaniards and their 
system of concealing disgrace by grant- 
ing honours in proportion as they are 
least deserved. Seville, fit capital of 
the " mazime imbelles Turdetani," has 
always been the first to brag and then 
surrender : it has never successfully 
resisted any one, except their Duke 
of Victory! The population exceeds 
100,000. Madoz makes it 119,600. 

The city was purely Moorish, as the 
Moslem, during a possession of 5 cen- 
turies, entirely rebuilt it, using the 
Koman buildings as materials. The 
cHmate is so dry and conservative that 
the best houses are still those erected 
by the Moors, or on their models, and 
most charming and unique they are, 
and perfectly suited to the climate : 
narrow tortuous streets which keep out 
the sun, and wide spacious mansions 
with cool courts and gardens : now the 
Baker Streets of civiUsation are all the 
rage; and stuffjr small houses with 
staircases, and broad streets, in which 
mortals are roasted tdive, prove how 
wise the Moors were. Of Roman re- 
mains there are, consequentlv, scarcely 
any. The Sevillians pretend that the 
walls and the Torre del Oro were built 
by Juhus CsBsar, which is sheer non- 
sense, as they are incontestably Moor- 
ish, both in form and construction. 
The Roman city was very small : it 
extended from the Puerta de Came, 
through the Plaza San Nicolas and 
San Salvador, to the Puerta de Triana. 
In the Calls de los Mammies exists 
the portico of a Roman temple; 3 
pillars remain buUt into the Moorish 
nouses, with their shafts deeply buried 
by the accumulated rubbish. In the 
Alameda Viefa are 2 Roman pillars, 
moved there in 1574 by the Conde de 
Barajas, the great repairing and build- 
ing governor of his day, who put them 
there in imitation of the Piazza de Sig- 
lori at Venice. In the CaUe Abodes^ 
22, ore some well-preaerved Roman 

aubgrundariay or underground tombs 
for infistnts, whose bodies were never 
burnt on ftineral piles-^ they were dis- 
covered in 1298 and shut up, because 
thought to be the schools where the 
Moors taught magic ; they can be now 
descended into, and are curious. In the 
Ce. de la Ouna, No. 8, was accidentally 
discovered a subterraneous Roman 
aqueduct, which still flows full of fresh 
water, although its existence is abso- 
lutely unknown to the majority of Se- 
villians, and no steps have ever been 
taken to trace or recover this precious 
supply. In the Casa de PUatos are 
some mutilated antiques, of the second- 
rate merit of such sculpture as is 
usually found in Spain. In the Museo 
are heaped up, as in a stonemason's 
yard, a few antiquities of a low art, 
foimd in some road-making and acci- 
dental excavation at Italica. Don Juan 
Wetherell, Plaza San Bartolom^, No. 
16, has a collection of Roman and 
Mexican antiquities : ' the latter were 
formed in S. Ainerica by a judge named 
Gonzalez Garvajal. A catalogue, with 
Hthographic prints, was published by 
Mr. W. at Seville in 1842. 

Seville is, however, a museum of 
Moorish antiquities, and one of the best 
places to observe the Arabic ceilings and 
marqueterie woodwork, artesonados y 
ataraceas ; the stucco panelling, Ara- 
bic5 Tarkish, the Uenzos de Almizates, 
Almocarhes, u^aracas ; notice also the 
elegant window divided by a marble 
shaft, Ajimes, an Arabic term, meaning 
an opening which lets in the sunbeam : 
beautiful specimens exist in the Al- 
cazar, Calle Pajaritos, No. 15, Gasa 
Prieto, Ce. Naranjos, and Casa Mon- 
tijo, behind the Parroquia of Omnium 
Sanctorum. A vast number of Moor- 
ish houses exist, although sadly de- 
graded by adaptations to modem wants 
and usages. The streets are narrow — 
a wise provision — in order to keep 
them shady during the heat — now the 
mania is to widen them : the exteriors 
are plain, and windows looking to the 
streets were hardly known before the 
time of Charles V. They are still bar- 
ricaded vrith rfQoSy or iron gratings, 




and protected in summer by an estera, 
or matting, thus forming a favourite al 
fresco boudoir for the fair sex. These 
shutterless windows form the evening 
rendezvous to the cloaked lover who 
whispers soft nothings to his bar-im- 
prisoned sweetheart ; hence he is said 
to Uve on iron, comer hierro ; another 
term for this popular recreation is pelar 
la pava " to pluck the turkey." The 
houses generally have an entrance 
porch, el Zctguan (Arabiod sahan), 
which leads to the cancel^ or open- 
worked iron gate; the interiors are 
built with an open square courtyard, 
paUo^ on each side of which are corre- 
dores supported by marble pillars ; a 
fiiente or fountain plays in the middle j 
this court is covered over in summer 
with an awning, velo, toldo, and be- 
comes the drawing-room of the in- 
mates, who, during the summer, oc- 
cupy the cool ground-floor, and migrate 
to the warmer upper one in winter. 
These houses are rich in Moorish 
earthenware tilings, which are still 
called azulejos, jlhis word, like azul, 
is derived from the Arabic, but from a 
different root. The latter is derived 
from lazurad^ the lapis lazuli; the 
former from Zuleija^ Zuleichy a var- 
nished tile. Lazurad, indeed, strictly 
speaking, was borrowed from the Per- 
sian; the Arabic word blue being 
azrag usruk, is blue black, whence our 
BUie Beard; the feminine is zv/rka, 
whence th^ Spanish zarco^ which is 
only applied to light blue eyes. Most 
names of colours in the Spanish are 
derived from Arabic words, such as 
Alba^alde, Carmen, Gualdo, Azultur- 
qui, MuanOy Alazan. The Moor was the 
real chemist and decorator, from whom 
the rude Gk>tho-Spaniard learned his 
arts and the words to express them. 
The use of the Azulejo is very ancient 
and Oriental. The sapphire and blue 
were always the fa,vourite tints (Exod. 
xxiv. 10 ; Isa. liv. 11). The substance 
is composed of a red clay, the surface 
of which is highly glazed in enamelled 
colours. The material is cool, clean, 
and no vermin can lodge in it. The 
Moors formed with it most ingenious 

harlequinades, combining colour and 
pattern. These enamelled tiles, un- 
doubtedly, were the types of the Ma- 
jolica of Italy, which passed from 
Valencia to Majorca (Majolica), and 
thence to Pisa and Pesaro. 

Tlie best Aztdejo specimens in Se- 
ville, are the Dados in the Patio of the 
Alcazar, of which some are Moorish, 
others are of the timeof Don Pedro, while 
those in the chapel were made in 1504. 
Next in date comes the most curious 
portal oiLasMonjas de Sa. Paida; then 
the dados in the Casa JPHatos, and after 
that the summer-house in the Alcazar 
garden, 1546 ; of the same period are 
the Berruguete dados in the Alcazar 
library. Those at San Augustin were 
designed in 1611, when yellows were 
all the fashion ; soon after the custom 
of representing monks and sacred sub- 
jects became very prevalent. See, for 
examples, the facade of the church to 
the rt. outside the Puerta del Fopolo, 
and those in blue at the Caridad, after 
designs of Murillo. 

More than half Seville is Moorish, 
but we shall only select the cream ; 
and first, visit the cathedral tower, 
the GIBALDA, so called from the 
vane, que ffira, which turns round. 
Of this beautiful belfry, and unique 
in Europe, much error has been dis- 
seminated. It was built in 1196 by 
Abu Jusuf Yacub, who added it to the 
mosque which his illustrious father, 
of the same name, had erected. Ac- 
cording to Zufdga (i. 3), the founda- 
tions were composed of destroyed Ro- 
man and Christian statuary : the 
Moors attached such veneration to this 
Mueddin tower, that before the capitu- 
lation they wished to destroy it, but 
were prevented by the threat of Alonso 
el Sabio of sacking the city if they did. 

" Abu Jusuf Yacub was the great 
builder of his age (See also Oonde, ch. 
49) ; he caused a bridge of boats to be 
thrown across the G-uadalquivir on the 
11th of October, A.D. 1171. He bmlt 
also a portion of the exterior walls, 
and erected wharfs along the banks of 
the river. He repaired the Roman 
aqueduct, now known as the Canos d' 



Sect. II. 

Carmona, He raised the great Mosque 
of Seville, which was similar in design 
and execution to the celebrated Mez- 
quita at Cordova i begun in Oct., a.d. 
1171, it was completed by his son and 
successor, Abil Yusuf Yakub, who, in 
the year of the Hejira, 593 (a.d. 1196), 
added the tower, the work of J^ber, 
whom the Spanish authors call Gever, 
and who, firom the coincidence of his 
name, has been reputed, though most 
erroneously, to have been the inventor 
of algebra.* This tower, Uke the koot- 
sahea of Morocco, and the smaller and 
unfinished one of Babdt, also the works 
of the same architect, was, probably, 
erected for the double purpose of call- 
ing the faithful to prayer, and for as- 
tronomical observations. On the sum- 
mit were placed four brazen balls (Man- 
zanaSi apples), so large, we are in- 
formed, that, in order to get them into 
the building, it was necessary to remove 
the key-stone of a door, called *The 
Grate of the Muezzins,' leading from the 
mosque to the interior of the tower : 
that the iron bar which supported them 
weighed about ten cwt., and that the 
whole was cast by a celebrated alche- 
mist, a native of Sicily, named Abii 
Leyth, at the cost of 50,000^. sterling. 
And it is a curious fact, showing the mi- 
nute accuracy of the writer from whom 
we quote these particulars, that when, 
during the earthquake in 1395, 157 
jrears after the overthrow of the Moor- 
ish power, these balls, together with 
the iron support, were thrown down, 
the latter was weighed, and the weight, 
as given by one of the historians of Se- 
ville, is exactly the same as that stated 
by the Mohammedan writer." Thus 
much our accurate friend Ghiyangos, 
who here, and for the first time, has 
cleared away the slough of errors in 
which many have been engulphed, and 
threatens all those who copy what they 
find written in bad Spanish and worse 
foreign guides. 

To build towers was the fashion of 

* Algebra is simply a contraction of the Ara- 
bic phrase AZ-Je&re, condensation, contraction, in 
•contradistinction to Al Mok'abalah, comparison, 

the period. Thus the Asinelli tower 
of Bologna, 371 feet high, was raised 
in 1109, and that of St, Mark, at Ve- 
nice, 350 feet high, in 1148.. 

lie original Moorish tower was only 
250 ft. high, the additional 100 being 
the rich filigree belfry, was most hap- 
pily added, in 1568, by Fernando Buiz, 
and is elegant and attractive beyond 
description. It is girdled with a motto 
from the Proverbs (xviii. 10) ; Nomen 
Domini fortissima turris. On grand 
festivals it is lighted up at night, and 
then seems to hang Uke a brilliant 
chandeUer from the dark vault of 
heaven. The pretty form and idea was 
taken from the silver Custodias of the 
period. This " star-y-pointing tower '* 
forms the emphatic feature of Seville j 
seen from afar it rises like the mast of 
a mighty ship. It is a square of 50 ft. 
The Moorish ajarctcas^ or sunk pat- 
terns, difier on each side. Observe 
the elegant intersecting arches, so com- 
mon in the Norman-Saracenic of Apu- 
lia. The upper niches were painted in 
fresco by Luis de Vargas, 1538-58; 
but the work is almost obUterated, 
while the subjects lower down have 
been repainted and spoilt. The ascent 
is by easy ramps. The panorama is 
superb, but the clock, made by a Fran- 
ciscan monk, one Jose Cordero, 1764, 
is here considered the grandest marvel : 
it replaced the first ever put up in Spain 
A. D. 1400. The pinnacle is crowned 
with Ml GUrandillOi a female figure in 
bronze of La Fe, The Faith, a some- 
what strange choice of a vane blown 
about with every wind (of doctrine), and 
of a sex and character for what should 
never vary or be fickle,* not, perhaps, 
ill chosen by a church which veers as 
best suits its own interest, twisting the 
scriptures at its will ; and, as Dryden 
says — 

" Such airy faith will no foundation find. 
The words a weathercock to every wind." 

The figure is truly Italian, and was 
cast in 1568 by Bartolome Morel. Al- 

* The Pagan Spaniard Seneca may be quoted. 

'« Veoto quid levius ? PulmeD— quid rulmrne ? Fama. 
Quid Fbit:& ? Mulier— quid Muliere ?— othil.** 




though 14 fib. high, and weighing 2800 
lbs., it tuma with the slightest breeze. It 
bears the LabcM-o, or banner of Constan- 
t ine. This belfry is the home of a colony 
of the twittering, careering hawk, the 
Falco Hnunculoides, The first Christian 
knight who ascended the Giralda after 
the conquest was Lorenzo Poro (Law- 
rence Poore), a Scotchman. His de- 
scendant, the Marques de Motilla, still 
owns the ancestral house in the Oalle 
de la Cuna. A Scotch herald will do 
well to look at the coats of arms in the 

The Giralda was the great tower 
from whence the mueddin summoned 
the faithful to prayers ; and here still 
hang his substitutes, the bells, for they 
are almost treated as persons, being all 
duly baptized, before suspended, with a 
peculiar oil, which is consecrated ex- 
pressly during the holy week, and they 
are christened after saints. The largest 
is called Scmta Maria^ or La Qorda. 
When Spanish campanas are rung, the 
performance is called a repique, which 
is totally unlike our sweet village bells, 
or impressiye cathedral peal. In no 
country was the original intention of 
bells, per cctcciare il diabolOf to scare 
away the devil, more piously fulfilled 
than in the Peninsula : all are doleful, 
from the dull tinkle of the muleteer^s 
cencerro, to the passing toll of the 
steeple. There is no attempt at me- 
lody in their repiqne, no chime, no 
triple bob majors. The music is de- 
void alike of ringer science, rural rus- 
tic melody, or the solenm association of 
sounds, the poetry of the steeple, the 
" nighest bordering on heaven." The 
campanas are headed with cross beams 
of wood, almost of the same weight as 
the bells themselves, and are pulled at 
until they keep turning round and 
round, head over heels, except when 
they are very large ; then the clapper 
is agitated by a rope, a golpe de badajo. 
Any orchestral discipline and regularity 
is not a thing of Oriental Spain; the 
bells are all pulled their own way, like 
a company of guenlleros, or a Dutch 
concert, where each performer plays 
his own tune. Each bell, be it said, 

is struck singly for its special pur- 
poses : La G-orda, for instance, at the 
Ave Maria. A solemn peal is called 
clamor de campanas; and a requiem 
for a dead pope or king, a tocando d 

The Giralda is under the especial 
patronage of the two DivcB^ the Santas 
Justina y Bufina, who are much revered 
at Seville, and not at all anywhere else. 
In a thimderstorm, 1 504, they scared the 
devil, who unloosed the winds to fight 
against this church : this, their stand- 
ing miracle, is the one so often carved, 
and painted by Murillo and others: 
and, due proportions considered, these 
yoimg ladies must have been at least 
500 ft. high, and a tolerable match for 
the father of all lies. The Boyal Aca- 
demy of Seville, however, published in 
1795 (!) a learned dissertation to prove 
the authenticity of this miracle. (! !) 
No wonder, therefore, in July, 1843, 
whenEspartero bombarded Seville, that 
the people believed that the Giralda was 
still encompassed by invisible angels, 
headed by these Brobdignac tutekrs, 
who turned aside every shot. These 
ladies were the daughters of a potter in 
Triana, a low suburb, in which coarse 
earthenware is still made. Morales 
has written their biography in 8vo., 
Perpinan, 1598 ; and Florez, Esp. Sag., 
ix. 108, 375, gives the whole legend. 
In the year 287 these gentlewomen in- 
sulted the paso of Venus Salambo, and 
were put to death. Now-a-days the Vir- 
gen de los Dolores (Ceres Ax^**», of grief, 
as lamenting the loss of her cluld Pro- 
serpine) has superseded that idol ; and 
were any of the modem potteresses of 
Triana, or tract-distributing Protest- 
ant spinsters, to insult the sagrada 
imagen of the Virgin in the pasos of 
the Semana Santa, they would run a 
better chance of being sacrificed by 
the mariolatrous Sevillanos than made 

Of the other Moorish minaret or 
mueddin towers, observe those of San 
Marcos, Santa Marina, Santa Catalina> 
and Omnium Sanctorum. That of San 
Pedro has been modernized. 

Below the Giralda is the Moorish 



Patio de los Naranjos, the court of 
orange trees, with the original fountain, 
at which the cleanly Moslem once 
" performed " what polite writers call 
" his ablutions," so hateful to the ortho- 
dox Spaniard. Only two sides of " this 
court of the house of the Lord," tliis 
rtfAtv»f, or "grove" remain. Enter it 
at the N. by the rich Puerta del Per- 
don, which was modernized in 1519 
by Bartolom^ Lopez. Observe the 
Moorish arch and original bronze 
doors, but the belfiy is modem. The 
terra cotta statues are by Miguel Flo- 
rentin, 1519-22. The "Saviour bear- 
ing his Cross" «>«* by Luis de Vargas, 
for it is ruined by repainting. This 
subject, the Via Orucis, the Via Do- 
lorosa of the Italians, is conmionly 
called in Spain la calle de Amargwra, 
the street of bitterness, from the agony 
endured by the Bedeemer. 

" The path of $orrow, and that path alone 
Leads to the place where sorrow is unknown." 

This door suffered much, Aug. 7, 1839. 
Entering to the r. is the sagrario, or 
parish church, and in front the Gothic 
pile, and the Giralda rising like a mast 
of the nave. To the L is a stone pul- 
pit, where San Vicente Ferrer, and 
other instigators of autos de fe, have 
preached (see the inscription). In the 
1. comer a staircase leads to the chap- 
ter library. La Columbina, so called 
because left to the canons and book- 
worms by Fernando, the son of Colum- 
bus. It was then, perhaps, ihe finest 
in Europe, and destined by him to be a 
nucleus — a future Bodleian, but the 
chapter grossly neglected their trusts, 
although largely endowed. About 60 
years ago the tine€B et hlatta were 
dusted out, and what they had not 
destroyed, re-arranged. It still contains 
about 18,000 volumes ; among them in- 
quire for a damaged MS. of the foimder's 
travels, and for those books which con- 
tain notes written by the great Columbus 
himself, e. g. in a Tractatus de Imagine 
Mundi, Petri de Aliaco, his cabin com- 
panion during his eventful voyage ; also 
look at the MS. tract drawn up by him 
'^Hen in prison, to satisfy the Inqui- 

sition and prove that his discovery of 
the New World was predicted in the 
Scriptures. The fine set of the works 
of Handel were given by Lord Wel- 
lesley, whose recreation (w<M^hy son 
of Lord Momington, a musical sire) 
was listening to the high mass in 
the cathedral. Above the book-shelves 
are hung portraits of archbishops, 
and the pictures themselves mark the 
rise and decline of church power. 
The older, the Tello, Albomoz, Luna, 
Toledo, Fonseca, and Mendoza, are 
men of master mind, who bore their 
great commissions in their looks ; the 
latter, in their blue and white ribands 
and periwigs, are mere stall-fed cour- 
tiers, or boudoir-fi^quenting Abb^s. 
The "cretinised" Bourbon Cardinal 
Luis is the climax of the imbecile. Thus 
the church has degenerated with the 
state, art, and country. Observe also a 
portrait of Fr"' Bonifaz, a physician, by 
Al°' Cano ; and a San Fernando by 
Murillo, not very fine. Inquire for the 
sword of the great Count Fernando 
Gronzalez, and used by tlie hero of 
Seville's conquest, Garci Perez de Var- 
gas, in cutting Moorish throats, as some 
verses shown with it detail ; read them. 
The reader of Don Quixote and Spanish 
ballads will of course remember I>on 
Diego el Mcuihuca, the pounder, so 
calledfrom hammering down the Moors. 
This, the Oriental title of Judas Mac- 
cabffius, was also given to Charles 
Martel. By this hammer, who at Tours 
crushed the crescent, Europe was saved 
to be Christian instead of Mahomedan ; 
and types of the chivalrous and of in- 
dividual personal prowess are dear to 
Spaniards and Asiatics. 

On the staircase observe the tomb of 
Inigo Mendoza, 1497 ; and in the 
Cuarto de los Subsidios, a Piet^ by 
Juan Nuiiez, one of the earliest of Se- 
villian painters: opposite the Puerta 
del Perdon, in the Sala de la Herman' 
dad del Santisimo, is a " Dispute of the 
Sacrament," by Herrera el Mozo (the 
hermoso, " the beautiful one " of Mr. 
Inglis ! ) ; it is affected and indistinct. 
The others are by Arteaga : observe a 
small in&nt Saviour, by Montanes. 




A dark gate, where a horseshoe of the 
old mosque remains, leads into the in- 
terior ; here hangs what was the croco- 
dile, or el Lagarto (whence our term 
alligator), sent to Alonso el Sahio, in 
1260, from the Soltan of Egypt, who 
requested the hand of his da-ughter: 
the Infanta declined a suitor whose 
first present scarcely indicated the 
affectionate. Here are buried some of 
lo8 oonquistadoreSf the conquerors of 
Seville, e. g., Pedro del Acero, 1265. 

Before entering the cathedral, walk 
round the outside, which, with the ad- 
joining buildings, offers a most interest- 
ing epitome of the rise, progress, and 
decline of Spanish church architecture : 
here are specimens of every style, from 
the Moorish down to the modem and 
academical ; commence at the N. side : 
observe the soHd tc^ia, Moorish walls, 
the square buttresses, the bearded or 
flame-fringed battlements. The ele- 
vated steps are called Las Gfradcu, the 
old English "grees," degrees. The 
truncated pillars belonged to the 
mosque, and, previously^ to Roman 
temples. This terrace was long the 
exchange of Seville. Here, according 
to Navagiero (Viaggio 13), the mer- 
chants lounged, tutto U giorno, on this 
il piU bel ridutto de Seviglia; so the 
idlers and money-changers, from re- 
sorting to the cathedral of old London, 
were called " St. Paul's Walkers;" 

Those who wish to see the outside of 
the cathedral before examining the in^ 
side, will turn to the E., to the Arch- 
hishop^s Palace, a Churrigueresquepile, 
built in 1697. l^e staircase is hand- 
some; the curious clerical cell. La Par- 
ra, in which peccant priests once were 
imprisoned, deserves notioe : otherwise 
the interior contains little worth men- 
tion, being meagrely furnished. Here 
Soult, "Plunder-Master-General" of 
the French, resided, when the walls 
were adorned with his precious collec- 
tion of Spanish pictures ; fortimately 
he could not "remove" the Giralda. 
It was on the plaza opposite that the 
cloaked patriot Spanwrds watched 
those of their Afrancesado countrymen 
who frequented ihs foreigners^ ooimcils 

and feasts, and destined them to the 
knife-stab. Some French officers one 
day were admiring the Giralda, when a 
majo repUed, "^ con todo eso, no se 
hizo en Paris" and yet it was not 
made at Paris ; and fortunately, from 
its size, it could not be "conveyed" 
away by the modem Verres. 

Passing onward to the 1. rise the 
Moorish walls of the Alcazar, while to 
the rt. is the semicircular exterior of 
the chapel of San Fernando, adorned 
in the heraldic Berruguete style of 
Charles V.j next comes the Contaduria, 
or chapter counting-house, pilastered 
in the plateresque balustraded taste, 
above which soars the sombre Gothic. 
The S. entrance of the transept is un- 
finished ; in front is the noble Lonja, 
caea longa, the exchange, the long 
room. This, although somewhat low, 
is a fine specimen of the skill of Her* 
rera, by whom it was designed. For- 
merly, the bill-brokers and gossipers 
desecrated the cathedral, until the 
Archbishop, Christobal de Bojas, in 
1572 (the year after Gresham had 
removed our money-changers fr^m St, 
Paul's by providing them with the 
Boyal Exchange of London), petitioned 
PhiHp II. to follow this example, even 
of heretics, and erect a suitable casa 
de contrataeion, or houise of contracts, 
for the growing commerce of Seville. 
But trusts in it were given to the un* 
trusty, and regulations frumed which 
strangle commerce, in order to favour 
the smuggler and the fraudul^it. After 
infinite difficulties Juan de Herrera con- 
cluded^he edifice in 13 years, which was 
opened for business Aug, 14, 1598, 
Juan de Minjares was employed in 
the construction. It is an isolated 
quadrangle, each side being some 
200 ft. wide by 63 ft. high to the ante 
pecho. The stone came from the quar- 
ries of Martellila, near Xerez. The 
pilasters and windows are not pleasing, 
but the Doric and Ionic Patio is mag- 
nificent : ascending a marble staircase 
with modem jasper ornaments and an 
altarito of bad taste, to the upper floor, 
is el Archivo de las Indias, the archives 

of S. America, which wore arrang' 

T a 



Sect. II. 

here by Charles III. in 1784; the 
necessary alterations hare ruined the 
proportions of the design of Herrera. 
The papers were brought together from 
the archiyes of SimancaSf and put in 
order by Lara and Cean Bermudez ; 
ithey are stowed away in handsome 
mahogany Doric bookcases, in docketed 
bundles, above 30,000 in" number, which 
have never been fully investigated. 
Official difficulties have been thrown 
in the way of the "barbarian" eye, 
eager to pry into the things and secrets 
of Spain. Observe the marble pave- 
ment ; the inner corridor is modem 
and paltry : the portrait of Colimibus 
is quite as apocryphal, and by no means 
/so fine, as that by Parmigianino at 
Naples. In an end room are some vile 
portraits of the ungainly Spanish sove- 
ireigns since Carlos IIL The lower 
story is appropriated to el consuladOf 
the tribunal of commerce. The Lonja 
was scarcely begun before real com- 
merce departed ; in the Plaza S*°. To- 
mas, just beyond, No, 15, is said to be 
the barber's shop of the immortal 
Figaro ; every traveller who has music 
in his soul should be shaved there, and 
if any of his molars — muelas — are ex- 
tracted, let him especially take car© of 
them, as according to an old Spanish 
prejudice, at the Besurrection, all souls 
who in the flesh have lost their wise 
teeth, las de Juicio, will come to earth 
to hunt for them. 

The W. or grand fa9ade of the Ca- 
thedral remained incomplete until 
1827, when the modem and inferior 
work was commenced. Few Spanish 
works of any kind are ever completed 
chiefly from want of funds. Again a 
fear of the evil eye induced the leaving 
a little something wanting; and the 
clergy, by keeping portions unfinished, 
always had an excuse for begging con- 
tributions from the pious rich : observe 
over the side doors the quaint figures 
in terra cotta, by Lope Marin, 1548 ; 
the contrast of expression in the severe 
faces of the males, and the smirking 
females, is remarkable. 

The enormous over-ornate pile to 
'^e l. is the SagrariOi or parish-church 

annexed to the cathedral, in which 
many of the archbishops are buried. 
This was commenced by Miguel de Zu- 
marraga in 1618, when architecture 
was on the decline, but not finished 
until 1662. The interior consists of a 
single nave, the size of which has often 
rendered doubtful the security of the 
building. The roof, by Borja, is in bad 
taste, as are some jasper altars by the 
notorious ChurrigueresqueBarbas. The 
Retahlo raised by him was so absurd 
that the chapter at last took it down 
and replaced it by a grand Eeredos, 
which came from the Franciscan con- 
vent, and is known in books of art, as 
that of the CapUla de los Vizcainos. 
The sculptured Sa. Veronica and San 
Clemente are by Pedro D. Comejo ; the 
Virgin with Christ, St. John, and the 
Magdalen, are by Pedro Boldan, and 
very fine, although their efiect has been 
much injured by vile tinsel crowns and 
glories ; by the same sculptor is theba«so 
relievo of the entrance into Jerusalem. 
The door leading into the cathedral and 
adorned with statues and Corinthian 
pillars is by Joseph de Arce, 1657. 

The Cathedral itself is one of the 
largest and finest in Spain : the solemn 
and grandiose or " Orandeza" is its dis- 
tinctive quality, as elegance is of Leon, 
strength of Santiago, and wealth was 
of Toledo. The site is that of the suc- 
cessive temples of Astarte, Salambo, 
Mahomet, and Maria. The original 
mosque, on whose peculiar oblong 
quadrilateral form it is built, was 
erected by Abu Yusuf Jacob-Al-Man- 
stir, 1163-1178, and remained unin- 
jured imtU 1480, when it was pulled 
down, and this cathedral commenced, 
which was opened for divine service 
in 1519. The chapter in their first 
conference determined to "construct 
a church such and so good that 
it never should have its equal. Let 
posterity, when it admires it complete, 
say that those who dared to devise 
such a work must have been mad." 
There was method in such madness. 

The name of the architect is not 
known. His was no Deo erexit Vol- 
taire vanity, he worked, with no thought 




of self, for the sole love and glory of Q-od. 
The gigantic expense of the colossal 
cathedrals, raised in days of poverty, 
contrasts with the paltry pew-pens 
contracted for in this age of capital ; 
and how different are the benefactions! 
Now the gift of half an acre from one 
who owns half a county, is trumpeted 
forth as magnificent, and 20^. is a do- 
nation from a sovereign. The old 
Spaniards trod in the steps of the 
early Komans, and reserved their 
splendour for the house of Q-od. " In 
suppliciis Deorum magnifici, domi 
parci" (Sail. *B. C ix.). The sacred 
edifice is inside and outside a museum 
of fine art .in spite of foreign and 
native church spoliations. It preserves 
the Basilica form of the original mosque, 
and is an oblong square, some 431 ft. 
long by 315 ft. wide ; it has 7 aisles — 
the two lateral are railed off into 
chapels ; the centre nave is magnifi- 
cent, the height amazing, being 145 ft., 
while the cwthorio or transept dome 
rises 171 ft. ; the offices connected with 
the cathedral and chapter are built out- 
side to the S. ; t}ie superb pavement, in 
black and white chequered marble, was 
finished in 1793, and cost the then 
enormous sum of 155,304 dollars. 

On entering the cathedral, at the 
W. end of the centre aisle, lies buried 
Pemando, son of Colimibus, or Colony 
as Spaniards call him, and one who 
would have been a great man had he 
been son of a less great fietther. Observe 
the quaint caravels, or ships of the na- 
vigator ; how small their size, for the 
mighty journey over vasty and un- 
known seas ! No Cunard line then : 
and the motto again how short, but 
the greatness of the deed suffices : A 
CasHlla y a Leon, mundo nuevo did 
Colon; read also the touching epitaph 
of hia son. Many carelees writers 
describe this as the tomb of Columbus 
himself, who died at ValladoUd, and 
whose bones at last rest in the Havana, 
while the ever inaccurate Chateau- 
briand observes, ** Christophe Colomb, 
apr^s avoir decouvert un monde, dort 
en paix h, Seville, dans la ChapeUe des 
rois" (Congr. de Ver. 45). 

Over this grave-stone, during the 
holy week, is erected the monumento, 
an enormous wooden temple in form 
of a Greek cross, in which the host is 
deposited. It was designed and exe- 
cuted in 1544, by Antonio Florentin, 
and originally consisted only of three 
stories, terminated by a cross, but sub" 
sequent additions were made in 1624 
and 1688, which have injured the effect,, 
and rendered the whole out of propor^ 
tion for the cathedral, being some 130 
ft. high. However, when lighted up 
during the night of Thursday and Gk)o4 
Friday, after the host is enclosed in 
the silver custodia, the effect is most 
marvellous, and there are few things 
like it in Spain or Italy. 

ThQ cathedral, is lighted by 93 win- 
dows; the painted ones are among 
the finest in Spain: the earhest are 
by Mioer Christobal Aleman, 1504. 
Observe the " Ascensions," the " Mag-> 
dalen," a " Lazarus," and an " Entry 
into Jerusalem," by Amao de Flandres 
and his brother, 1525 ; and the " Ee- 
surrection," in the CapiUa de los DonH 
ceUes, by Carlos de Bruges, 1558, 
These artists were foreigners and Fle^ 
mings, as their names denote. Ad- 
vancing up the aisle, the grandeur of 
which is broken up by the coro, observe 
its trascoro, a rich frontage of Doric 
work, with precious marbles. The 
picture over the altar is extremely an-» 
cient. The poor "San Fernando" is 
by Pacheco, 1633. Two doors on each 
side lead into the coros the 4 has? 
reliefs were made at Ghenoa. Above 
rise the enormous organs : the palis^r 
does of pipes and cumbrous ornaments 
are churrigueresque and inappropriate, 
but as instruments the deep-swelling 
tones are magnificent ; that to the 1., 
al lado de la JEpistola, was made by 
Jorge Bosch in 1792 : it is said to have 
5300 pipes and 110 stops more than 
that of Haerlem. 

Before entering the Coro observe its 
JRespaldos and the cinque-cento capill^ 
de San Agustin, and the exquisite Vir- 
gin carved by Juan Martinez Montanes, 
the Phidias of SeviUe (ob. 1640). This 
sweet and dignified model was th 



Sect. II. 


favourite of his great pupil AX°' Cano. 
The tasteless chapter have disfigured 
her gentle serious dignity with vile 
tinsel gewgaws, repugnant alike to good 
taste as to the lowly character of the 
Lord's handmaid ; but the spirit of real 
devotion, as well as that of superstitious 
idolatry, is quite irrespective of fine 
art: the most hideous fetish or the 
gaudiest doll is more worshiped than 
the finest M. Angelo, just as a true 
rehgious feeling purifies the coarse and 
elevates the low, and generates a devo- 
tion altogether distinct from mundane 
or critical admiration. 

The eoro is open to the high altar, 
and is railed off by a fine reja^ the 
work of 3ancho Munoz, 1519. The 
Silleria del Coro was carved by Nuno 
Sanchez, 1475, Dancart, 1479, and 
Guillen, 1648. Of the 117 stalls ob- 
serve the archiepiscopal throne in the 
centre : the elegant facistol is by Bar- 
tolome Morel, 1570. In the ewtre los 
coros is put up during Easter week 
the exquisite bronze candlestick, 25 
feet high, called El Tenebrario, and 
wrought, in 1562, by the same Morel : 
when the miserere is sung in the holy 
week, it is hghted with thirteen candles: 
twelve are put out one after another; 
indicating that the apostles deserted 
Christ; one alone of white wax re- 
mains burning, and is a symbol of the 
Virgin, true to the last. At Easter 
also, the Cirio pasqual or " fount- 
candle," which is equal to a large 
marble pillar, 24 feet high, and weigh* 
ing 7 or 8 cwt. of wax, is placed to the 
1. of the high altar. Before ascending 
the steps to it observe the two pulpits 
and the reja principal^ made in 1518 by 
the lay Dominican Fr°' de Salamanca : 
those at the side are by Sancho Munoz, 
1518, and are first-rate specimens. 
The Gothic Retahlo of the high altar, 
divided into 44 compartments, is un- 
equalled in Spain in size and elaborate 
details ; designed in 1482 by Dancart, 
it was finished in 1550 : it is said to 
be made of aleroe (see Cordova), with 
hich the plain of Tablada, near Se- 
\ was covered in the time of the 
^ (Morgado, 96). The carvings 

represent sacred subjects from the New 
and Old Testament and the life of the 
Virgin. The Alfonsine tables, which 
are usually placed on the altar, contain 
the relics collected by Alonso el Sabio. 
The silver work and frY)ntage of the 
altar, as also the atrilesy are the work 
of Fr°* Alfaro. The Seapaldo del altar, 
of richest Gothic, is by Gonzalo de 
B>ojas, 1522; the terra-cotta figures 
are by Miguel Florentine, 1523. Here 
in a small room are some curious pic- 
tures by Alejo Fernandez, in the half- 
gilded Byzantine style. They deserve 
notice, as Fernandez was the master of 
Castillo, whose pupils were Cano and 
MuriUo. Here hung the two superb 
Murillos— the " Buth of the Virgin" 
and the " Bepose in Egypt," which on 
M. Soult's arrival were concealed by the 
chapter ; a traitor informed him, and 
he sent to beg them as a present, hint- 
ing that if reliised he woiild take them 
by force (Toreno, xi.). The worthy 
Marshal one-day showing CoL Gurwood 
his " collection " at Paris, stopped op- 
posite a Murillo, and said, " I very 
much value that specimen, as it saved 
the hves of two estimable persons." 
An aide-de-camp whispered, " He 
threatened to have both shot on 
the spot unless they gave up the 

Walking round the lateral chapels, 
and beginning at the door of the Sa- 
grario, is that de los Jacomes, Observe 
a Boelas, retouched by one Molina and 
quite spoilt. In the next chapel, la 
de la Visitacion, is a JEtetablo painted 
by Pedro Marmolejo de Villegas, bom 
at Seville, 1520-1670, and an imitator 
of the Florentine school. Observe the 
portrait of Diego de Boldan, who gave 
this Retahlo, In the Ca. de N,S. del 
Cofuuelo is a "Holy Family," the 
masterpiece of Alonso Miguel de Tobar, 
the best perhaps of Murillo's pupils, 
1678-1758. Then, passing the grand 
door, is the precious "Angel de la 
Guarda" the Genius natale Comesy a 
guardian angel holding a sweet child, 
by Murillo : next, a fine " Nativity," by 
Luis de Vargas, who may be called the 
Pierino del Vaga of SeviUe, 1502-1569. 




In Ca. de San Laureano, observe the 
tutelar saint walking without his head : 
in these miracles, c'est le premier pas 
qui coHte. Many Spanish female saints 
spoke after decapitation — the ruUng 
passion strong after death. So of old 
Philomela's tongue vibrated after it 
was cut off (Met. vi. 556). So says 
Lane (* Mod. Egyp.' i. 300), a Moslem 
santon spoke without any head at all. 
In Dante's ^Inferno,' xxviii. 121, a 
gentleman converses holding his own 
head in his hand like a lantern. Ari- 
osto's Orrilo looks after his own head 
when cut off, and very sensibly puts 
it on again as if it had been his hat ; 
and Isabella, of the same romancer, 
miurmurs out after death the name of 
her loved Zurbino. 

In the next chapel of Santa Ana is a 
JRetahlo of the date 1504, with very 
curious costumes, painted with all the 
defects of Juan Valdes Leal, 1630- 
1691, the rival and foe of Murillo. A 
door now leads to the archives, which 
are very perfect, as the chapter sent 
them to Cadiz, and they thus escaped 
being made into cartridges by M. Soult. 
Adjoining is the Mayordomia, N.B. 
Examine the splendid choral books. 
Betuming ta the cathedral in the Ca. 
San Josef, observe a "Nativity," by 
¥r°' Antolinez, ob. 1676 ; and a mar- 
riage of the Virgin by Valdes Leal; 
and in the next, a statue of San Her- 
menegildo, by Montanes ; and the 
magnificent tomb of the Archb. Juan 
de Cervantes, ob. 1453, the work of 
Lorenzo de Mercandante. In the Sa- 
cristia de la Antigua are a few paint- 
ings by Antolinez, el Griego, Zurbaran, 
Morales, and some flower-pieces, by 
Arellano, 1614-1776. The chapel it- 
self is one of the Sancta Sanctorum. 
Observe the marble Retahlo; the silver 
railing, with the words " Ave Maria ;" 
and the ancient picture painted in the 
style of Cimabue, but more probably 
Byzantine : the sacristan will swear 
that it is by St. Luke, and that it re- 
mained even in the Moorish mosque, 
and of itself miraculously introduced 
San Ferdinand into Seville, opening the 
gates and shutting the sentinel's eyes ; 

justly therefore a quarto volume was 
written on this Palladium of the city 
by Antonio de SoUs, Sevilla, 1739. The 
fine plaferesque tomb of the " great " 
Car dinal Mendoza, erected in 1509, is 
by Miguel Florentinj and, opposite, 
that of Archb. Luis de Salcedo, a feeble 
imitation, in 1741. The frescoes were 
painted by Domingo Martinez. The 
marble statues in the Ketablo are by 
Pedro Duque Comejo. 

Now advance into the transept, and 
look up at the Grothic balconies of the 
galleries. The mahogany clock is in 
the worst French and modem taste. 
To the rt. of the Puerta de la Lonja is 
the celebrated "ia Generacion'* of 
Luis de Vargas. The breast of Eve 
was covered by the prudish chapter. 
This truly Italian picture, and the 
painter's masterpiece, is also called 
"ia Oamha,*^ from the leg of Adam — 
ex pede Herculem — which Mateo Perez 
de Alesio is said to have said was 
worth more than all his colossal " Saint 
Christopher," painted opposite in fresco 
in 1584, and which is 32 ft. high. San 
ChrkBtobal — for thus he is half Chris- 
tianised and Punicised — was a Saracen 
ferryman— ^or^^or ipse Charon, He 
is painted at the entrance of most 
Spanish cathedrals, of colossal size, 
that all may see hun, because all who 
look on him cannot come on that day 
to an evil death.* He carries the infant 
Saviour, who holds the globe in his 
hand, across a river. This Baal is the 
Coelifer Atlas, Christoferos. Few Me- 
licarios in Spain are without one of his 
teeth, of which he must have had more 
than a crocodile and larger than an 
elephant, for which some heretic na- 
tm'alists have taken or mistaken the 
molars. In the Ca. de la Santa Cruz 
is a "Descent," by Pedro Fernandez 
de Guadalupe, 1527. Next enter the 
most eleg&nt Sacristia de las Calices, 
designed in 1530 by Diego de Biano. 
Observe the Crucifix by Montanes, the 
Tintoret-like portrait of Contreras, 
painted in 1541 by L. de Vargas j and 
the nun Dorothea, by Murillo, finished 

• Christophori Sancti speciem qiiicunque tuet' 
Ist& nempe die non morte malft morietur. 



Sect. II. 

in 1674; a " Saviour," by Boelas ; and 
a One "St. Peter," by Herrera el 
Viejo. The patronesses, Santas Ru- 
fina and Justina, were painted in 1817 
by Goya: the fit models for this David- 
like abomination were two notorious 
frail ladies of Madrid named Bamona 
and Sabina. The picture was meant 
for a chapel, but was banished by the 
prudent bishop into this Sacristia. 
Thus of old the mistresses of painters 
and great men were the models of the 
pictures of Venus ; particularly Flora, 
the beloved of Pompey ; and Campaspe, 
the beloved of Alexander; while Phryne 
was "the model of both Apelles and 
Praxiteles (Athaen. xiii. 591). AreUius 
(Plin. Nat. Hist. xxxv. 10) was re- 
markable for painting goddesses from 
improper models. 

The architecture of this Sacristia is 
in the transition style, when the Gk>thic 
was givmg place to the G-reeco-Bomano 
and plateresque. Here lie some of the 
Conquistadores de Sevilla. Observe the 
marble tables and pavement. In the 
next chapel are four tombs of armed 
knights and ladies. Enter the ante-sala 
of the Sacristia mayor ; observe the 
trunk-Uke roof and the cardinal virtues 
in niches. In the Sacristia, observe 
the plateresque carved door, and the 
armarios^ or plate-chests, by Pedro 
Duque Comejo, 1677-1757, pupil of 
Koldan. The Sacristia may or ^ the tri- 
umph of the rich plateresque, was built 
by Diego de Biano, 1530. The dresses 
of the clergy are kept in new presses, 
made in 1819 by order ' of a barbarian 
Canon, named Santos, who destroyed 
the glorious old ones of Guillen, 1548, 
a few of whose Michael Angelesque 
panels are let into the modem wood- 
work. Observe the colossal silver Cus- 
todia, finished in 1587, by Juan d' Arfe, 
the Cellini of Spain. This masterpiece 
was unfortunately " beautified and re- 
paired" in 1668, by Juan de Segura, 
during the Immaculate Conception 
mania, who placed the Virgin in the 
position of the original figure of Faith. 
The inscription is by the painter-author 
Pacheco. Ajiother Custodia^ which 

'ighed above a cwt. of pure gold, was 

melted for a royal doriative in 1796 — a 
mild term for compulsory church ap- 
propriation and confiscation : observe 
especially the exquisite Tenehrario, and 
the two full-length Murillos, painted in 
a bold style in 1655 ; that represent- 
ing San Leandro was the portrait of 
Alonso de Herrera, Apuntador del 
Coro, and that of San Isidoro of Juan 
Lopez Talavan. The " Descent " from 
the cross, over the altco*, is by Pedro 
Campana, who, bom at Brussels in 
1503, and a pupil perhaps of Michael 
Angelo, was one of the first to intro- 
duce the Italian style ; and this, painted 
in 1548, and considered by some his 
finest work, became the marvel and 
model of Seville, because new in style 
to their eyes : now it seems somewhat 
dark and hard ; but such, when it was 
first exhibited, was its life-Hke awful 
character, that Pacheco (Arte 57) was 
afraid to remain after dusk alone ; and 
before it Murillo used to stand, watch- 
ing, as he said, until those holy men 
should have finished taking down the 
Saviour, and before this picture he de- 
sired to be buried ; it then decorated 
the altar of his parish church, JJa 
Santa Cruz. Soult's vandals levelled 
that Holy Cross down to the dust, and 
cast out the ashes of MurUlo to the 
winds ; they then broke the picture 
into five pieces, which was left so, until 
the English drove them out of Seville ; 
then the chapter employed Joachin Cor- 
tes, who was occupied for three months 
in the restoration. 

Underneath it are kept the usual 
assortment of authentic bones and 
relics, bits of the cross, crown of thorns, 
the Virgin's shift, &c. : observe the 
identical keys presented to St. Ferdi- 
nand when Seville smrendered: that 
given by the Jews is of iron gilt, and • 
the letters on the wards represent " Me- 
lech hammelakim giphthohh Melek kol- 
hstaretz gabo," — the King of kings will 
open, the king of all the earth will 
enter; translated by Spaniards Dios 
ahrira y rey entrard; the other key 
of silver gUt was given by Axataf, and 
is inscribed in Arabic, "May Allah 
render eternal the dominion of Islam in 




this city ;" these indeed are real reHcs. 
The tesoro or treasury hes in a court to 
the rt. It has been sadly thinned by 
foreign and native spoilers ; yet there is 
a goodly sideboard of church plate and 
some very fine silver oil vases, candle- 
sticks, &c. : observe the tablets called 
Las AlfonsinaSf studded with Marian 
reUcs, and a fine cross made in 15S0 by 
Fr°* Merino : see also a golden incensct- 
rio, and a cross made from a "nugget " 
of the new world, oflfered by Colimibus. 
The Retdblo of the Ca. del Mariscal 
contains some of the latest and finest 
works of Campana, and shows how 
much he improved after seeing the 
elegant L. de Vargas. Notice also an 
excellent Purification of the Virgin, 
and some portraits of the founder's 
family. In the Ante-CaMldo are some 
marble pilasters, statues, and medal- 
Uons made at G^oa, with inscriptions 
by Fr°' Pacheco : in a Uttle court-yard 
is an inscribed G-othic stone relating to 
Bishop Honoratus, successor to San 
Isidoro, A.D. 641. 

The 8ala Capitular, or chapter- 
house, is another of Biano's exquisite 
plateresque saloons, and easier to be 
described with the pencil than pen, 
built in 1530, it is eUiptical, 50 ft. long 
by 34 ft. : observe the marble pave- 
ment, worked to correspond with the 
elaborate ceiUng. The beautiful " Con- 
cepcian" is by Murillo; "St. Ferdi- 
nand " is by Pacheco j the " Four Vir- 
tues, with Shields and Children," are 
by Pablo de Cespedes, the learned 
painter-poet of " Cordoba," 1538, 1608, 
and retouched by Murillo in 1667. 
The 16 marble medaUions were made 
at Gtenoa ; the eight ovals between the 
windows are painted by Murillo. In the 
Sala Capitular de abajo are ftdl- length 
royal portraits from Alonso III. down 
to Charles V. Observe the cinque-cento 
cornice, the medaUions, the pavement 
with the No Do device of Seville. Re- 
turning through the Ca. del Marisal, to 
the Contaduria Mayor, is a " St. Fer- 
dinand," by Murillo, a " Sacrifice of 
Abraham," in which the Isaac is evi- 
dently taken from one of the sons of 
the Laocoon, and a " Bufina and Jus- 

tina," by Pablo de Cespedes ; here are 
kept the chapter accoimts. 

The first chapel on the £. end, called 
de la " Concepcion grande^* is in de- 
generate cinque-cento : here lies buried 
Oonzalo Nufiez de Sepulveda, who, in 
1654, richly endowed the September 
" Octave " in honour of the " Immacu- 
late Concepcion." The ashes of the 
conquistadorea of Seville were carted 
out to make room for this benefactor. 
Observe the pictures treating of that 
mystery ; the large crucifix has been 
attributed to Alonso Cano. At this 
Octave and at Corpus, the Quiristers 
or Seises (formerly they were six in 
number) dance before the high altar 
with castanets and with plumed hats 
on their heads : dressed as pages of the 
time of Phihp III., they wear red and 
white for Corpus, blue and white for 
the festivals of the Virgin, who, bodily 
and verily, so says the Sacristan, ap- 
peared in those colours to Santa Bri- 
gida. These dances were the ancient 
EfitfjbsXttM, the grave-measured minuet i 
thus David praised the Lord with a 
song and the dance. These must not 
be confoimded with the Kd^^a|, the jig, 
and those jmotus lonicos oi the daugh- 
ter of Herodias ; but nothing has suf- 
fered more degradation than the dance. 

The Capilla Real is almost a diurch 
by itself with its regular staff of 
clergy. Built in 1541 by Martin de 
Gainza, it is artistically inferior to the 
saloons of Biano, for the plateresque 
was then going out of fashion ; 81 fk. 
long, 59 wide, 130 high, it is entered un- 
der a lofty arch. The statues of the 
apostles and evangehsts were sculp- 
tured by Lorenzo del Vao and Campos 
in 1553, from designs by Campana. 
The Reja is of the bad period of Carlos 
III. : here are the tombs of Alonso el 
Sabio and Queen Beatrix, and medal- 
lions of Garci Perez and Diego Perez 
de Vargas. The Retahlo by Luis Ortiz, 
1647, is in vile taste : over the altar is 
placed the Virgen de los Reyes, a mi- 
raculous image given to St. Ferdinand 
by his cousin St. Louis of France. St. 
Ferdinand, who died May 31, 1252- 
lies before it stretched out in a si^ 



Sect. II. 

and glazed Uma, made in 1729 : the 
body nearly perfect, is displayed on 
May 30, Aug. 22, Not. 23, and none 
should fan to attend the most striking 
military mass, when troops are marched 
in and the colours lowered to the con- 
queror of Seville : observe the original 
sepulchre of the king, on which the 
Urna is placed, with epitaphs in Latin 
and Spanish to the rt., and in Hebrew 
and Arabic to the 1., with orles 
of castles and lions ; the epitaphs 
were composed by his son, Alonso el 
Sabio. Florez has published a quarto 
explication of them, Eloffios del So. 
Sey, Mad. 1754. The Banner of Spain 
and the sword of St. Ferdinand are 
kept in this chapel, the sword saved 
from Soult by a chaplain, used to be 
taken out on all grand war expedi- 
tions ; and on his saint's day it is ex- 
hibited, and a sermon, el de la espada, 
is preached, in which its virtues are 
expounded. In this chapel also is 
buried the gentle and beautiful Maria 
de FadiUa, the mistress of Fedro el 
Cruel, and the Minister Florida Blanca. 

The Retdblo in the Ca. de San Pe- 
drOj in the Herrera style, contains pic- 
tures by Ft«- Zurbaran, 1598-1662: 
observe the lock of the grating " Cer- 
rojo de la Reja^^ made by Cordero, 
but this comer of the cathedral is too 
dark to see anything well ; in the north 
transept is a charming "Na. Sa. de 
Belem," or a delicious "Virgin and 
Child," by Alonso Cano. In the Ca. 
de San Francisco is the "Assumption 
of the Tutelar," one of the best works 
of the prestimptuous Herrera el Mozo. 

The window, painted in 1556, is re- 
markable. In the Ca. de Santiago is 
a picture of that patron of the Spains, 
riding over Moors, with miraculous 
energy, by Juan de las Boelas (1558- 
1625). The painted window, the " Con- 
version of St. Faul," 1560, is fuU 
of the richest reds and blues; the 
" San Lorenzo" is by Valdes. Observe 
the tomb of Archb. Vargas, ob. 1362, 
era 1400; and in the next chapel, 
that of Baltazar del Rio, Bishop of 
Scalas, 1518, a friend of Leo X. The 

\ is Italian work ; the last chapel 

contains the Pila or font, with the Gi- 
ralda windows, painted in 1685. Here 
is the large and much-admired paint- 
ing, the " San Antonio " of Mimllo ; 
the infant Saviour attended by cherubs 
visits the kneeling monk ; unfortu- 
nately, in 1833, it was cruelly re- 
touched, and banado, or daubed over, 
by Gutierrez, an operation we saw per- 
formed and vainly protested against. 
This once noble work was painted in 
1656 in Murillo*s best period. Mons. 
Viardot (Etudes, 429) and the stupid 
verger tell an idle tale that " Our 
Duke" coveted the picture, and oflfered 
to cover this gigantic canvas with 
ounces of gold, but that the chapter 
declined. "L'Angleterre a gard^ son 
or, et Seville le chef-d'oeuvre de son 
pantre — ^gloire h Seville." Supposing 
that this were his chef-d'oeuvre, which 
it is not, and supposing the Duke 
oflTered his cash, which he did not, 
surely English gold is no worse than 
French iron. It is, however, quite 
common in Spain, when the value of 
anything is wished to be enhanced, to 
say, " An EngUshman bid so and so 
for it." This at least is a compliment 
to our honesty ; toe do not rob, but are 
willing to pay for what we have the 
taste to admire. No offer of cash by 
M. Soult is ever cited, he foimd steel 
and steahng cheaper. This picture 
disappointed Wilkie, and, to our mind, 
has always been overrated : but as it is 
the fashion to praise it, the cuckoo note 
is repeated. 

This cathedral should be visited at 
different times of the day and evening, 
in order to fully estimate the artistical 
changes and effects of light and shade. 
The interior is somewhat dark, but it 
is a gorgeous gloom, inspiring a reli- 
gious sentim^it, chastening, not chill- 
ing, solemn, not sad. The contrast 
with all out of doors is striking ; and, 
after the glare, heat, noise, and crowds, 
the still, subdued, cool quiet soothes 
body and soul. The sun, about two 
o'clock, falls on the Holy Rood over the 
Setablhy and produces a splendid effect. 
Th6 cathedral is always thronged, not 
only by the devout, but by idlers, beg- 




gars, imd sinners. The sexes are not 
allowed to walk about or talk together ; 
the ancient SUentiaru, in the form of 
oeladoreSy and pe-rtiguerosy beadles, and 
vergers, keep guard, and papal excom- 
munications are suspended in ter- 
rorem; nor are women allowed to 
enter after oracumes, when the shades 
of evening come on, and the pretext of 
"going to church" reminds the scholar 
of Ovid (Art. Am, i. 8. 74, and iii. 
638), who teaches women to make the 
pretence of going to the mass of Isis an 
excuse to meet their lovers. It was 
not prudent even to ask what took 
place before her Retdblo (Am. ii. 2, 
25). Juvenal (ii. 6, 487) uses the strong 
expression, Isiaces Sacraria JJancB ! 
And . the cathedral of mariolatrous 
Seville is a chosen rendezvous ; lovers 
care little for the presence of the Ima- 
genes 8agrada9 — they are, say they, Samr 
to8 muy ccUladoSf and never tell tales. 

These evils are, however, easily 
avoided. Not so another nuisance, 
common to this and most churches in 
Spain, the beggar tribe, who, like mos- 
quitOB, smell the blood of an English- 
man ; remember, therefore, the specific 
phrase, Perdona Vmd. por JDios, Her- 
mano ! My brother, wiU your worship 
excuse me, for Gk>d's sake ! The beggar 
bows — he knows that all further appli- 
cation is useless ; the effect is certain 
if the words be quietly and gravely 

Now visit the Alcazar ; but first ob- 
serve a singular Moorish skew-arch, 
in a narrow street leading to the 
Puerta de Xerez, which proves that 
the Moors knew its use at least eight 
centuries ago. The Alcazctr is entered 
by two gates, either bv that de las Ban- 
deraSy where the colours are hoisted 
when the king is residing, or by that 
de la Monteria^ from whence he sallied 
forth to the chace. The grand portal 
is apparently Moorish, yet it was built 
by Don Pedro the Cruel, the great 
restorer of this palace. At this period 
the elaborate Oriental decorations of 
the Alhambra were just completed by 
Yusuf I.; and Pedro, who was fre- 
quently on the best terms with the 

Moors of Gbanada, desirous of adopt-, 
ing that style, employed Moorish 
workmen. Observe the delicate ara- 
besques, the pillar-divided windows, 
ajimezeSy and the carved soffit. The 
quaint Gothic inscription almost looks 
like Cufic ; it runs thus j " El muy 
alto, y muy noble, y muy poderoso, 
y conquistador Don Pedro, por la 
gracia de Dios, Bey de Castilla y de 
Leon, mandd facer estos alcazares y 
estas facadas que fiie hecho en la era 
mil quatro cientos y dos," that is, a.p. 

The royal residence — Alcasar — al- 
Kasr, the house of Csesar, whose nawe 
is synonymous with majesty, occupies 
the site of that of the Boman prsetor ; 
it was rebuilt in the 10th and 11th 
centuries, by Jalubi, a Toledan archi- 
tect, for Prince Abdu-r-rahman An- 
na'ssir Lidin- Allah [the defender of the 
religion of Gk)d]. 

It has been often and much altered 
by Ferdinand and Isabella, and Charles 
v., and Frenchified by Philip V., who 
subdivided the noble soloons with 
paltry lath and plaster tabique. Don 
Pedro began by repairing the whole of 
the western side, and his painted ceil- 
ings still remain, as the badge of his 
Banda evinces. Isabella erected the 
pretty chapel up-stairs, with the very 
interesting Azulejo ornaments. Charl^ 
V. was here married to Isabella of Por- 
tugal, and, being of chiUy habits, put 
up the fire-places in the second-floor 
to the E. He also repaired the stucco 
lienzos of the grand patio. Phihp II. 
introduced the portraits into the hall of 
ambassadors ; Philip III., in 1610, built 
the armoury, and Philip V., in 1733, 
raised the pillared Apeadero : here he 
resided in morbid seclusion for 2 years, 
amusing himself with religious pen- 
ances and fishing in his pond. The 
qficinas over the baths of Padilla were 
erected by Ferd. VI. This Alcazar 
was barbarously whitewashed in 1813, 
when much of the delicate painting and 
gilding was obliterated j considerable 
and creditable restorations were begun 
by Arjona in 1830, and carried on by 
the Infemta during her residence here. 



Sect. II. 

On entering, the columns in the 
vestibule are Roman, with G-othic 
capitals: these belonged to the original 
palace. Don Pedro brought from Va- 
lencia many other pillars taken out of 
the royal Aragonese residence, which he 
destroyed. The grand Pa^*o is superb, 
70 ft. by 54. It was modernised in 
1569. The stucco-work is by Fr°* 
Martinez. Many of the doors, ceilings, 
and Azulejos are the genuine Moorish 
ones; the oldest portion fronts the 
garden. Visit the pretty ^«pjpe< Patio 
de las MuTieca^j and the adjoining sa- 
loons, which have been restored. The 
hail of ambassadors has a glorious 
Media naranja roof: but the Spanish 
balconies and royal portraits mar the 
Moorish character ; the baboon Bour- 
bon heads, royal Cretins, are both an 
insult and injury. Here the contempt- 
ible Seville Junta sat until they ran 
after Ocana. In the next room it is 
said that Don Pedro caused his brother, 
El Maestre de Santiago^ whom he had 
invited as a guest, to be murdered. 
Another anecdote of this Richard III. 
of Spain deserves mention. Abu Said, 
el Bey Bermejo^ who had usurped the 
throne of Ismael II. of Ghranada, fled 
to Seville from the rightful heir, imder 
promise of safe conduct from Pedro, 
who received, feasted, and then put his 
guest to death, in order to seize his 
treasure in jewels, under circumstances 
of inhospitable and mocking cruelty ; 
(see his Chronica, ch. 6). Gkiyangos 
found, in an Arabic MS. in the British 
Museum, a contemporary account of 
the event. Among the gems is specified 
" three huge rubies," big as a pigeon's 
egg — Imevo de Paloma. One was a 
Koh-i-noor, to which Pedro attached 
such value that he specified it in his 
will, as the " Balax of the Red King." 
{Balaxi is a Persian word for G-ranate, 
and is taken, says Ducange, from the 
name of a province, Balacia. The old 
English term, as used by Dugdale, was 
Ballace.) This particular gem was 
given by Pedro to our Black Prince 
after the victory at Navarete. This is 
the "fair ruby, great like a racket- 
'^'^U," which Queen EUzabeth showed 

to Mary of Scots' ambassador, Mel- 
ville, and which the canny chiel wanted 
her to give to his mistress, and is the 
identical gem which now adorns the 
royal crown of England in the Tower. 

Fail not to visit the truly Arabian 
suite of rooms fronting the garden, and 
then ascend to the second story, mo- 
demised by Charles V. : walk out on 
the terrace over the garden : visit Isa- 
bella's chapel, which lies to the N.W. ; 
it is very smaU, 15 ft. by 12, but is 
covered with cinque-cento Azulejo, is 
quite Peruginesque, and perhaps is 
the finest Christian specimen oi this 
material in Spain. They were painted 
in 1504 by Niculoso Francisco, an Ita- 
lian. See inscription on a label to 1. 

Pass next along a corridor to the 
Cuarto del Principe. This truly Al- 
hambraio room is placed over the en- 
trance vestibule. In a long saloon 
down-stairs were kept, or rather were 
neglected, in heaps on the floors, those 
antiquities which chance discovered 
while a road was making at Italica, 
and which were not reburied, from the 
accident of the Alcaide Fr°* de Bruna 
being a man of taste. The Alcazar was 
also made by Soult his receiving-house 
general of stolen goods. When he fled 
from Seville, after the Duke's defeat 
of Marmont at Salamanca, more than 
1000 pictures were left behind, such 
was his hurry. 

Now visit the cinque-cento gardens, 
laid out by Charles ; they are among 
the most curious in Europe. Observe 
the tank where Philip V. fished, and 
the vaulted Bancs where Maria de 
Padilla, mistress of Pedro el Cruel, 
bathed, and which probably were ori- 
ginally prisons. Maria ruled in this 
Alcazar, and so tamed her royal beast 
that the vulgar attributed her infiu- 
ence over Pedro to magic, but it was 
nothing but the natural and all-suffi- 
cient charms, the witchcraft of a fair 
and gentle woman. The gardens are 
those of a Hesperus, ** not fabulous ;" 
their levels vary, and the plots are 
divided by orange-clad walls ; the 
balmy air is perfumed by the a^ahar or 
blossom and by the golden fruit. The 




compartments are arranged in quaint 
patterns cut in box and myrtles, such 
as the eagles and coats of arms of 
Charles V., the precise work of the 
Sroman Topiarius ; and such were the 
sunny gardens in which Martial's Cadiz 
friend Cano loved to sit, inter tepentes 
buxus (iii. 20, 12). Beware of certain 
hidden foimtains in the walks, with 
which the unwary traveller will be 
sprinkled. Visit the semi-Moorish azu- 
^'o-adomed Kiosk in the under gar- 
den ; ascend the rustic terrace to the N. 
for the view. 

Among the most remarkable houses 
in Seville visit the Ccua OLea^ 14, 
Calle JBotica del Affua. It is a perfect 
Moorish specimen ; the Spanish white- 
wash was picked off the stucco by an 
artist named Bejarano, long notorious 
for repainting and ruining old pictures. 
After that this house fell into the 
hands of a Frenchman, one M. Do- 
minie, who destroyed the rich Arte- 
8<mado ceiling, and put up a modem 
flat one ! and, what is worse, this 
fashion became the rage in Seville, and 
has laid low many a rehc of this class. 
Soult had turned the room into a stable. 
In the adjoining Calle de los Abodes^ 
No. 27, was a singular vaulted Moorish 
saloon, recently modernised by a Ghoth. 
In the same street, Cctsa Ca/rasa^ No. 9, 
is a superb specimen of the Arragonese 
plateresque, erected in 1526 by canon 
J?inero j visit it without fail, for the me- 
dallions are quite Raphaelesque. But 
whitewashing with the fatal Cal de Mo- 
ron, the bane of Seville, has much obhte- 
rated the delicate outlines of this once 
fairy Patio, Go also to the Calle de las 
DueiiaSj a most Moorish palace of the 
D. of Alba, and now, alas ! fast going or 
gone to ruin ; here Lord Holland lived. 
It consisted once of 11 Patios, with 9 
fountains, and more than 100 marble 
pillars. Walk through its gardens and 
the forest orange-trees and myrtles. 
On the Plaza del Duque is the palace 
of the great G-uzman fisimily, now cut 
up and divided into many minor resi- 
dences. Here is the Casino, or club. 
In the Caea CantUlana, Puerta de 
Xerez, Lord Wellesley resided. The 

house was afterwards made a diligence- 
inn, and then a wine-store. How are 
the mighty fallen in Spain, men and 
mansions ! 

The family house of the Taberas, 
which all who read the charming drama 
of Sancho Ortiz de Boelaa will visit, is 
in the Ce. de la- Inquisicion Vieja. Her© 
is still shown the garden-door by which 
Sancho el Bravo intended to carry off 
the beautiful Estrella de Sevilla. This 
house, in 1833, was tenanted by a 
Frenchman, who converted it into a 
dyeing-factory ; and when we were 
there last, he was meditating trimming 
up the gardens d la mode de Paris ; 
next visit the Casa de Pilatos, so called 
because said to be built in imitation of 
that of Pontius Pilate at Jerusalem. 
The black cross in the Patio is the 
point from whence I/as JEstaciones, the 
stations to the Cruz del Campo, begin. 
Few Spanish cities are without these 
stations, which generally lead to the 
Calvario, a Gblgotha, or hill with 
crosses on it, and erected in memorial 
of the crucifixion. During Passion 
Week these stations are visited; at 
each of them a prater is said allusive 
to the separate sufferings of the Sa- 
viour, which are carved, painted, or 
indicated at each. This palace was 
built in 1533, by the great nobleman 
of the day, Fadiique Enriquez de Ri- 
bera, in commemoration of his having 
performed the pilgrimage to Jerusalem 
in 1519. He was accompanied by the 
poet Juan de Encina, who published 
their tour, IHhaffia, Boma, 1521, also 
at Seville, 4to., 1606, and reprinted at 
Madrid, fol., 1748. The architecture 
proves how closely the Spaniards of 
the 15th century imitated the Sara- 
cenic forms, and the influence their 
sensual civilization obtained over the 
Gotho-Spaniard, who with increasing 
power began to appreciate elegance 
and luxury: all is now scandalously 
neglected. The saloons of state are 
whitewashed, and turned to base pur- 
poses ; the gardens are running wild ; 
the sculpture is tossed about as in 
a stonemason's yard. Observe the 
GK>thic balustrade over the entranc 



Sect. II. 

the grand Patio, with its fountains 
and injured Koman statues of Pallas, 
Ceres, and others. The Virgin's chapel, 
with a copy of the Servilleta of Mu- 
rillo, is adorned in the most gorgeous 
Saracenic-G-othic style. Ascend the 
magnificent staircase to the chief suite 
of rooms. Eyerything that stucco, 
carving, Azulefo, and guding could do, 
was done. In the pleasant garden, visit 
the grotto of Susanna, and ohserve 
marbles and sculpture, given to Ferafiin 
de Ribera by Pius V., cast like rubbish 
amid the weeds. A selection was re- 
moved to Madrid by a Duke de Medina 
Celi, to whom this deserted palace now 

The lovers of Prout-like bits must 
visit the Jew's quarters. Before their 
expulsion from Seville they lived in a 
separate " Jewry," or Ghetto, La Ju- 
deria, which resembled IJa Moreria, 
where the Moriscoes dwelt, and is a 
perfect labyrinth of picturesque lanes. 
In the Juderia is the house of Barto- 
lome Esteban Murillo, a SeviUian by 
birth, and the head of the Andalucian 
school, for Velazquez more properly 
belongs to Castile : it lies close to the 
city wall, the last to the rt. in a small 
plaza at the end of the Callejuela del 
Agua^ or, in the new-fangled nomen- 
clature, at the end of the Calle de Lope 
de Mueda, Plaza de Alfa/ro. The 
parish church, La Santa Cruz, in 
which he was buried, was pulled down 
under Soult's rule, who scattered his 
bones. Murillo was baptized Jan. 1, 
1618, in the Magdalena — that church 
also Soult destroyed. His baptismal 
entry has escaped, and may be seen at 
San Pablo. The street in which he 
was bom now bears his name. His 
tomb consisted of a plain slab, placed 
before Campana's picture of the De- 
scent from the Cross (see p. 182), with a 
skeleton engraved on it, and the motto, 
" Vive moriturus." His painting-room, 
nay, living-room, for he lived to paint, 
was in the upper floor, and is stiU as 
sunny and as cheerful as his works. 
There he died April 3^1682. In the 
,rden observe the fountain, and Ita- 
"n frescoes, compositions of fauns, 

mermaids, and women with musical 
instruments. They have been attri- 
buted by some to Murillo, which they 
certainly are not, and by others to L. 
de Vargas, which is more probable. 
This house was purchased for about 
1200^. by Canon Cepero, when the 
Chapter, foreseeing the coming shadows 
of state appropriation, sold off much of 
their disposable property; and, indeed, 
Cepero, subsequently the Dean, a man 
of great taste, was worthy to dwell in 
this house, over which such recollec- 
tions hover. It was he who did so 
much to rescue art at Seville during 
the constitutional outbreaks ; and if 
his own collection contained many bad 
pictures, their quahty was no fault of 
his, for where good ones are not to be 
procured, which is "the great fact" 
of Seville, there bad become the best. 

JSl Corral del Conde, Calle Santiago, 
No. 14, was a barrack of washerwomen. 
WTiat a scene for the pallet! what cos- 
tume, balconies, draperies, colour, atti- 
tude, grouping ! what a carrying of 
vases after the antique ! what a clatter 
of female tongues, a barking of dogs, 
a squalling of children — all living 
Munllos — assailed the invpertinente 
curioso! Alas! that every day there 
is less washing. 

"For plateresque architecture, the best 
specimen is La Casa del Ayuntamiento, 
the corporation-house on the great 
plaza, built in 1545-64 by some great 
unknown. The exterior is a sflver- 
smith chasing in stone- work : observe 
the staircase, the carved doors, and 
sala grande baja, with the Spanish 
kings, arranged in 35 squares, or Lacn- 
nares, on the ceiling. Admirable also 
is the inscription on Spanish Justicia ; 
the very sound of which, so perfect in 
theory, practically implies delay, injus- 
tice, ruin, and death. The Audiencia, 
or high court of what is called Justice 
in Seville, sits in the opposite comer 
of the Plaza, and is presided over by 
a Regente. The prison close by is a 
sad scene, and is called by the Majos, 
either el colegio, the school for teaching 
rogues, or La Posada de los Franceses. 

The different quarters into which 




Seville is divided are virell expressed in 
these verses : — 

«• Desde la Catedral, d la Magdalena, 
Se almuerza, se come, y se cena; 
j)esde la Magdalena, d San Vicente, 
Se come golamenie ; 
Desde San Vicente, d la Macarena, 
Ni se aimuerza, ni se come, ni se cefiui" 

The once wealthy clergy gathered 
like yoimg pehcans under the wing of 
the mother church. The best houses 
were near the cathedral, iu the Calle de 
l08 Abodes. This Abbot's street was 
theb "close:" here, "their beUies with 
good capons Uned," the dignitaries 
hredkfastedy dined, and supped; re- 
cently their commons have been much 
shortened. In tha San Vicente Hved 
the knights and nobles, and the Calle 
de Armas was the aristocratic street of 
arms. Here the hidalgos, with their 
wives and daughters, ate less and 
dressed more: they onlt/ dined; they 
pinched their stomachs to deck their 
backs: but the most ancient unchanged 
Iberian characteristic, from Athenseus 
to Lazarillo de Tonnes, has been ex- 
ternal show and internal want. The 
Macarena now, as it always was, is the 
abode of ragged poverty, which never 
could or can for a certainty reckon on 
one or on any meal a day ; but they and 
their skins and jackets, are meat and 
drink to all lovers of the picturesque. 

The Calle de los Abodes should be 
visited, although no longer so redolent 
of rich ollas. The cathedral staff con- 
sisted of an archbishop, an auxiliary 
bishop, 11 (now reduced to 5) dignita- 
ries, 40 (now reduced to 16) canons, 
20 prebendaries, 20 minor canons, 20 
vienteneros, and 20 chaplains of the 
quire. Their emoluments were very 
great: nearly 900 houses in Seville 
belonged to the chapter, besides vast 
estates, tithes, and corn-rents. Men- 
dizabal, in 1836, appropriated all this 
to the State, which was to pay the 
clergy a diminished income, which it has 
not done. Formerly this street was a 
rookery, nor were the nests without 
progeny. The Pope might deny his 
cler^ wives and children, but the devil 
provided them with housekeepers and 

nephews. The former ar^ called amas, 
not from amare, but the Sanscrit a 
house: so Ducange derives the syno- 
nym focaria — " anciUa quse focum 
curat clericorum ; concubina." In the 
medieval period the concubines of the 
celibate clergy were almost licensed, as 
among the Moors. The mistress was 
called barragana, from the Arabic 
words bo/rra, strange, and gana, gam- 
dir, a connexion: hence, in old Spanish, 
natural children are called hijos de 
ganancia, which has nothing to do 
with gain, and is more analogous to 
the " strange woman" in Judges xi. 2; 
others, and probably more correctly, 
have derived the word from the Arabic 
JBarragan, single, unmarried; which 
was essential to secure to the parties 
thus cohabiting without marriage, the 
sort of morganatic status allowed by 
the law. Many were the jests as re- 
gards the children bom in this street : — 

** Fnla caMe de los Abodes, 
Todos han Tios, y ningvms PadreB." 

The little ones called their father 
their itncle, and he called them his ne- 

•• Los Canonigos Madre, no tierien hyos ; 
Los que tienen en casa, son sobrinicos." 

The wealth and comparative luxury 
of this order of the Spanish clergy of 
course exposed them to popular envy, 
reform, and plunder ; pious innovators 
were urged by the auri sacra fames of 
our Henry VIII. ; and certainly the 
church had so well feathered its nest, 
that Death met with few ruder welcomes 
than when he tapped at a right rev. 
and venerable dignitary's door, who was 
contented with bis sublunary lot, his 
pretty house, housekeepery good cook, 
good income paid quarterly, and pair 
of sleek mules ; the priestly maxim, 
the canon, or Begla de SanHago, was 
thus laid down : — 

El primero—es amaar d Don Dinero. 

El segundo — es amolar d todo d mundo. 

El tercero—lmen vaca y camero. 

El cuarto—ayunar despues de harto. 

El quinto—buen Uanco y tinto. 

Testos cinoo mamdamientos, se encierran en 

Todopaarami, y nadapara vos. 



The first ia— to love the Lord Money. 

The second is — to g^rind all the world. 

The third is— good beef and mutton. 

The fourth is — to fast when one can eat no 

The fifth is — good wine — white and red. 
And these five commandments may be summed 

up in two — 
Everything for me, and nothing for you. 

And certainly, when the religious eeta- 
blishments numbered 74, and the gra- 
tuitous schools only 1, the clerical ele- 
ment might be said to preyail oyer the 
educational. In truth, the pomp and 
power of the full-blown church gave 
cause to many complaints and calum- 
nies. It was accused of becoming rich 
by professing poverty, of monopolising 
mundane affairs by pretending to re- 
nounce them, and of securing to it- 
self the good things of the present 
world, by holding out to others hopes 
of those of a future one. 

The great square of Seville was long 
called de San Francisco^ £rom the 
neighbouring now ruined and crum- 
bling convent. Munllo painted, in 
1645, for its small cloister, el Chico, 
that series of 11 superb pictures which 
first made his talents known in Seville, 
after his return from Madrid. All these 
were removed by force of arms by Soult, 
save one, which, from his hurried flight 
after Salamanca, he left behind in the 
Alcazar, and which is now in our col- 
lection, purchased and paid for. 

A new square is building on the 
convent's site, in which the picturesque 
and national will be superseded by 
the comfortable, civilised, and common- 
place. The old genuine Plaza remains, 
however, still the heart of the city — the 
forum, the place of gossip and of exe- 
cutions, and in look is still very Moor- 
ish and picturesque, with its arcades 
and balconies ; under the former are 
the jewellers' shops. The Calle de 
Oenoa^ at the opposite comer, is the 
Patemoster-row of Seville as regards 
booksellers* shops, and of the Fasos, a 
£gtvourite spot to see the processions of 
PasoSy or dressed and painted images 
(see p. 49) during the Holy Week. 
These relics of pagan mummeries will 
Ytlease the antiquarian more than the 

pious and the Protestant; the utter 
want of all devotional sentiment in the 
natives, who come only to see the show 
and be seen, is no less painfully striking 
than the degradation of the Deity by 
these tawdry masquerading spectacles. 
The finest pictures in Seville are in 
the Cathedral, La Caridad, the Museo, 
and the University. Xa Caridad is 
an alms-house, destined for some 80 
poor old, and chiefly bed-ridden, men : 
it lies outside the walls, near the river. 
This hospital, dedicated to St. George, 
was founded in 1578, for the decent 
interment of unburied paupers, and of 
criminals, whose remains previously 
were left to rot on the gibbets. It was 
rebuilt in 1661 by Miguel de Monara 
Vicentelo de Lara, who, when young, 
was in profligacy a Don Juan of Se- 
ville redivivus. He was buried in the 
Capilla mayor. Bead his epitaph — 
cenizas del peor hombre que hist habido 
en el mundo : and also consult his life 
and death by Juan de Cardenas, 4to., 
Seville, 1679. He was the personal 
friend and patron of Munllo. Observe 
the colonnaded Paiio, On entering 
the church, the carved and painted 
Descent from the Cross over the high 
altdr is the masterpiece of Pedro Kol- 
don; the almost startUng reaUty is 
marred by tinsel dresses and architec- 
tural fritter. Observe under the coro 
the « Triumph of Time," and a " Dead 
Prelate," by J. Valdes Leal, a putrid 
picture, which Murillo said he could 
not look at without holding his nose. 
Here he painted, in 1660-74, that series 
of grand pictures, of which Soult — 
hence justly called by Toreno the mo- 
dem Verres, and by Mr. Stirling the 
Plunder-Marshall-General — carried off 
5, all of which is entirely blinked by 
Monsr. Maison in liis pilfered Guide. 
But the Marshall was moderate when 
compared to his model, Verres, who took 
27 pictures from the Minerva Medica 
alone (CicinVer.iv. 55). His "Grace" 
bribed Buonaparte with one, the Sa Isa- 
bel; two others, the "Abraham wad an- 
gels," and the " Prodigal Son," he sold 
to the D. of Sutherland^ and the " Heal- 
ing the Cripple" to Mr. Tomline, 




at fabulous prices ; the fourth, the 
" Angel and St. Peter," passed, at his 
final sale, in 1852, to Russia. The 
large amount of cash that that sale pro- 
duced offers anotlier proof of the judg- 
ment with which Soult, "that weU- 
known French dealer," "collected." 
The Spaniards only recently filled up 
the blank spaces ; the gaps long yawned 
like graves : hiatus maxim^ deflendus. 

The Murillos now in the Caridad 
are an " Infant Saviour" on panel, and 
injured; a "St. John," rich and brown; 
a " San Juan de Dios," equal to Rem- 
brandt ; the Pan y Feces, or Loaves and 
Fishes ; but the figure of Christ feed- 
ing the Five Thousand, which ought to 
be the principal, is here subordinate : 
the " Moses striking the Rock" is much 
finer; this is indeed a representation 
of the Hagar-like thirst of the desert, 
and is justly called La Sed : the figure 
of Moses is poor, and wants relief, but 
the parched groups are excellent. Both 
pictures are colossal, and painted in a 
sketchy manner, calculated for the 
height and distance of their position 
from the spectator, which, however, is 
inconveniently high and distant; but 
here they still hang, like rich oranges on 
the bough where they originallybudded. 

At Seville, as elsewhere, those good 
pictures that M. Soult did not "remove" 
by iron, the EngUsh have carried off 
by gold, and little now remains but un- 
mitigated rubbish, to which fine names 
are all given, caveat Emptor ; here all 
the geese are swans — all are Murillos, 
all by Velazquez, and so forth ; but it 
is sheer loss of time to visit these 
refuges of the destitute and worthless ; 
and our collectors cannot be too ear- 
nestly cautioned against making pur- 
chases, and picking up an original for 
an old song. Among the least bad 
may be mentioned the collections of 
Dean Cepero, who lives in Murillo*s 
house, and that of Don Aniceto Bravo, 
ISo. 40, Calle de los Catalanes, which 
contains 700 and more "warranted 
originals," and the collections of Se- 
fi^ores Garcia and Saenz, The once 
really genuine and precious galleries of 
Don Julian Williams, Canon Maestre, 

and the Conde de Mejorada, have had 
all the plums picked out. 

Since the dissolution of the convents, 
many pictures, and some neglected 
antiquities, have been collected in the 
Merced, which is now the provincial 
Museum. This noble ediifice was 
founded in 1249 by St. Ferdinand. 
The Patio and Axulejos are of the time 
of Charles V. Before the invasion 
even, it was fuU of fine paintings ; 
but a French agent had previously, 
in the guise of a traveller, noted the 
contents ; and the same individual, so 
the prior informed us, reappeared with 
the army, and laughed at the deceived 
monk, when he demanded them by 
the list drawn up on his former visit. 
That respectable character Nero was 
the first who devised sending commis- 
sioners to pillage art, altars. &c. (Tac. 
An. XV. 45). 

At Seville, Bartolome Esteban Mu- 
rillo is to be seen in all his glory, and 
a giant, like AntsBus, on his native soil. 
His finest pictures, painted for the 
Capuchinos, were sent off, in 1810, to 
Cadiz, and thus escaped. Murillo, bom 
at Seville, and baptized Jan. 1, 1618, 
where he died, April 3, 1682, was the 
painter of female and infantine grace, as 
Velazquez was of more masculine and 
intellectual subjects. Both were true 
alike in form and colour to Spanish 
natiu^ — both were genuine, national, 
and idiosyncratic. Murillo had three 
styles: the Frio, his earliest, being 
based on Ribera and Caravaggio, was 
dark, with a decided outline. Of these 
were the pictures in San Francisco. 
His second manner was his Calido, or 
warm, when his colouring was im- 
proved, while his drawing was still 
well defined and marked. His third 
style was the Vaporoso, or misty, 
vaporous, and blending. This he 
adopted partly because Herrera el 
Mozo had made it the Bsishion, and 
partly because, being stinted for time 
from the increased orders, he could 
not finish so highly. Thus, like Turner 
and Wilkie, to get more quickly over 
his work, he sacrificed a somewhat of 
his previous conscientious drawing. 



Sect. II. 

The Museo of Seville, which is by 
far the first provincial one in Spain, 
is, as most other things there, the 
creation of accident and individuals ; 
nor does it contain a single specimen 
of Velazquez, the greatest painter of 
Spain, and in this his native ci^. In 
1836 the Canon Manuel Lope Cepero, 
now the dean, a gentleman of real taste 
and high honour, managed at the sup- 
pression of the convents, when appro- 
priation and Vandalism were the order 
of the day, to get the best pictures 
removed to the Cathedral, a sanc- 
tuary where they were saved from the 
spoilers; the authorities, who cared 
for none of these things, affording no 
other assistance than that of galley^ 
slaves, to do the mere porters* work ! 
In 1838 Senor Bejarano managed by 
a private subscription to move them 
into their present situation. Mean- 
while, as nothing in Spain is ever com- 
plete, here in Seville we sigh for fine 
specimens of Velazquez, Luis de Vargas, 
and even Alonso Cano ; nevertheless 
it is the best place in the wliole Penin- 
sula to study the masters of this school, 
many of whose names and works have 
scarcely even been heard of in Eng- 
land, such as the Folancos, Valdez 
Leal, Varela, Vasquez, &c. A meagre 
catalogue of this Museo was published 
in 1850 by one wAlvarez. 

At the entrance is the elaborate iron 
Cruz, which stood formerly in the Cer- 
rageriai and is the work of Sebastian 
Conde, 1692. The other antique sculp- 
ture scattered about in most admired 
disorder, is second-rate. The fine Sille- 
ria del Coro by P. D. Comejo, from 
the Ca/rtuja, is placed in a room below, 
as also the carvings by Montanes. 
Among the finest pictures observe No. 
1, the Apotheosis of Thomas Aquinas, 
the master-piece of Francisco Zurba- 
ran, and painted in 1625, for the Co- 
legio de Santo Tomas; ^^ Removed" to 
Paris by Soult, it was recovered by 
Wellington at Waterloo ; the Head of 
St. Thomas is the portrait of a Don 
Agustin de Ecobar ; the drapery, vel- 
vet, armour, &c., offer a blaze of splen- 

->ur combined with much more stuff 

and substance than in the ornamental 
brocades of P. Veronese ; Zurbaran is 
called the Spanish Carravaggio, but he 
is much more Titianesque, more ele- 
vated in mind and manner. Among 
the other Zurbarans observe, " San 
Henrique de Sufon" and No. 10 
" San Luis Bertran," and the " Padre 
Etemo ;" also. No. 150, a Saviour in 
violet as a youth plaiting a crown of 
thorns j also the three first-rate pic- 
tures fipom the Cartuja — " San Bruno 
before Urban II.," " the Virgin pro- 
tecting the Monks," and No. 137 
"San Hugo in the Refectory;" al- 
though unfortunately injured by over 
cleaning, they are magnificent. No 
one ever painted fleecy-hosiery Car- 
thusian monks like Zurbaran ; he was, 
however, apt to draw too much fi*om 
lay figures, which gives a hard outline, 
no throbbing Ufe heaves under his re- 
gular folds. The studier of style will 
notice the peculiar pinky tone of this 
master, especially in female cheeks : 
they seem fed on roses, as was said of 
Parrhasius and Baroccio; but the 
prevalent use of rouge at that time in- 
fluenced his eye, as it did that of 
Velazquez. No. 19, Sn. Pedro No- 
lascoy is by Fr*** Pacheco, the feeble 
master and father-in-law of Velazquez. 
By the presumptuous and conceited 
Herrera el Mozo is No. 13, Santa 
Anna and the Virgin. 

Of Juan de Castillo, MuriUo's mas- 
ter, observe the series of 5 from the 
Monte Sion, especially the "Annun- 
ciation," " Visitation," " Nativity and 
Adoration, and Coronation of the Vir- 
gin." In No. 136 the " San Andres " 
of Boelas, a child is almost equal to 
some by Correggio, as a warrior is to 
one by Titian. Of Herrera el Viejo, 
the bold dashing master of Velazquez, 
who lost his scholars with his temper, 
observe the San Hermenegildo, to 
which the artist owed his safe deli- 
verance ; guilty of a forgery, he had 
fled to ail asylum, where he painted 
this picture. Philip IV., who saw it 
in 1624, inquired for the author, and 
pardoned him, observing that such 
talents ought never to be abused. His 

Andcducia, route 7. — Seville — pictures by murillo. 


San Basilio is bold and Ribera-like : 
observe tlie kneeling bishop and the 
handling of the drapery, for in it is 
the germ of Velazquez. The pictures 
of iVutet, a Calvario, Christ on a Cross, 
Descent, and a Virgin,, which came from 
Las Bubas; as well as those of the pre- 
sumptuous Juan Valdes, from San 0e- 
ronimo, are second-rate ; observe, how- 
ever, the CalvariOf and those relating to 
San Jerome, which are painted with a 
most Spanish defiance of time, place, and 
costume. Notice especially the terra 
cotta, " St. Jerome" of Pietro Torrigiano, 
which was long in the Buena Vista con- 
vent. Tliis great Italian, born at Flo- 
rence about 1470, and known in his- 
tory for breaking his co-pupU Michael 
Angelo's nose, was sent to Spain by his 
patron. Pope wAlexander VI., a Borgia 
and a Spamard. He came to G-ranada in 
the hopes of executing the Sepulchre of 
Ferdinand and Isabella; rejected be- 
cause a foreigner, he turned to England, 
and wrought that of Henry VII. in 
Westminster Abbey. Torrigiano re- 
turned to Spain, where he modelled a 
Virgin, of which the exquisite Xo^ mano 
a la tetay in the Seville plaster-shops, is 
a cast. He died — oh ! blot to Seville — 
tortured in the vaults of the Inquisition, 
nominally because of suspected faith, 
but really a victim of artistical jealousy 
and Espanolismo. But so Bernard Pa- 
lissy, the Luca de la Bobbia of France, 
perished in 1589, consigned to a dun- 
geon by bigoted persecutors. 

Near this " St. Jerome " is a Santo 
Domingo, from Portaceli, by Montanes. 
The anatomical and feir nudity of the 
Italian contrasts with the brown draped 
work of the Spaniard. Observe also a 
crucifix and a St. Dominick by the same 
sculptor, and a crucifix by Matias Vaz- 
quez de Leca, 1614 ; from the Cartuja 
convent, the four repainted Virtues, 
and the Silleria del Coro, Notice also 
No. 114, a " Last Supper," and a 
"Christ," by the learned Pablo de 
Cespedes ; a Battle of Clavijo, by Juan 
de Varela; a portrait of Ferd. VII., 
by Q-oya ; and No. 380, the celebrated 
Last Judgment, by Martin de Vos, 
from San Agustin, whose female nudi- 


ties were so long a stumbling-block to 
the priests, who could not say mass 
quietly before them. Pacheco {Arte 
de IHnt., 201), states the case of a 
venerable prelate who was so troubled 
by the deshabille of a condemned gen- 
tlewoman, that he pronounced exposure 
to a hurricane in the storm- vexed Ber- 
mudas — he had been a sailor in his 
youth — to be infinitely less perilous. 

The Murillos are placed in the Sala 
de Murillo, like gems set in a diadem. 
The finest came from the Capuchin 
convent, for which they were painted 
at his best period. Although the pre- 
sent light is better than that of their 
original positions, yet they lose some- 
thing by the change, as Murillo, in de- 
signing them, calculated each exactly 
for its locaHty, and painted up to the 
actual light and point of view ; and 
we moreover much miss the Capuchino 
cicerone, who seemed to have stepped 
out of one of the pictures to tell us 
where Murillo went for a model, and 
how true was his portrait ; the Santo 
Tomas de Villamteva, No. 155, was 
called by the painter su cuadro, his own 
picture. The beggars are beyon d price ; 
the smallest is worth a wUdemess of 
best dressed lords and ladies of the bed- 
chamber; none could represent them 
and Franciscans like Murillo, and 
simply because he painted them the 
most, and drew only what he saw 
actually in the Maca/rena and at every 
convent gate, as all who remember the 
genus monasticum will admit. His was 
a faithfrd transcript of Spanish men- 
dicant and monastic nature, neither 
more nor less. No. 154, the Sam Felix 
de CantaliciOy is the perfection of the 
vaporoso: the delicate young flesh of 
the child, the Corregiesque morbidezza, 
contrasts with the greys of the aged 
saint. This, say the Spaniards, is 
painted con leche y aamgre, or with 
milk and blood. No. 156, the Santas 
Justa y Mufina, is in his calido style, 
forcible, and yet tender. "The Na- 
tivity;" No. 152 "The Adoration of 
Shepherds;" San Leandro and San 
Buenaventura — observe the peeping 
boy like Correggio, not that Murillo 




ever studied from him, be looked rather 
to the children as painted by Koelas. 
Observe the San Jose; San Juan con el 
Cordero and No. 165, " The Virgin and 
Child," called La ServUleta, because 
said to have been painted on a dinner- 
napkin ; the child almost struggles out 
of its mother's arms, and out of the 
picture^frame. What a creative power, 
what a coiner was our Murillo, who 
could convert into a bank-note a napkin, 
in which most Spaniards bury theu* pe- 
tit talent ! No. 161, " St. Francis em- 
bracing the Crucified Saviour :" here is 
seen Murillo's great power of drawing. 
Observe, also, " The Virgin and Angels 
with the Dead Christ," and « The An- 
nunciation." No. 157, the San Anto- 
nio, is a finer picture than that in the 
cathedral; observe i\^e monk's ex- 
pression looking on the child that is 
seated on his book. Also No. 162, 
San Felix, half-length. All these came 
from the Capuchinos. There is also 
an early . Murillo, a " Virgin and 
Child," from San Jose, and two of San 
Agustin. The rest of the collection, 
some hundred pictures, are by different 
artists, and of different degrees of 
merit. The above selected are the 
pearls of greatest price. And last, not 
least, observe No. 151, La Concepcion 
by Murillo, once a gem of the Capu- 
chin convent. No. 1 is another and 
larger of this popular Seville subject, 
but not so fine : MuriUo, from his ex* 
ceUence in painting this "mystery," 
was called el jpintor de las concepciones. 
The crovming and protecting mys- 
tery of Spam is the dogma that the 
Virgin was bom free from all taint of 
original sin. This is so peculiar and 
national, occurs so frequently in church, 
chapel, and gallery, and has occupied 
so many pens, pencils, and chisels, that 
some explanation is absolutely neces- 
sary in any * Handbook for Spain.' 
The assertion that she was exempt 
from original sin — which by deifying 
the Womcmy denies the humanity of 
the Saviour, a dogma which, in 1854 ! 
is the panacea of Pio Nono — was due 
to a heretic, Felagius, while the ortho- 
dox St. Augustine taught the reverse 

(de N. et G-. 36; contra Jul. v. 15, 
vi. 22). The dispute of this Imma- 
culate Conception waxed warm in 
the 13 th century, but the Soman 
clergy took little interest in a mere 
question of casuistry. The Council of 
Trent blinked the question, wishing to 
decide nothing (see Sarpi Sistoria, p. 
188, ed. 1629). Not so the Spaniard, 
whose worship of an Astarte is almost 
sexual: accordingly, when it was re- 
vived in 1613, a Dominican monk 
having contended that the Deipara was 
liable to the pains and penalties of 
original sin, their rival mendicants the 
Franciscans affirmed that she was ex- 
empt. Those of Seville took the lead so 
violently that, before the Dominicans 
were silenced by the Pope, the whole 
population assembled in churches, and 
sallying forth with an emblematical 
picture of the sinless Mary, set upon a 
sort of standard surmounted by a cross, 
paraded the city in different directions, 
singing praises to the Immaculate Con- 
ception, and repeating aloud the hymns 
of her rosa/ry. These processions long 
constituted one of the peculiar usages of 
Seville ; and, although confined to the 
lower classes, assumed that character- 
istic importance and overbearing spirit 
which, as among the Moslems, is at- 
tached to religious associations in Spain. 
Wherever one of these processions pre- 
sents itself to the public, it takes up 
the street from side to side, stopping 
the passengers and expecting them to 
stand uncovered in all kinds of wea- 
ther till the standard is gone by. These 
banners are called Sin Pecados, that is, 
" sinless," from the theological opinion 
in support of which they were raised. 

They take place during the holy 
week and the winter season, and are 
very picturesque. At nightfall the long 
lines of men, women, and children, two 
and two, are seen twinkling through 
the narrow streets, which are illumi« 
nated from the balconies of the houses. 
Their hymns are precisely the old, Noc- 
tumis, Hecate, triviis ulidata per urbes ; 
and there is something striking in the 
melody of the chant of distant voices 
heard as it approaches : the procession^ 

Andalucia, route 7. — Seville — ^immaculate coiircEPTiON. 


is headed by devotees, who carry riclily 
chased lamps, /<awo^*, on staves. The 
parish priest follows, bearing the glit- 
tering banner of gold and velvet, the 
Sin Pecado, on which the Virgin is 
embroidered; as soon as the cortege 
passes by, the candles in the balconies 
are put out : thus, while all before is 
one glare of light, all behind is dark, 
and it seems as if the banner of the 
Virgin cast glory and effulgence before 
her, Uke the fire-pillar which preceded 
the Israelites in the desert. The scholar 
may compare all this with the accounts 
of the " Omnipotentis Dese foecundum 
simulacrum ; " the lamps, songs, ante- 
cantamentay and processions of the 
Pompa of Isis described by Apuleius, 
* Met.' xi. 243, et seq. The air of the 
music varies in different parishes : the 
words are JDios te salve Maria, llena 
eres de ffracia, el Senor es conti^o, hen- 
dita tu eres entre todas las mugereSy y 
bendito es eljruto de tu vientre ; Jesus ! 
Sta. Maria, Madre de Dios, ruega 
Senora por nosotros pecadores dhora y 
en la hora de nuestra muerte. 

The Spanish government, under 
Charles III., showed the greatest eager- 
ness to have the sinless purity of the 
Virgin Mary added by the Pope to the 
articles of the Boman Cathohc Mth. 
The court of Bome, however, with the 
cautious spirit which has at all times 
guided its spiritual politics, endea- 
voured to keep clear from a stretch of 
authority, which even some of its own 
divines would be ready to question; 
but splitting, as it were, the difference 
with theological precision, the censures 
of the church were levelled against 
such as should have the boldness to 
assert that the Virgin Mary had derived 
any taint fit)m her ancestress Eve ; next, 
having personified the Immaculate Con- 
ception, it was declared' that the Spa- 
nish dominions in Europe and America 
were under the protecting influence of 
that mysterious event : the declaration, 
on the 22nd October, 1617, diffused 
joy over all Spain. Seville went reli- 
giously mad. Zuniga and Valderama 
enter into all the details of the bull- 
fights which were* celebrated on the 

occasion. Charles IIJ. afterwards in- 
stituted an order, to which he gave his 
name " Carlos Tercero," under the 
emblem of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion — a woman dressed in white and 
blue ; and a law was enacted requiring 
a declaration upon oath of a firm belief 
in the Immaculate Conception from 
every individual previous to his taking 
any degree at the universities, or being 
admitted into any of the corporations, 
civil and religious, which abound in 
Spain. This oath was administered 
even to mechanics upon their being 
made free of a guild. At Seville a col- 
lege, Las Becas, was founded solely to 
instruct youth in the defence of this 
mystery. AU the facts and opinions, 
both pro and con, are collected by the 
Franciscan Pedro Alva y Astorga, im- 
der the title "Funiculi nodi indisso- 
lubiles de conceptu mentis et ventris :" 
Brussels, 1661. The author left 18 
more volumes on this subject, which 
still remain unpublished (see Antonio, 
* Bib. Nov.' ii. 168). The arguments 
may be summed up in three words, 
decuit, potuit, fecit. The miracle was 
becoming the occasion, it was in the 
power of the Almighty to work it, and 
he didr 

Formerly no one entered a house 
or company without giving the watch* 
word of Seville, Ave Maria purisima, 
to which the inmates responded by the 
countersign sin pecado concebida : now 
the first portion is generally the indica- 
tion of a visit from a mendicant. 

Seville having taken the lead in the 
dispute, as became the capital of ultra- 
mariolatrous Andalucia, Im tierra de 
la Santisma, it is natural that some 
of the most perfect conceptions of 
Murillo and Alonso Cano should have 
been devoted to the embodying this 
incorporeal mystery; and never has 
dignified composure and innocence of 
mind, unruffled by human guilt or pas- 
sion, pure unsexual unconsciousness of 
sin or shame, heavenly beatitude past 
utterance, or the unconquerable ma- 
jesty and "hidden strength of chas- 
tity," been more exquisitdy portrayed. 
She appears in a state of extatic bea- 

K 2 



titude, and borne aloft in a golden 
sther to hearen, to which point her 
beauteous eyes are turned, by a group 
of angels, which none could paint or 
colour like Murilloj who seems to haye 
studied in heaven those little cherubs 
of which that kingdom is made. The 
retiring virgin loveliness of the blessed 
Mary seems to have stolen so gently, so 
silently on her, that she is unaware of 
her own power and fascination. The 
Inquisition required the Virgin to be 
painted as about fifteen years old, very 
beautiful, with those regulieur features 
which the Greek artists selected to 
express the perfect passionless serenity 
of the immortal gods, devoid of human 
frailties, and the type of " the unpol- 
luted temple of the mind j" that her 
attitude should be — 
*' Her graceful anna in meekness bending 
Across her gently budding breast ;" — 

that she should be clad in a spotless 
^be of blue and white, because she 
appeared in those colours to Beatriz 
de Silva. She should bruise with her 
heel the serpent's head; thus tram- 
pling on the author of original sin. 
She should stand on the moon in a 
crescent shape ; thus combining at 
once the symbol of Pagan and Moslem, 
the crescent of Isis, of Diana, and of 
the Turk. The horns should be placed 
downwards, because in £Eict the moon 
is always solid, although it appears to 
us, from the sim getting between it and 
the earth, to be occasionally a crescent. 
The moon is introduced because the 
*' Woman^ clothed with the sun, and the 
moon under her feet, and upon her 
head a crown of twelve stars " (Rev. 
xii. 1) is held at Rome to signify " the 
Virgin," while Protestants interpret 
the "Woman" as an image only of 
the Christian or spiritual Church. 
Meantime these stars should never be 
omitted. The body of the Virgin 
should float in an atmosphere of light, 
derived from herself. The cordon of 
San Francisco, sacred as the 2iennaa/r 
cord of the Brahmins, should encircle 
the whole, because it is the badge of 
that order which defended her imma- 
culate conception. The subject is often 

surrounded with smaller pictures, which 
represent those different attributes 
and manifold perfections of the Virgin, 
which are celebrated in her Hymn 
and Litany. Murillo's unapproach- 
able pre-eminence in representing this 
charmins subject procured for him the 
name oi el pintor de la Concepcion, 
The draperies of the Virgin must be 
very long, and her feet never shown ; 
and this forms one guide to distinguish 
Spanish from Italian pictures of this 

The mystery of the incarnation is 
shadowed out in the annorial bearings 
of the Vu^n, the vase with Uly^ 
brancheSf jarro eon a^ucenas, which is 
t'O be seen sculptured in Spanish ca- 
thedrals, most of which are dedicated 
to her, and not to the Father or Son. 
In the middle ages an idea was preva- 
lent that any female who ate the lily 
would become pregnant : Lucina sine 
concubitu. See some remarks of ours 
in the * Quan Rev.* cxxiii. 130. 

Tlie Umversity of Seville was origin- 
ally a convent erected by the Jesuits in 
1565-79,after designs of Herrera,and in 
their peculiar worldly pomp, which con- 
trasted with the gloomy piles of the more 
ascetic orders. When Charles III. ex- 
pelled them in 1767, it was assigned, by 
the praiseworthy efforts of Olavide, to 
purposes of education. Thearrangement 
in the church of the subsequent frieze, 
cornice, and architraves is obiection- 
able, when compared with the original 
Doric* Recently many churriguer- 
esque altars and absurd ornaments 
have been removed. It may be called 
the second Musewn of Seville, and the 
founder was the same worthy Cepero. 
A tolerable hbrary has been formed 
from those of the suppressed convents, 
and the system of education has been 
modernist and improved since 1846. 

Although the position of the Coro 
Alto of the chapel spoils the general 
effect, the raised altar mayoTy with 
it s tabernacle by Matias, 1604, is noble. 
The superb Corinthian Betahlo de- 
signed by Alonso Matias, in 1606, 
contains three grand paintings by 
Roelas — a Holy Family, with Jesuits ; 




a^atmty; and an Adoration. Koone 
ever painted the sleek and oily grimal- 
kin Jesuit like E>oelas. Observe an An- 
nunciation by Pacheoo ; a- St. John 
the Evangelist, and a St. John the Bap- 
tist, by Alonso Cano. The statues of 
St. Peter and St. Paul are by Mon-^ 
taues. Observe the smaller picture by 
Boelas, and particularly the Infant 
Saviour. Al lado del JSvangelio are 
the bronze monuments of Francisco 
Duarte and his wife Catalina, ob. 1554 ; 
both were brought in 1840 from the 
Convento de la Victoria de Triana. 

The Betahlos of the chapels of Con- 
cepcion and Las Meliquias deserve no- 
tice : in the latter are pictures in the 
manner of Pacheco. Observe the two 
images made, to be dressed, imagenes 
de vestwy of Francisco de Borja and San 
Ignacio, vnrought in 1610 by Mon- 
taHes ; the latter was coloured by 
Francisco Pacheco, and probably is 
the best portrait of the founder of the 
order of Jesuits that exists ; also by 
him a crucifix and a fine Concepcion ; 
and some pictures, by Cano, of the 
lives of San Cosm^ San Damian, a 
Saviour, and a Holy Father. Among 
the monumental curiosities removed 
from Santiago de Sspada, a church 
which Soult turned into a stable, ob- 
serve, first, the founder's tomb, Lo- 
renio Suarez de Figueroa, with his 
favourite dog Amadis at his feet ; and 
next the sepulchre of the learned Be- 
nito Arias Montano, ob, 1598: these 
w^ere brought also from the Santiago, 
and properly placed here as an ex- 
ample to young students ; remark the 
costume. In an apartment recently 
fitted up are 4 heads of Latin fathers 
by Alonso Cano, 2 pictures by Boelas, 
and a good Zarbaran. 

On the suppression of the Cartuja 
convent, the burial«place of the Bibera 
family. Canon Cepero induced their 
representative, the Duke of Medina 
Oeli, to remove the fine sepulchres of 
his ancestors : that of Pedro Fnriquez, 
ob. 1492, was sculptured at Genoa by 
Antonio Charona in 1606. The Virgin 
and Child is much admired, as also 
the weeping genius, called La Tea, 

from the reversed torch ; its con^panion 
was taken to Madrid. The armed 
ef&gy is somewhat heavy. Observe 
the statues of Diego G-omez de Bibera, 
ob. 1434, and his wife Beatriz Puertor ^ 
Carrero, ob. 1548. Among others of 
this warlike family, most of • whom 
spent their lives in combating the 
Moor, are Perafan de Bibera, ob. 
1455, and another of the same name, 
ob. 1423, aged 105 ; perhaps the finest 
is that of Dona Catalina, ob. 1505, 
which was made for her son Fadrique, 
in Genoa, 1519, by Pace G«zini. It 
was mutilated by the French, by whom 
the splendid bronze of this Fadrique 
was destroyed, when Soult converted 
the Cartuja into a barrack : one largp 
flat monumental engraved brass only 
escaped —the effigy of his nephew Fa- 
drique^ ob. 1571, viceroy of Naples, 
where it is conjectured that it was ex- 
ecuted. For further details consult 
Una Visita d la Universidad. A. M. 
de Cisneros y Lanura, Seville, 1853. 

Seville, in good old times, contained 
more than 140 churches, filled with 
objects of piety, art, and value ; many 
were plundered and pulled down by 
Soult' 8 sappers, and others since the 
suppression of monasteries have shared 
a similar fate. These establishments 
were well endowed, and afforded a fesr 
tival and spectacle of some kind ov 
other for almost eveiy day in the year, 
and, in fact, monopolized the time and 
relaxation of the people. There are 
three kinds of reUgious days or festi- 
vals : the first are called Mestas de prer- 
ceptOy on which no sort of work may. 
be done ; the second are Mestas de. 
concefo, which might and ought to be 
held sacred also ; the third are Fiedas 
de medio trab(0Oy half holidays, when 
work is permitted on condition of hav- 
ing first heard a mass ; the scholar 
may compare the ancient Dies Festi — 
et Profesti (see Macrob. Sat. i. 16 ; 
Virg. Georg. i. 268). M. Soult arrested 
all this prodigious and pious idhng : 
first, by sapping the religious principle 
of belief ; secondly, by knocking down 
the buildings, and seizing the fiinds by 
which thehoUday shows were supported^ 



Sect. II. 

Among the most interesting old 
churches which survive, the ecclesiolo- 
gist may still visit San Lorenzo : here is 
a "Concepcion" by F. Pacheco, 1624 ; 
an " Annunciation" by Pedro de Yille- 
gas Marmolejo, who lies buried here, 
with an epitaph vmtten by Arias Mon- 
tano. Here also is buried the prolific 
priest Juan Bustamente,ob. 1678, setat. 
125 ; this true Fad/re was father of 42 
legitimate and 9 natural children. In 
the Retahlo are 4 medallions and a San 
Lorenzo, by Montanes, by whom also is 
NueHro Senor de gran Poder^ a superb 
graven image. 

In the Colegioy or ancient university, 
de Maese Rodrigo, so called from the 
founder, Eodrigo Fernandez de San-, 
taella, 1505, are or were some injured 
pictures by Zurbaran. The portrait of 
the founder, by Zurbaran, has been en- 
tirely repainted by Bejarano. Readers 
of Cervantes should look at the Mar- 
morillos, mentioned in the Sinconete 
y Cortadillo* 

San Clemente contains a splendid 
alerce roof, and a plateresque high 
altar by Montanes, and a portrait of 
St. Ferdinand by Valdes,and 2 pictures 
of him by Pacheco : the AzuUfos are 
curious, and of the date 1588. Observe 
the grand and powerful St. John the 
Baptist, carved by Jaspar Nunez Del- 
gado, and painted by Pacheco. 

San Miguel is very ancient; the 
statue of the tutelar is either by Rol- 
dan or his daughter ; observe the pil- 
lars and capitals, and the Christ, by 
Montanes, bearing his cross ; it is one 
of his finest works, and is called SI 
Padre Jesus de la Pasion, It has an 
especial cofradia for its worship and 
custody. The pici;ures called "Ra- 
phael and Vandyke " are bad copies. 

The magnificent ch. of the convent 
of St. Pablo has been recently appro- 
priated to the parish : it contains 
paintings by Arteaga, and frescoes by 
Lucas Valdes, and some fine Pasos. 

In San Andres is a " Concepcion " 
by Montanes, with many small pic- 
tures by Villegas. 

In S(m Alberto is a Via Crucis, said 
to be by Cano, and several Pachecos } 

the glorious JRetahlo, by Roldan, was 
pulled down by the French and sold 
as wood for firmg, when Soult turned 
the ch. into a cartridge-manufactory. 

The tower of San Pedro is Moorish j 
observe the artesonado roof and the fine 
Retahlo : the pictiu^s by Campana 
have been repainted. The " Delivery 
of St. Pet^" is by Roelas. 

San Juan de la Palma was a Moor- 
ish mosque dedicated to the Baptist ; 
the Arabic inscription at the entrance 
records that "this great temple was 
rebuilt in 1080 by Axataf." The cross 
occupies the site of the palm, under 
which the dead were buried. One of 
the corpses, in 1537, hearing a rich 
Jew say that the mother of Ood was 
not a Virgin, rose from his grave and 
denounced him to the Inquisition, who 
burnt the sceptic and confiscated his 
property. Inside is a " Crucifixion" 
by Campana, early and hard, and an 
infant Christ by Montanes. 

In San Isidoro is " M Fransito,^* or 
the death of the tutelar saint, the 
masterpiece of Roelas, a very great 
master, although much less known 
and appreciated than he deserves: 
observe the gray heads, the Correg- 
giesque flesh tints, so much studied by 
JVIuriUo, and the admirable composi- 
tion. The lower portion is the finest, 
and the heads are evidently portraits. 
Here also are an indifferent *^ St. An- 
thony " and " St. Paul," by Campana, 
both repainted, and some pictures by 
Valdes : the SI Cireneo is carved by 
Bernardo Ghijon. 

In Santa Maria la Planca, a syna- 
gogue down to 1391, are some granite 
columns, thought to be Roman. Soult 
plundered it of the 5 Murillos, leaving 
only by him a " Last Supper," in his 
JHo style. Here is a " Dead Christ," 
by L. de Vargas ; very fine and Flo- 
rentine, but cruelly injured and neg- 

The Colegiata San Salnador con- 
tinued in its original mosque form 
down to 1669, when it was rebuilt in 
the worst Churriguerismo, and after- 
wards still more disfigured by Cayetano 
Acosta, by whom is the abominable 

Andalucia. route 7. — Seville — plaza del duque. 


Transfiguration; the image of San 
Cristobal is by Montanes, those of Sa. 
Bufina and Sa. Justa are by F. D. 
Comejo. The Fatio was the original 
Moorish court : here is a miraculous 
crucifix, JSl Crista de los Desamparor 
dos, where countless pictures and 
" votive tablets " are hung up by those 
relieved by its miracles, as in the days 
of Horace and TibuUus. The sick come 
here for cure, and suspend legs, arms, 
and models of the parts benefited, made 
of wax, which become the fee of the 
priest ; and from the number it would 
seem that he has more practice, and 
effects more cures, than the regular 
Sangrados ; but it must be remembered 
that those who are not cured but die, 
make no signs. 

Sam Vicente was founded in 300. 
Here, in 421, Gunderic, entering to 
plunder, was repulsed by fiends. Here 
San Isidoro died, a.d. 636 : the affect- 
ing account, by Bedenipto, an eye- 
witness, is printed in the i^sp, Sagr* 
ix. 402. Outside is painted the tutelar 
with his fanuliar crow holding a pitch? 
fork in his mouth: a rudder would 
have been more appropriate (see p. 
130). But these attendant birds are 
an old story — Juno had a cuckoo on 
her sceptre (Paus. ii. 17. 4), Jupiter 
preferred an eagle, Esculapius a cock. 
Inside is a painting of Christ by Mo- 
rales, and some large pictures by Fran- 
cisco de Varela. 

In San Julian is a fr^co of St. 
Christopher by Juan Semctis de Castro, 
1484 ; it was barbarously repainted in 
1828. Under some shutters to the L 
is a "Holy Family" by him, which 
has escaped better, and is one of the 
oldest paintings in Seville: the kneeling 
figure is one of the Tous Monsalvez 
family, who were buried here, and to 
whom the Virgin appeared on a broom- 
bush ; hence she is called de la Iniesta. 
Observe the Bey'as, made of votive 
chains of captives deUvered by her in- 
terference. Catenam ex voto Laribus 
— so the Phialeans offered their chains 
to their goddess (Paus. i. 68). There 
is a curious old folio on her legend. 
The ** Concepcion" at the altar is, some , 

say, by Cano. The plateresque Setahlo 
has a fine painting of Santa Lucia, the 
patroness of eyes (lux, light). In the 
church of this Santa Lucia, once a 
mosque, is a " Martyrdom of the Pa? 
troness," by Eoelas, and a sweet Con- 
ception, attributed to Cano. 

San JEsteban, once a Mosarabic 
church, contains specimens by Zur? 
baran, and a fine " Christ bearing the 
Cross," by Montanes. 

The tower of San Marcos may be 
ascended, as Cervantes often did, to see 
the house near it of his beloved Isabella. 

In San Martin is a "Descent from 
the Cross," ascribed to Cano; but it 
is a Roman painting, and inscribed 
"Jo, Guy. Homo. f. ano 1608;" ob- 
serve the chapel of Juan Sanchez Q-alr 
lego, bmlt in 1500, and repaired in 
1614. In the Metablo are some early 
paintings by Herrera el Viejo, 

The admirers of Boelas should visit 
La Academia, where is a "Concep- 
cion " by him equal to Guido. 

H".B. Several pictures by Roelas exist 
at Olivares, 4 L. N.W. of Seville, and 
a pleasant ride. He was canon of that 
church. There he painted, in 1624, a 
" Birth of Christ," now much injured ; 
an " Adoration," an " Annunciation," 
a "Marriage of the Virgin," the 
" Death of St. Joseph ;" but although 
his last, they are not his best works. 
Here he died, April 23, 1625. 

The Calle de la Siisrpe, the Bond? 
street of Seville, leads to the Plaza 
del Duque, where the great Dukes of 
Medina Sidonia had their palace. This 
central square i» planted, and forms 
the fashionable nocturnal promenade 
during the summer months, and which 
is truly southron and striking. It is a 
miniature Vauxhall, minus the price of 
admission or the lamps ; but the dusk 
is all the better for those who, like glow- 
worms, need no other light but their 
bright eyeSjwhich never sparkle brighter 
than by night, and it has not yet been 
settled whether the fair sex of Seville 
blushes or not in the dark : certain it 
is, that the moon, which cannot ripen 
grapes, here ripens love, and in these 
torrid climes the rays of the cold chaste 



Sect. II. 

orb of Dian are considered more dan- 
gerous than the tahardillo or coup de 
soleil ; " mcu quema la Luna, que el 
Sol" the moon sets more on fire than 
the sun, so propinquity is doubly ha- 
zardous, since the Spanish man is 
peculiarly combustible, Jire itself ac- 
cording to the proverb, and the woman 
being towy the smallest puff of the evil 
one creates an awful conflagration. 

*' El hombre etfuego^ la muger atopa, 
Viene el diatHo y sopla," 

Continuing from this pla^a, walk by 
the ch. of San Vicente to the Alameda 
Viejaf the ancient but liow deserted 
walk of Seville, The water of the foun- 
tain here, del Arzobispo, is excellent, 
and the best in Seville. Look at the 
Boman pillars and statues (see p. 172). 
Here reside the horse-dealers and 
jockeys, and cattle-dealing continually 
goes on. 

June is the great month for Veladas, 
vigils, and wakes, nocturnal obser- 
vances kept on the eve preceding the 
holy day : the chief is that on the 24th, 
St. John's day, and is celebrated on 
this old Alameda, and is proverbially 
merry : — 

** Lade San Juam en Sevilla 
Et alegre d nuiraviUa." 

This St. John's, our midsimimer eve, is 
or was devoutly dedicated to flirtation 
by both sexes, who go or ought to go out 
at daybreak to gather vorvain, eoger la 
verbena, which represents in Spain the 
magical fern-seed of our forefathers. 
Bonfires are lighted, in sign of rejoicings 
— ^like the hon-feu of our Q-uy Fauxes — 
over and through which the lower 
classes leap ; all this is the exact manner 
by which the ancients celebrated the 
entranoe of the sim into the summer 
solstice. The fires of Cybele were kin- 
dled at midnight. The jumping over 
them was not njerely a feat of activity, 
but of meritorious devotion (Ovid. 
Fast iv. 727) : 

" Certe ego transilii positas ter ordine 


This custom of passing through the 
fire of Baal or Moloch was expressly 
bidden in the year 680, at the 5th 

council of Constantinople, to which the 
younger classes of Sevillians are as 
scandalously inattentive as the Irish 
at their similar Baal-tinn^. But civi- 
lisation is sapping creeds and practices 
in Spain. 

To the left of the foimtain is a 
barrack of tattered invalids, which once 
was a convent of Jesuits, and when 
that order was suppre&ed was given 
up to the Inquisition. The edifice, ra- 
ther cheerful than forbidding, partakes 
more of the attraction of its first pro- 
prietors than of the horror of its second. 
Dismantled by the populace, it contains 
no record of its dungeons, and tor- 
ture-rooms ; but, &st hastening to 
ruin, is in all respects a fit abode for its 

Turning to the rt. is La Feria, where 
a fair is held every Thursday, which, 
all should visit ; it is the precise Soock 
e juma of Cairo ; the street leads to the 
Plaza de la Fncamacion — ^now the 
market place, to construct which the 
French pulled down a convent dedi- 
cated to the Incarnation. Here the 
naturalist will study the fish, flesh, 
fruits, and fowls ; the fish and game 
are excellent, as is also the pork, when 
fattened by the autumnal acorn, the< 
bellota. Instinct teaches these feree 
natursB to fatten themselves on the 
good things which a bountiful nature 
provides. Those meats which require 
artificial care, and the attention of man» 
are very far infoior. Observe the pur- 
chases made, the two-ounce "joints " 
of meat or carrion, for the poverty- 
stricken olla, parsimonious as in the 
time of Justin (xliv. 2). It must be 
remembered, that in this burning clime 
less animal food, which generates calo- 
ric, is necessary than in the cold north. 
Notwithstanding, the Spanish proverb 
considers the man who dines in Se- 
viQe as especially favoured by heaven, 
'^ A quien Dios quiere hien, en Sevilla 
le da de comer" few of our English 
readers will think so. 

In the Calle del Candilejo is a bust 
of Don Pedro, placed, it is said, in 
memorial of his having here stabbed a 
man. The JBey JugHciero quartered 




himself in effigy onlt/. His and Lord 
Byron's "jfriend," Don Juan, was a 
Sevillian majo, and a true hidalgo. 
The family name was Tenorio. He 
lived in a house now belonging to the 
nuns of San Leand/rOy in which there 
is Bome good carving, although the 
French did infinite mischief there. 
(For his real pedigree, see our paper in 
the *Quar. Rev.' cxvii. 82; consult 
also the Burlador de Sevilla or Convi- 
dado de Piedra, by Tirso de MoUna, 
with Ochoa's preface in the Tesoro 
del Teatro JEspanol. Paris, 1838; 
vol. iv. 74) ; the Tenorios had a chapel 
in the Franciscan convent, where the 
murdered Oomendador was buried, and 
to which Don Jua/n fled, when the 
monks killed him, and trumped up the 
story of his Devil-death: the chapel 
and the gtaiue were destroyed when 
the convent was burnt. 

Do not fail to look at the extraor- 
dinary Azulejo portal of Santa Paula, 
of the time of the Catholic kings ; the 
carvings in the chapel are by Cano. 
The EVench carried off all the pictures. 
Here are sepulchres of Juan, constable 
of Portugal, and Isabel his wife, the 

The foundling hospital, or I/a Cuna, 
the cradle, as it is called in Spain, is in 
the Calle de la Ouna ; a marble tablet is 
thus inscribed, near an aperture left for 
charitable donations : — " Quoniam pa- 
ter meus et mater mea deliquerunt 
me Dominus autem assumpsit" (Ps. 
xxvii. 10). A wicket door, el tomo, 
is pierced in the wall, which opens on 
being tapped, to receive the sinless 
children of sin, whom a nurse sits up 
at night to take in. This, formerly little 
better than a charnel-house, and where 
sinless childrenof sinandinnocentswere 
massacred (see * Gatherings,' p. 223), has 
been taken in charge by some benevolent 
ladies, assisted by Sisters of Charity, 
and, although the shadow of death 
still hovers over this so-called cradle 
of life, is better conducted : the inade- 
quate funds are much increased, a duty 
of a real being levied for its support on 
Gvetjfanega of com sold in the market. 

Seville is surroimded with seven 

suburbs ; the circuit of the Moorish 
walls, about a league, with its gates and 
towers, once numbering 166, contains 
many objects of first-rate interest. We 
shall commence going out from the 
Calle de lasAmuM, by the PuertaBeal, 
the Royal Ghkte, through which St. 
Ferdinand entered in triumph. It was 
called by the Moors Ooles, which the 
SeviUians, who run wild about Hercules, 
consider to be a corruption from that 
name : it is simply the gate of Ghtle9, a 
Moorish suburb (Conde, iii. 35). The 
present gate is built in the Roman style, 
and is disproportionate to the site. 
Emerging from a dip to the rt. is the 
Colegio de Merced, or San Laureano, 
which was pillaged and desecrated by 
Soult's troops, and made a prison for 
galley-Blaves by the Spaniards ; behind 
it are the ruins of the hoi^se of Fer- 
nando, son of the great Columbus. 
The suburb is called Las Sumeros, 
supposed to have been the site of the 
Roman naval arsenal. Here were the 
tunnels and Moorish dock-yard, and 
residence of fishermen, It is now 
tenanted by gipsies, the Zincali; Seville 
in their Romany is called XTlilla and 
Safacoro, and the Guadalquiver, Len 
Baro, or the Gh»at River. Zev^a is 
their darling city, where so much is 
congenial to their habits. Here always 
resides some old hag who will get up a 
Jkncion, or gipsy dance (see * Gather- 
ings,' p. 327). Herewillbe seen the dark- 
eyed callees — q^'os con granfuego y in' 
tendon — and their lovers, armed with 
ahears, para monrabar. Here lives the 
true blood, the errate, who abhor the 
rest of mankind, the husnS. Sorrow's 
accurate vocabulary is the key to the 
gitonesque heart, for according to him 
they have hearts and souls. As the 
existence of this work of the Gil Bias 
of gipsies is unknown to them, they 
will be disarmed when they find the 
stranger speaking their own tongue ; 
thus those who have a wish to see the 
fancy and majo life at Seville, which is 
much the fashion among maiiy of the 
yoimg nobles, will possess la cle du 
caveau, and singular advantages. Our 
younger Britons must be cautious, fc 




Sect. II. 

as Cervantes says, " These gipsies are 
I ut a good-for-nothing people, and only 
bom to pick and steal ;" they are " fish- 
hooks of purses," as Solorqano has it. 
The pretty gipsy lasses are popular; 
they traffic on sure wants ; they pro- 
phesy money to Spanish men, and hus- 
bands to Spanish women ; and in spite 
of their cheating words, a little will 
stick with listeners who readily believe 
what they vehemently wish. 

Turning to the rt., between the river 
banks and the walls, is the Patin de las 
Damas, a raised rampart and planted 
walk, made in 1773. The city on this 
side is much exposed to inundations. 
Opposite in its orange-groves is Mr. 
Pickman*s pottery — once the celebrated 
Cartuja convent ; beyond rise the towers 
of ItaUca and the purple hills of the 
Sierra Morena, 

Passing the gate of San Juan is La 
Sarqueta, or the ferry-boat. In the 
ChozaSy opposite, true ichthyophiles go, 
like herons on the bank, to eat the shad, 
Savalo, the Moorish Shebbel. Los Hue- 
vos and Savalo asado are the correct 
thing, but this rich fish is unwholesome 
in summer. Here also 1^1 Sollo, the 
sturgeon, is caught, one of which the 
cathedral chapter used to send totheroyal 
table, reservingthe many others for their 
own. The walls now turn to the rt. Half 
a mile outside is the once noble convent 
of St. Jerome, called, from its pleasant 
views. La Buena Fista. The fine church 
was used for the furnaces of a bottle 
manufactory ; that has bxurst since, and 
become bankrupt, but the smoke black- 
ening the sacred pile has left the mark 
of the beast ; it had previously been 
turned into a school, which also failed. 
The JPatio, in Doric and Ionic worthy 
of Herrera, was designed by two monks, 
Bartolome de Calzadilla and Felipe de 
Moron, in 1603. Observe the spacious 
red marble staircase, and the rich plas- 
ter pendentives to the ceilings in the 
first floor leading to the mirador. 
Here Axataf took his last feirewell of 
Seville, when St. Ferdinand entered. 
Betuming by gardens hedged with aloes 
and tall whispering canes, is San La- 
the Leper Hospital foimded in 

1284 : the term^a/o, leper, the Hebrew 
chaphaph, was one of the 5 actionable 
defamatory words of Spanish law. 
Observe the terra cotta ornaments on 
the Doric facade. The interior is 
miserable, as the funds of this true 
Lazar-house were either appropriated 
by the government or converted by the 
trustees chiefly to their own use. There 
are generally some twenty patients. 
Here will be seen cases of elephantiasis, 
the hideous swelled leg, a disease com- 
mon in Barbary and not rare in Anda- 
lucia, and which is extended by the 
charity-imploring patient in the way of 
the passenger, whose eye is startled and 
pained by what at first seems a huge 
cankered boa-constrictor. These hos- 
pitals were always placed outside the 
cities : thus for this purpose our St. 
James's Palace was built j so, among 
the Jews, " lepers were put out of the 
camp" (Numb. v. 2). The plague- 
stricken were compelled to dwell alone 
(Lev. xiii. 46). The word Lepero^ at 
Mexico, is equivalent to " beggar." He , 
is the LazzaroTte of Naples, that Para- 
dise of idlers. 

A Moorish causeway, raised in order 
to be a dam against inundations, leads 
to L/a MacarefM, the huge La Sangre 
Hospital rising to the rt. ; this is the 
suburb of the poor and ■ agricultural 
labourers. The tattered and parti- 
coloured denizens of all ages and sexes, 
the children often stark naked, vUus du 
climat as in Barbary, and like bronze 
Cupids, cluster outside their hovels in 
the sun. Their carts, implements, and 
animals are all pictures ; observe the 
primitive carts, true jplaustray netted 
with esparto, and the patient resigned 
oxen with lustrous eye, so scriptural 
and sculptural, and mark the flower* 
adorned frontales between the horns ; 
everything falls into a painter's group, 
a tableau vivant, and particularly as 
regards that Entomological Society 
which forms by far the most numerous 
and national of Spanish naturalists ; 
they pursue certain " small deer," caza 
menor, for which a regular battue is 
always going on in the thick preserves 
of the women's hair« Here Murillo 




came for subject and colour ; here are 
the rich yellows and browns in which 
he revelled ; here are beggars, imps, and 
urchins, squaJlid and squalling, who, 
with their parents, when simply tran- 

recently somewhat improved in that 
respect, and much boasted of here. 

Retiurning to the city walls, observe 
la Barhaca/nay the Barbican, Arabic^ 
Sab-el'canay the gate of the moat, or 

scribed by his faithful hand, seem to enclosure. The circumvallation all the 

walk out of the frames, for their life and 
reality carries every spectator away. 

Continuing the walk, turn 1. to the 
enormous Hospital de la Sangre, or de 
las dnco Llagas^ the 5 bleeding wounds 
of our Saviour, which are sculptured 
like bunches of grapes. Blood is an 
ominous name for this house of San- 
gradOf whose lancet, like the Spanish 
knife, gives little quarter j neither does 
this low quarter, exposed to inunda- 
tions and consequent fevers, seem well 
chosen as a site for a hospital. This 
edifice was erected in 1546 by Martin 
de Ghkinza and Heman Buiz. The in- 
tention of the foundress, OataUna de 
Bibera, was more perfect than the per- 
formance of her successors ; after her 
death the funds were misapplied, only 
a fourth -part of the plan was finished, 
and the building remains, and may re- 
main, unfinish^, although a pious 
person, nsasiediAnduezay has left legacies 
for the purpose. 

The S. and principal facade, 600 ft. 
long, presents a noble architectural 
appearance of the classical Ionic and 
Doric style. The portal is one of the 
good architectural bits in Seville. The 
interior Patio is striking; the hand- 
some chapel occupies the centre j on 
the front are sculptured medallions of 
Faith, Hope, and Charity, by Pedro 
Machuca ; the chapel is a Latin cross, 
with Ionic piUars ; the Metablo of the 
high altar was designed by Maeda in 
1600, and gilt by Alonso Vazquez, 
whose pictures in it have suffered from 
neglect and repainting. Observe the 
" Crucifixion," with the " Magdalen," 
and eight Virgins, by Zurbaran, of no 
great merit. Invalid pictures, at all 
events, were not restored in this hos- 
pital, as many were used as floor-cloths. 
The interior management of this 
hospital, now the principal one of 
Seville, is hardly yet a thing of which 
Medical Spain can be proud, although 

way to the gate of Osario — so called 
because leading to the Moorish burial- 
groimd — and admiralty preserved, is 
built of tapia, with square towers and 
battlements, or almenasj which girdle 
SeviQe with a lace-like fringe. Near 
the Cordova gate, and opposite the 
hermitage of San SiermenegildOf where 
Herrera el Viejo was imprisoned, is the 
Capuchin convent of Santas Jn^fij^a 
and JSttfinay built on the spot where 
the lions would not eat these ladies 
patronesses of Seville. The church 
was long adorned by the Murillos now 
in the Museo ; and rich was the treat 
in our day to see them all hanging as 
placed by the painter himself^ with the 
bearded Co'pttchinos for ciceronis, who 
might have sat for the original monks, 
and who looked as if they stepped from 
the fran^es, of pictures, which they 
thus realised. Near the Puerta del Sol, 
the most E. gate, are JLos Trinitarios 
JDescalzos, the site of the palace of Dio- 
genianus, where the above-mentioned 
Santas Justina and Bufina were put to 
death. This fine convent was pillaged 
and desecrated by Soult's troops. Pass- 
ing the long fantastic salitres^ the saltr 
petre manufactory, now abandoned and 
going to ruin, the scene becomes more 
Hvely at the gate of Garmona. To the 
1. is San Agustin^ once full of Murillos ; 
M. Soult, having carried oflF the best, 
gutted the convent, and destroyed the 
magnificent sepulchres of the Ponce de 
Leon family, and rifled the graves : 
the tombs were restored in 1818 by the 
Coimtess-Duchess of Osuna, and an 
indignsmt record placed of these out- 
rages against the dead. Next, this con- 
vent was made a den of thieves, a prison 
for galley-slaves, and is now become a 
matting manufactory, not worth in- 
specting. This side of Seville suffered 
somewhat from the bombardment in 
July, 1843. 

The long lines of the aqueduct, Lof 



Sect. II. 

Cauos de Carmona^ now run pictu- i 
resquely up to the Humilladero or Cruz 
del Catrvpo. It was to this spot in i 
April that all the world used to go, to i 
behold the Majos return from the Feria , 
de Mairena^ before it was shorn of its ' 
glory. The next gate is la Carney so 
called because leading to the shambles. 
To the 1. is the suburb San Bernardo, 
which must be visited ; the mounds of 
earth are composed of the collected 
heaps of Seville dust-holes ; a planted 
walk leads to the Fundiciony the low, 
large artiUery-fcundry erected by 
Charles III., who employed one Ma- 
ritz, a Swiss, to cast his cannon ; once 
one of the finest in Europe, now it is one 
of the very worst : power of motion is 
obtained by mules or rude maquiTuis de 
aan^re, engines of blood, not steam, and 
murderous is the waste of animal la- 
bour. Sonlt reorganised this establish- 
ment. Here wer^ cast, by a Catalan, 
those mortars, i, la Yilloatrois, with 
which Victor did not take Cadiz, while 
one of them was taken and now orna- 
ments St. James's Park. Soult, before 
he fled, ordered as a parting legacy the 
foundry to be blown up, but the mine 
accidentally failed, llie furnaces were 
then filled with iron, and with those 
cannon which he could not remove ; 
but the amalgamated masses were sub- 
sequently got out by the Spaniards, 
and remain as evidence of his culinary 
talents. The relic is called la torta 
Fra/ncesa, or French omelette ; a flint 
was also plac^ in the wheel of a pow- 
der-miU, which, when set in motion, 
struck against a steel; and by this 
cowardly contrivance, Colonel Duncan 
and other men were blown to atoms. 
(Condor's * Spain,* ii. 14.) The splen- 
did cinque-cento artillery, cast in Italy 
at a time when form and grace were 
breathed even over instruments of 
death, were " removed " by Angoul^me 
in 1828. The Bourbon was the ally of 
Ferdinand VII, ; Soult was, at least, 
his enemy f 

In this suburb was the celebrated 

Forta Celt (CobU), founded in 1450; 

here was printed the Bula de Cruzada, 

i*«» called because granted by Innocent 

III., to keep the Spanish crusaders in 
fighting condition, by letting them eat 
meat rations in Lent whenthey could 
get them. This, the bull, la JBula, is 
announced with grand ceremony every 
January, when a new one is taken out, 
like a game certificate, by all who wish 
to sport with flesh and fowl with a safe 
conscience ; and by the paternal kind- 
ness of the Pope, instead of paying 
3Z. Ids. 6d., for the small sum oidos 
realesy 6e2., a man, woman, or child 
may obtain this benefit of clergy and 
cookery : but woe awaits the uncertifi- 
cated poacher — ^treadmills for life are 
a fSarce — ^perdition catches his soul, the 
last sacraments are denied to him on 
his deathbed ; the first question asked 
by the priest is not if he repents of his 
sins, but whether he has his bida ; and 
in all notices of indulgences, &c., 8e ha 
de tener la hula is appended. The bull 
acts on all fleshly, but sinful comforts, 
Uke soda on indigestion : it neutralizes 
everything except heresy. The contract 
in 1846 was for 10,000 reams of paper 
to print them on at Toledo, and the sale 
produced about 200,000^. ; the breaking 
one fiEMt during Lent used to inspire 
more horror than breaking any two 
commandments ; it is said that Span- 
iards now fa»t lessr— but still the 
staunch and starving are disgusted at 
Protestant appetites in eating meat 
breakfasts during Lent. It sometimes 
disarms them by saying "Tengo mi 
hula para todo." M. Soult robbed 
the till, burnt the printing-presses, and 
converted everythmg into a ruin (see 
* Ghitherings,*p. 243, and * Compendio de 
las tres Gracias de la Santa Cruzada, 
Fr°. Alonso Perez de Lara, Mad. 1610). 
The Farroquia de San Bernardo 
contains a superb " Last Judgment," 
by the dashing Herrera el Viejo ; a 
"Last Supper," in the Sacristia, by 
Varela, 1622; and a statue of the 
" Tutelar," by Montaues, and others by 
Koldan. Here also is the matadero, 
the slaughter-house, and close by Fer- 
dinand VII. founded his tauromachian 
imiversity. These localities are fre- 
quented by the Seville fancy, whose 
&vourite and classical dishes of a bot\ 




of tripe, caUos y mewudos^ are here eaten 
in perfection. See Pliny, * N. H.,' viii. 
51, as to the merits of the Callum. 
N.B. Drink manzanilla wine with these 
peppery condiments ; they are highly 
proYocatiye, and, like hunger, la Salaa 
de San Bernardo, are appropriately 
cooked in the parish of this tuteleu* 
of Spanish appetite. The sunny flats 
under the old Moorish walls, which 
extend between the gates of Ca,rmona 
and La Came, are the haunts of idlers, 
Barateros, and gamesters. The lower 
classes of Spaniards are constantly 
gambling at cards : groups are to be 
seen playing all day long for wine, 
love, or coppers, in the sun, or under 
their vine-trellisesj capital groupings 
uid studies for artists. There is gene- 
rally some welloknown cock of the walk, 
a bully, or ffuapo, who will come up and 
lay his hand on the cards, and say, ** No 
one shall play here but with mine" — 
aqui no se juega tino con mis barajas. 
If the gamblers are cowed, they giye 
him dos cuartos, a halfpenny each. If, 
however, one of the challenged be a 
spirited fellow, he defies him. Aqui 
no se cobra el barato aino con un punal 
de Albacete — " You get no change here 
except out of an Albacete knife," If 
the aefiance be accepted, vamos alia is 
the answer — " Let's go to it." There is 
an end then of the cards : all flock to the 
more interesting ecartS, Instances have 
occurred, where Greek meets Greek, of 
their tying the two advanced feet tor 
gether, and yet remaining fencing with 
knife and cloak for a quarter of an 
hour before the blow be dealt. The 
knife is held firmly, the thumb is 
pressed straight on the blade, and cal- 
culated either for the cut or thrust, 
to chip bread and kill men. 

The term Barato strictly means the 
present which is given to waiters who 
bring a new pack of cards. The origin 
is Arabic, Baara, " a voluntary gift ;" 
in the corruption of the Baratero, it 
has become an involuntary one ; now 
the term resembles the Greek fia^a^^ag, 
homo perditus, whence the Boman 
Balatrones, the miners of markets, 
Barathrumque MacelU; our legal term 

Barratry is derived from the medieval 
Barrateria, which Ducange very pro- 
perly interprets as " cheating, foul 
play." Sancho*s sham government was 
oiBarateria; Baratar, in old Spanish, 
meant to exchange unfairly, to thimble- 
rig, to sell anything under its real 
value, whence the epithet barato, cheap. 
The Baratero is quite a thing of Spain, 
where personal prowess is cherished. 
There is a Baratero in every raiment, 
ship, prison, and even among galley- 
slaves. For the Spanish knife, its use 
and abuse, see A^acete. 

The open space beyond the Came, 
and caU^ el lUstro, presents a no less 
national scene ou the Sabado Santo, 
which may be considered a holiday 
equivalent to our Easter Monday. 
There and then the Paschal lambs are 
sold, or cofderos de Bascua, as Easter 
is termed in Spanish. The bleating 
animals are confined in pens of netted 
rope- work ; on every side the work of 
slaughter is going on ; gipsies erect 
temporary shambles on this occasion ; 
groups of children are everywhere 
leading away pet lambs, which are de- 
corated with ribbons and flowers. The 
amateur will see in them and in their 
attitudes the Uving originals from which 
Murillo faithfully copied his St. Johns 
and the infemt Saviour, el divino Pastor, 
This buying and selling continues from 
the Saturday until the end of Monday. 

The huge mounds of rubbish oppo- 
site are composed of the accumulated 
dungholes of Seville, and under them 
are buried those who have died of 
plagues, which these Immondezzaios are 
enough to render endemic ; they were 
allowed to accumulate, while the clergy 
managed to suppress theatres to pre- 
vent recurrence of plague, a punishment 
from heaven. 

Returning to the walls are the ca- 
valry barracks, in which men, horses, and 
saddles are occasionally wanting. Now 
the Alcazar towers above the battle- 
mented girdle of walls to the rt. The 
classical gate, San Fernando, was built 
in 1760 ; here it was that the Virgin 
miraeulously introduced St. Ferdinand 
into Seyille during the siege. 



To the L is the Fabrica de Tabacos, 
where tobacco is made into snuff and 
cigars. The edifice has 28 interior 
patios, and the enormous space covers 
a quadrangle of 662 feet by 524. It 
was finished in yile taste in 1757 affcer 
plans of one Yandembeer, a fantastic 
Dutchman. It is guarded by a moat, 
not destined to prevent men getting in, 
but cigars being smuggled out. This 
national manufactory may be said to 
be the only genuine and flourishing one 
in Spain : it was fortified in 1836 
against the Carhsts, but the fyhting 
ended in smoke. 

There are sometimes as many as 4000 
persons employed in making cigars, 
and principally female : on an average 
2 millions of pounds are made in a year. 
A good workw6man can do in a day 
from ten to twelve bundles, atados, each 
of which contains 50 cigars ; but their 
tongues are busier than their fingers, 
and more mischief is made than cigars. 
Pew of them are good-looking, yet 
these cigarreras are among the lions of 
Seville, and, like the grisettes of Paris, 
form a class of themselves. They are 
reputed to be more impertinent than 
chaste : they used to wear a particular 
mantilla de tira, which was always 
crossed over the face and bosom, allow- 
ing the upper part only of most roguish- 
looking features to peep out. In the 
under-floor a fine rappee snuff is made, 
called tahaco de fraile : it is coloured 
with red ahna^ra, an earth brought 
from the neighbourhood of Cartagena. 
These "pungent grains of titillating 
dust " closely resemble the fia-vourite 
mixture of the Moors, and one comes 
out powdered as with rhubarb, and 
sneezing lustily. The use of tobacco, 
now so universal among aU classes in 
Spain, was formerly confined to this 
snuff, the sole solace of a celibate 
clergy. The Due de St. Simon (xix. 
125) mentions, in 1721, that the Conde 

although a mania rages in Spain just 
now, of encouraging native talent, and 
Spaniards are striving to do badly and 
dearly what elsewhere can be done 
better and cheaper. Essentially agri- 
cultural, and makers of nothing well 
except paper cigars, with mistaken in- 
dustry they neutralize the gifts of 
Providence, and neglect their soil, 
which produces ea^ and excellent raw 
produce, to force cotton-spinning, iron 
founderies, manufactories, &c. Thus the 
tall British chimney rises on the ruins 
of the Castilian convent belfry. The iron 
and engine work, of Senorknaplate, 
in the suppressed San Antonio, beat 
Birmingham in the eyes of the Boeti- 
cans ; but when it is added that there 
is no bank at Seville, the Manchester 
school will understand the petty, pal- 
tiy, passive retail commerce of this 
marvel city of Spain. 

On the flat plain outside the walls, 
called El Prado de San Sebastia»y was 
the Q^efnaderOf or the burning-place 
of the Inquisition, where the last act of 
the religious tragedy of the auto defe 
was left, with the odium, to be per- 
formed by the civil power. The spot 
of fire is marked by the foundations of 
a square platform on which the faggots 
were piled. Here, about 1781, a heata, 
or female saint, was burnt, for taking 
upon herself the hen and heretical office 
of hatching eggs. Townsend, however, 
(ii. 342), says that she was very be- 
witching, and had a successful mono- 
mania for seducing clergymen. 

Elderly Spaniards are still very shy 
of talking about the Quemadero ; sons 
of burnt fathers, they dread the fire. 
Con el Rey y la InqvisuAon^ chiton ! 
chiton! Hush! hush! say they, with 
finger on lip, hke the image of Silence, 
with King and Inquisition. As the 
heavy swell of the Atlantic remains 
aft«r the hurricane is past, so distrust 
and scared apprehension form part of 

de Lemos passed his time in amoking the uncommunicative Spaniard in 

to dissipate his grief for having joined 

the party of the Archduke Charles — 

" chose fort extraordinaire en Espagne^ 

■*-^ <m ne prend du tabac que par lenez." 

is at least a national Faibrica, 

deaUng with Spaniard. "How silent 
you are," said the Empress of Russia to 
Euler. " Madam," repUed he, " I have 
lived in a country where men who 
speak are hanged. The burnings of 




tonid Spain would have better suited 
the temperature of chilly Siberia. 

The effects are, howeyer, the same, 
and this engine of mystery hung oyer 
the nation like the sword of Damocles ; 
inyisible spies, more terrible than 
armed men, omnipresent, omniscient, 
omnipotent, aimed at eyery attribute 
of the Almighty, saye his justice and 
mercy. It arrested the circulation of 
life, and man's heart trembled to hear 
the sounds of his own beating. It 
brooded like a nightmare on the body 
and breath of the nation ; hence their 
dwarfed literature, and unsocial isola- 
tion. The dread of the Inquisition, 
from whence no secrets were hid, locked 
up the Spanish heart, soured the sweet 
charities of life, preyented frank and 
social communication, which relieyes 
and improyes. Hospitality became 
dangerous, when confidence might 
open the mind, and wine giye utter- 
ance to long-hidden thought. Such 
was the fear-engendered silence under 
Koman tyranny, as described by Tacitus 
(Agr. ii.) : " Adempto per inquisiiiones 
et loquendi et audiendi commercio, 
memoriam quoque ipsam cum yoce 
perdidissemus; si tam m nostr& potes- 
tate esset obliyisci quam tacere." 

It is as well, the^ore, here as else- 
where, to ayoid jesting or criticism on 
this matter ; Con el ojo y la fey nunca 
me burlarS. Spaniards, who, like Mos- 
lems, allow themselyes a wide latitude 
in laughing at their priests, are yery 
touchy on eyery subject connected with 
their creed ; howeyer enlightened now- 
a-days, it is a remnant of the loathing 
of heresy and their dread of a tribunal 
which they think sleepeth, but is not 
dead, scotched rather than killed. In 
the changes and chances of Spain it 
may be re-established, and, as it neyer 
forgets or forgiyes, it will surely re- 
yenge, and the spirit of the Inquisition 
is still aliye, for no king, cortes, or 
constitution eyer permits in Spain any 
approach to any religious toleration. 

The Inquisition, a tribunal of bad 
faith, bigotry, confiscation, blood, and 
fire, was initiated by St. Dominick, 
who learnt his trade under Simon de 

Montfort, the exterminator of the Pro- 
testant Albigenses. It was remodeled 
on Moorish principles, the garrote and 
furnace being borrowed from the bow- 
string and fire of the Moslem, who 
burnt the bodies of the infidels to pre- 
yent the aslies from becoming relics 
(Beinaud, * Iny. des Sarasins,' 145). 

Spanish cities haye contended for 
the honour of which was the first seat 
of this holy tribunal, once the great 
glory and boast of Spain, and else- 
where her foul disgrace. This, says 
Mariana (xxy. 1), was the secret of 
her inyincible greatness, since " the 
instant the holy office acquired its due 
power and authority, a new light shone 
oyer the land, and, by diyine fayour, 
the forces of Spain became sufficient to 
eradicate and beat down the Moor." 

Seville was the first and the head- 
quarters of these bright fires. The 
great claim put forth in 1627 for the 
beatification of St. Ferdinand was, that 
he had carried faggots himself to bum 
heretics. But the spirit of the age was 
then fanatically ferocious. Thus Philip 
le Bel, his cousin, and son of St. Louis, 
tortured and burnt the Templars 
by a slow fire near his royal garden ; 
and our Heniy's writ de heretico 
comburendo, and approyed of by Coke 
(iii. Inst. 5) pro salute aninue — out of 
regard for the soul of the burnt man — 
was only abolished by Charles II. The 
holy tribunal was first fixedly estab- 
lished at Seyille in 1481, by Sixtus lY., 
at the petition of Ferdinand, who used 
it as an engine of finance, police, and' 
reyenge. He assigned to it the Domi- 
nican conyent of St. Paul, and when 
that was found too small for the num- 
ber of its inmates, gaye it the citadel of 
Triana. " This tribunal, judge, jury, and 
executioner of its yictim, was too truly 
a thing of Spainnot to root and flourish 
in a congenial soil. Lay pride allied 
itself to 8uch a religion, the grandees 
held office both from bigotry, loye of 
new titles, and self security, by becom- 
ing members of the dreaded system. 
Tomas de Torquemada was the first 
high-priest who carried out, to use 
Bossuet's mild phrase, " the holy so- 



Sect. II. 

verity of the church of Borne which 
will not tolerate error." According 
to the hest authorities, from 1481 to 
1808, the Holy Tribunal of Spain 
burnt 34,612 persons alive, 18,048 
in efiSgy, and imprisoned 288,109 — 
but these vast numbers are questionable 
— the goods and chattels of every one 
of them being first duly confiscated. 
In addition to these victims it entailed 
to poor, uncommercial, indolent Spain, 
the expulsion of her wealthy Jews, and 
her most industrious agriculturists, the 
Moors. The dangerous engine, when 
the supply of victims was exhausted, 
recoiled on the nation, and fitted it for 
that yoke, heavy and grievous, under 
which for three centuries it has done 
penance ; the works of Llorente have 
fully revealed the secrets of priestcraft 
in power. The best account of .an 
Auto de Fe ia the official report of Jos^ 
del Olmo, 4to., published at Madrid in 

Near the Quemadero is San Diego, a 
suppressed Jesuit convent, and given 
in 1784 to Mr. "Wetherell, who was 
tempted by Spanish promises to ex- 
change the climate of Snow Hill, Hol- 
bom, for torrid Andalucia. Towns- 
hend (ii. 325) gives the details. This 
intelligent gentleman, having been the 
first to establish a tannery with steam- 
machinery in Spain, was ruined by the 
bad fedth of the government, which 
&iled in both payments and promises. 
The property has now passed by a 
Spanish trick into other hands, the 
court of appeal having been induced to 
allow a false deed, or JSscriiura, Mr. 
"Wetherell lies buried in his garden, 
surroimded by those of his countrymen 
who have died in Seville : requiescant 
in pace ! The scene of a coimtryman's 
grave cut ofi* in a foreign land is affect? 
ing, and doubly so to those who have 
left here a branch of themselves ; pu|l 
out, therefore, the nettle which has no 
business to grow here. — R. F, 

On the other side of the plain was the 
great city cemetery of San SehasUan, 
now moved N. not to offend the In- 
fanta who hved near it. Into this Bo- 

•nist Necropolis no heretic, if dead, 

is allowed to enter; nay, the ortho- 
dox canons of the cathedral have a 
separate quarter from the laity. Bu- 
rial out of towns — a hygienic neces- 
sity — was vehemently opposed by the 
Spanish clergy, who lost their fees, and 
assured their flocks that those int€rred 
out of their parish churchyard, would 
risk the neither leetmg in thei/graTea, 
nor rising at the resurrection. The cata- 
comb system is here adopted : a niche 
is granted for 80 reals for 6 or 7 years, 
and the term can be renewed {proroga' 
do) by a new payment. A large grave 
or ditch is opened every day, into 
which the bodies of the poor are cast 
like dogs, after being often first stripped 
by the sextons even of their rags. 

This cemetery should be visited on 
the last night of October, or All Hal- 
lowe'en, and the vigil of All Saints' 
day ; and again on Nov. 2, the day of 
All Souls, when all the town repairs 
there. It is rather a fashionable pro- 
menade than a reUgious performance. 
The spot is crowded with beggars, who 
appeal to the tender recoDections of 
one's deceased relations and friends. 
Outside, a busy sale of nuts, sweet- 
meats, and cakes take? place, and a crowd 
of horses, carriages, and noisy children, 
all vitality and mirth, which must vex 
the repose of the blessed souls even 
in purgatory (see 'Gatherings,* p. 250). 

Betuming from San SehctsUan to 
Seville, the change from death at the 
Puerta de Xerez is striking : here all 
is life and flower,. This quarter, once 
the dunghill of the city, was converted 
into a Paradise by Jose Manuel Ar- 
jona, in 1830, This, the last Asistente 
of Seville — ultimus Bomanorum — ^was 
its Augustus r to him are owing almost 
all of the many modem improvements, 
paving, lighting, cleansing, &c. The' 
principal walk was laid out by him in 
honour of Christina, then the young 
bride of Eerdinaud VII. El Salon 
is a raised central saloon, with stone 
seats around. In the afternoon and 
evening all the "rank and fiashion" 
assemble to promenade here. Beyond, 
along the bank of the river, are JLag 
DeliciaSf a charming ride and walk. 




Here is the botanical garden, and truly 
delicious are these nocturnal strolls. 
Night in the south is beautiful of itself. 
The sun of fire is set, and a balmy 
breeze fans the scorched cheek : now 
the city "which sleeps by day awakes to 
life and Iotc, and bright eyes sparkle 
brighter than the stars. The semi- 
obscure, not too dark for them, hides 
poverty and decay, and pleasant it is 
to listen to the distant hum of the 
guitar, and think that a whole town is 

At the land side of the walk is a 
huge pile of churrigueresque, long the 
nautical college of San Tebno, the pa- 
tron of Spanish sailors, who, when the 
storm is going to be over, appears at 
the mast-head with a lambent flame. 
It was founded by Fernando, son of 
Columbus, and built in 1682, by Anto- 
nio Erodriguez. Here the middies were 
taught navigation in a room, &om a 
small model of a three-decker. When 
the nautical college was removed to 
Cadiz, as somewhett a sinecure, the 
Spanish fleet being a myth, the Duke 
of Montpensier and the Infanta bought 
the building, and have very much im- 
proved it, inside and outside. 

The Ptterta de Xerez^ said to be built 
by Hercules {Hercules meedifico, p. 169) , 
was at all events rebuilt by the infidel. 
Now the a^rroyo Taga/rete reappears. 
This rivulet, or rather Fleet-ditch, 
winds round the E. and W, sides of 
Seville, and here empties itself and its 
impurities into the GhMtdalquivir, The 
filthy contents of this open sewer de- 
composing under the sun breed fever 
and unhealthiness. Any real board of 
health would order it instantly to be 
covered over. The Moorish walls 
which hang over this stinking Styx 
once were painted in fresco. Up to 
1821 they connected the Alcazar with 
the outpost river-guarding tower, called 
La torre del Oro, " of gold," to dis- 
tinguish it from La Torre de Plata, 
that " of silver," which lies nearer the 
mint. These fine names are scarcely 
sterling, both being built of Moorish 
tapia. The former one, most absurdly 
ascribed to Julius Ceesar, was raised 

by the Almohades, who called it 
Borju d-dahdby " the tower of gold,'* 
because their treasure was kept in it; 
now it is only gilded by sunsets. It 
was used by Don Pedro el Cruel, as a 
prison for his enemies and his mis- 
tresses. The Spaniards have built a 
sentry-box on the top of this Moorish 
tower, where their red and yellow flag 
occasionally is hoisted. 

Passing on is the Aduana or Custom- 
house, a hotbed of queer dealings, which 
lies between the Postigos de Ca/rhon and 
del Aoeite: inside are some pretty 
Prout-like old houses for the artist. 

Close by are " the Atarazanaa," the 
Dar»san*-ah, or house of construction 
of the Moors, whence the G«noa term 
darsena, and our word arsenal. The 
present establishment was founded by 
Alonso el Sabio, and his Grotho-Latin 
inscription still remains imbedded in 
the wall near the Caridad hospital. 
Observe the blue azule/os, said to be 
from designs by Murillo, who painted 
the glorious pictures for the interior 
(see p. 190), This modem arsenal, 
which generally is miserably provided, 
is never worth inspection : it is not 
better provided with instruments for 
inflicting death than the wards of 
La Sangre are with those for preserving 
life. Misgoverned, ill-fated Spain, 
which, in her saUtrose table-lands, has 
" villainous saltpetre " enough to blow 
up the world, and copper enough at 
Eio Tinto and at Berja to sheathe the 
Pyrenees, is of all countries the worst 
provided in ammunition and artillery, 
whether it be a batterie de cuisine or 
de citadel. 

Adjoining the arsenal is the quarter 
of the dealers of bacalao or salted cod- 
fish. "You may nose them in the 
lobby." This wkicle long formed a 
most important item in national food. 
The numerous religious corporations, 
and fast-days, necessarily required this, 
for fresh-water fish is rare, and sea- 
fish almost unknown, in the great cen- 
tral parameras of the Peninsula. The 
shrivelled dried-up cod-fish is easily 
conveyed on muleback into uncarriage- 
able recesses. It is much consumed, 



Sect. II. 

mixed with rice, still all along the 
tierra caliente, or warm zone of Spain, 
Alicante being the port lor the S. E., 
as Seville is for the S. portions : ex- 
posed to the scorching sun, this salt- 
fish is anything but sweet, and our 
readers when on a journey are "cau- 
tioned not to eat it, as it only creates 
an insatiable thirst, to say nothing of 
the unavailing remorse of a non-digest- 
ing stomach. Leave it therefore to 
the dura ilia and potent solvents of 
muleteer gastric juices. At all events 
it ought to be put many hours al 
remqjoy to soak in water, which takes 
out the salt and doftens it. The Car- 
thaginians and ancients knew this so 
well that the first praise of a good cook 
was Scit muriatica ut maceret (Plant. 
*Poen.*i. 2, 39). 

In this piscatose comer of Seville, 
poverty delights to feed on the Ori- 
ental cold cried fish, and especially 
slices of large flounders, whiting, and 
small bits of bacalao fried in yolk of 
eggs, called familiarly Soldaos de 
Favia, because yellow was the imiform 
of that regiment, and possibly in re- 
membrance of the deficient commis- 
sariat of the victors of that day. The 
lower classes are great fish-eaters : to 
this the fasts of their church and their 
poverty conduce. They seldom boil 
it, except in oil. Their principle is, 
when the fish has once left its native 
element, it ought never to touch it 
again. Here, as in the East, cold 
broiled fish is almost equivalent to meat 
(St. Luke, xxiv. 42). 

Next observe the heraldic gate, del 
Arenal, of the Strand, and a sort of 
Temple Bar; the contiguous streets 
have long been inhabited by denizens 
of indifferent reputation; here the 
rogue of a Ventero in Don Quixote was 
educated; here Cervantes placed the 
school of Monopodio, who in his Bin- 
conete y CortadiUo, " Hole-and-corner 
man and cut-purse," gave the idea 
of Fagin and "artful dodger" to 
Dickens; but nothing is new under 
the sun, not even thimble-rigging, 
^l^ri^o^a^a. The Open space in tront 
^^ caUed la Carreteria^ because here 

carts and carters resort ; and also 
el BaratiUoi^ the "little chepe," from 
being a rag-fair, and place for the sale 
of marine stores or stolen goods. 
Accordingly, the new public prison is 
not iU placed here, on the site of the 
old convent, del Pojmlo, Near this is 
the Plaza de Toros, which is a fine 
amphitheatre, and w^ hold more than 
12,000 spectators, although injured by 
a hurricane in 1805 and unrepaired, 
especially on the cathedral side, which 
at least lets in the Giralda and com- 
pletes the picture, when the setting 
sunrays gild the Moorish tower as 
the last bull dies, and the populace — 
fex nondum lassata — unwillingly retire. 
This Plaza is under the superintendence 
of the Maestranza of Seville. This 
equestrian society of the highest rank 
was formed in 1526, to encourage tour- 
naments and the spirit of chivalry 
then wearing out ; now the chief end 
is the wearing a scarlet uniform. 

Tauromachian travellers will remem- 
ber the day before the fight to ride out 
to Tablada to see the gaOadOy or what 
cattle the bulls are, and go early the 
next day to witness the encierro; be 
sure also at the show to secure a boletiw 
de somhra in a balcon depiedra, i. e. 
a good seat in the shade. 

Leaving the Plaza, we now approach 
el Rio, the Biver Strand, where a petty 
traffic id carried on of fruit, mattings, 
and goods brought up in barges; so 
much for the scanty commerce of a 
city thus described four centuries ago 
by our pilgrim (Purchas, ii. 1232) : — 

-" Civyle ! graand ! that is so fre, 

A paradise it is to behold, 
The frutez vines and spiceiy thee I have told 
Upon the haven all manner of merchandise, 
And karekes and schippes of all device." 

Here the hungry tide-waiters look out 
for bribes, and an official post-captain 
pompously announces the arrival of a 
stray smack. A rude boat-bridge here 
for ages stemmed the Guadalquivir, 
and was at once inconvenient in pas- 
sage and expensive in repair : formerly 
it was a ferry, until Yusuf abu Yacub 
first threw across some barges Oct. 11, 
1171, by which the city was provi- 




sioned from the fertile Ajarafe; the 
destruction of this communication by 
St. Ferdinand led to the enrrender of 
Seville. This bridge of boats has been 
for ages a source of profit to the com- 
missioners, who have recdved funds 
sufficient to have built one of marble : 
a suspension bridge has since been 
erected, and was inaugurated in June, 
1852, and blessed by the priests. The 
people at first were a&aid to cross the 
heretical bridge — ^a pttenie del DiciblOy 
or del IngleSy although the first stone 
was sanctified by the Dean. 

Next observe el Triunfo, a monu- 
ment common in Spaaish towns, and 
raised in honour of the triumph ob- 
tained by the advocates of the Imma- 
culate Conception; a statue of the 
Virgin and local tutelars are usually 
placed on the erection ; the Doric gate 
which here leads into the town is 
called la JPuerta de IHana, because 
facing that suburb : it was erected in 
1588, and is attributed to Herrera. 
The upper story was used as a state 
prison — a Newgate : here the Conde 
del Aguila, the MsDcenas of Seville, 
was murdered by the patriots, urged 
on by the Catiline Tilli (see Schep. i. 
269, and Doblado's Letters, p. 439). 
The plain beyond was formerly el 
PemeOi or the pig-market ; during the 
cholera, in 1833, the unclean animals 
were removed to the meadows of the 
virgin patronesses Justa and Bufina, 
behind San Agustin, and the space 
made into an esplanade : now re-enter- 
ing by the Puerta Seal^ the circuit is 

Of course the traveller wiU ride out 
8ome day to Alcald de Ghnadavra (see 
p. 159). 

A smaller and home circuit should 
also be made on the rt. bank of the 
Guadalquivir, crossing over to the 
suburb Triana, the Moorish Taray- 
anah, a name supposed to be a cor^ 
ruption from Trajami, Trajan having 
been bom near it, at Italica. It is the 
Transtevere of Seville, and the favourite 
residence of gipsies, buU-fighters, smug- 
glers, robbers, and other picturesque 
rascals; hence it is much frequented 

by the dficiony by fancy men and Majos, 
who love low company : this is the 
place to behold a funcion de gitanos, 
got up in all the glory of Gaditanian 
dancing, jaleos y aranasy un Jestejo de 
genie buena con muchissimo mostagan. 
To the rt., on crossing the bridge, 
are some remains of the once formi- 
dable Moorish castle, Which was made 
the first residence of the Inquisition, 
the cradle of that fourth Fury. The 
Guadalquivir, which blushed at the 
fires and curdled with the bloodshed. 


almost swept away this edifice in 1626, 
as if indignant at the crimes committed 
on its bank. The tribunal was then 
moved to the CaUe San MarcoSy and 
afterwards to the Alameda Vieja. The 
ruined castle was afterwards taken 
down, and the site converted into the 
present market. 

The parish church, Santa Anna, was 
built by Alonso el Sabio, in 1276 : the 
image of the " Mother of the Virgin," 
in- the high altar, is a Virgen aparecida, 
or a divinely revealed paJladium, and 
is brought out in pubUc calamities, but 
as a matter of etiquette it never crosses 
the bridge, which would be going out 
of its parochial jurisdiction : in the 
Trascoro is a curious Virgin, painted 
and signed by Alejo Fernandez ; in the 
plateresque Setablo are many fine 
Campanas, especially a " St. George," 
which has much of a Giorgione. The 
statues and bas-reliefs are by Pedro 
Delgado. Visit the church Nvsstra 
Setlora del O ; many females are here 
christened with tlus vowel. Great 
quantities of coarse azulefo and loza, 
earthenware, are still made here as in 
the days of Santas Justa and Eufina. 
The naranfales, or orange-gardens, are 
worth notice. The principal street is 
called de Costilla : here the soap- 
makers lived, whence our term CastUe 
soap. (?) There is a local history, ^^Apa- 
rato d€ Triana" Justino Matute, Se- 
viUa, 1818. 

To the rt., a short walk outside Tri- 
ana, and on the bank of the river, is the 
Cartuja Convent, dedicated to Nuestra 
Seiiora de laa Ottevas, and begun in 
1400 by Arch. B. Mena ; the funds left 



Sect. IL 

by him were seized by the G-ovemment, 
always needy and always unprincipled. 
Finished by Pier Afiui de Ribera, it 
became a museum of piety, painting, 
sculpture, and architecture, imtil el 
tiempo de los Franceses, when, accord- 
ing to Laborde, iii. 263, " Le Ml. Soult 
en fit une exceUewte citadelle, dont 
TEghse devint le magasin ; la Biblio- 
th^ue ne valoit rien ; eUe a servi pour 
fiaire des gargousses " (cartridges) ; un- 
like our Essex at Cadiz in 1596, who 
ordered the fine Osario library to be pre- 
served, and gave it to Sodley,and many 
of the books are still preserved at Oxford; 
the silver full-length saints, San Bruno, 
&c., were melted by Soult into francs. 
Sequestered latterly, and sold, the con- 
vent has been turned into a pottery by 
Mr. Pickman, a worthy Englishman, 
who, not making the chapel his maga- 
zine, has preserved it for holy purposes. 
Now the drones are expelled, the block 
of the convent is the hive of busy ce- 
ramic bees, originally swarmed in Eng- 
land. Mr. Pickman, a foreigner, warned 
by Mr. Weth»all's fate, took into part- 
nership certain natives. Observe the 
fine rose window in the facade, and the 
stones recording the heights of firequent 
inundations ; inquire in the garden for 
the old burial-ground, where foreigners 
now rest, and the G-othic inscription of 
the age of Hermenegildo. N.B. Its 
oranges are dehcious. 

Following the banks of a stream we 
reach the miserable village of Sa/nti 
Ponce, a corruption from the name of 
San Geroncio, its Gothic bishop, or, 
according to others, of Santo Fozo, the 
" holy well : " it was the once ancient 
Italica, the birthplace of the Emperors 
Trajan, Adrian, and Theodosius; it 
was founded u.o. 547, on the site of the 
Iberian town Sancios, by Scipio Afri- 
canus, and destined as a home for his 
veterans (App. "B. H." 463). It was 
adorned by Adrian with sumptuous 
edifices. The citizens petitioned to 
become a Colonia, that is, subject to 
Borne, instead of remaining a free 
Municipium : even Adrian was sur- 
prised at this Andalucian servility 
'Aul. Oell. xvi. 13). Many Spaniards 

assert that the poet Silius Italicus was 
bom here ; but then the epithet would 
have been ItaUcensis: his birth-place 
is unknown ; probably he was an 
Italian, for Martial, his friend, never 
alludes to his being a paisano, or 
fellow-countryman. From his admi- 
ration and imitation of Yirgil he was 
called his ape. To the Spanish anti- 
quarian he is valuable from having in- 
troduced so many curious notices in 
his Fumca, Pliny J'. (Ep. iii. 7) thus 
justly describes his style : Silius scribe- 
bat carmina majore curd quam ingenio. 

Italica was preserved by- the (Joths, 
and made the see of a bishop : Leovi- 
gild, in 584, repaired the walls when he 
was besieging Seville, then the strong- 
hold of his rebel son Hermenigildo. 
The name Italica was corrupted by the 
Moors into Talikah, Talca ; and in old 
deeds the fields are termed los compos 
de Talca, and the town Semlla laviep'a. 
The ruin of Italica dates from the river 
having changed its bed, a conmion trick 
in wayward Spanish and Oriental 
streams. Thus Gour, once on the 
Gkmges, is now deserted. The Moors 
soon abandoned a town and ** a land 
which the rivers had spoiled," and 
selected Seville as a better site; and 
ever since the remains have been used 
as a quarry. Consult " Bosquejo de 
ItaUca," Justino Matute, Sevilla, 1827 ; 
and for the medals, Florez, " Med.," ii. 
477. Of these many, chiefly copper or 
small silver coins, are found and offered 
for sale to foreigners by the peasants, 
who, with a view of recommending 
their wares, polish them bright, and 
rub off the precious bloom, the patina 
and Aerugo, the sacred rust of twice ten 
hundred years. 

On Dec. 12, 1799, a fine mosaic 
pavement was discovered, which a poor 
monk, named Jose Mosooso, to his 
honour, enclosed with a wall, in order 
to save it from the usual fate in Spain. 
Didot, in 1802, published for Laborde 
a splendid foho, with engravings and 
description. The traveller will find a 
copy in the cathedral Ubrarv in the 
Patio de los Naranjos, at Seville. Now 
this work is all that remains, for the 




soldiers of M. Soult converted the 
enclosure into a goat-pen. 

The amphitheatre lies outside the 
old town. On the way ruins peep out 
amid the weeds and ohve-groves, hke 
the grey bones of dead giants. The 
amphitneatre, in 1774, was used by the 
corporation of Seville for river dikes, 
and for making the road to Badajoz. 
See the details, by an eye-witness, 
" Viaje Topograjico desde Ghranada d 
lAshoa;' duo. 1774, p. 70. The form 
•is, however, yet to be traced, and the 
broken tiers of seats. The scene is sad 
and lonely ; read in it by all means the 
sweet ode by Bioja. A few gipsies 
usually lurk among the vaults. The 
visitors scramble over the broken seats 
of once easy access, frightening the 
large and glittering lizards or Laga/rtoa^ 
which hurry into the rustling brambles. 
Behind, in a small vaUey, a limpid 
stream still trickles from a font and still 
tempts the thirsty traveller, as it once 
did the mob of ItaUca when heated 
with games of blood. 

The rest of Italica either sleeps 
buried under the earthy or has been 
carried away by builders. To the west 
are some vaulted brick tanks, called 
JLa Casa de los Banos, They were the 
reservoirs of the aqueduct brought by 
Adrian from TejcLday 7 L. distant. 
Occasionally partial excavations are 
made, but ill is done by fits and starts, 
and on no regular plan : the thing is 
taken up and put down by accident 
and caprice, and the antiques found are 
usually of a low art. The site was pur- 
chased, in 1301, by Guzman el JBuenOy 
(see p. 149,) who founded the castellated 
convent San Isidore as the burial-place 
of his femily. The sacred pile, built 
like those in Syria, and near the infidel, 
half fortress and half convent, was 
gutted and ruined by Soult on his 
final evacuation of Andalucia, and next 
was made a prison for galley slaves. 
The chapel is, however, preserved for 
the village church. Observe the sta- 
tues of San Isidoro and San Jeronimo 
by Montanes,and the effigies of Q-uzman 
and his wife, who he buried beneath, 
date &om 1609. The tomb was opened 

in 1570, and the body of the good man, 
according to Matute (p. 156), " found 
almost entire, and nine feet high ; " 
here lies also Dona Uraca Osorio, with 
her maid Leonora Davalos at her feet. 
She was burnt alive by Pedro the Cruel 
for rejecting his addresses. A portion 
of her chaste body was exposed by 
the flam^ which consumed her dress, 
whereupon her attendant, faithful in 
death, rushed into the fire, and died in 
concealing her mistress. 

The Feria de Santi Fonce^ in the 
beginning of October, is the Q-reen- 
wich fair of Seville, and all the rage 
just now : then booths are erected in 
the ancient bed of the river, which 
becomes a scene of Majeza and their 
Jaleos. The hohday folk, in all their 
Andaluoian finery, return at nightfeU 
in Ca/rretas filled with Qitanas y Cor- 
raleras, while los mafos y los de la 
afidon (fancy) vtielven d caballo, con 
sus queriditas en anccts. Crowds of 
the better classes come or used to come 
out to see this procession, and sit on 
chairs in the Calle de Costilla, which 
resounds with requiebrosy and is en- 
Hvened with exhibitions of small horns 
made of harro, the type of the Comtido 
paciente of Seville ; the civilization of 
the coat, alas ! is effacing these nation- 
alities ', already the females are quitting 
their charming costume for bonnets d 
la Frangaise and Manchester cottons ; 
then with their dark faces, white gowns, 
and gaudy ribbons, they put one in 
mind of May-day chimney-sweeps. 

The traveller may return from Ita- 
lica to Seville by a diflerent route, 
keeping under the slopes of the hills : 
opposite Seville, on the summit to the 
rt., is Castileja de la Cuesta, from. 
whence the view is fine and extensive. 
Here, at No. 66, Calle Beal, hved 
Feman Cortes, and died Dec. 2, 1547, 
aged 63, a broken-hearted victim, like 
Ximeiiez, Columbus, G-onzalo de Cor- 
dova, and others, of his king's and 
country's ingratitude. He was first 
buried in San Isidoro at Itahca, until 
his bones, hke those of Columbus, 
after infinite movings and changings 
of sepulture^ at last reached Mexico^ 



Sect. II. 

the scene of his glories and crimes 
during life ; not however doomed to rest 
even there, for in 1823 the local patriots 
intended to disinter \he foreigner^ and 
scatter his dust to the winds. They 
were anticipated by pious fraud, and 
the illustrious ashes removed to a new 
abode, where, if the secret be kept, 
they may at last find rest. 

Keeping the hill Chdboya to the rt., 
we reach San Juan de Alfa/rache^ Hisn- 
al-faraj, "of the fissure or cleft;" it 
was the Moorish river key of Seville, 
and the old and ruined walls still 
crown the heights. This was the site 
of the Sroman Julia Constantia, the 
G-othic Osset, and the scene of infinite 
aqueous miracles during the Arian 
controversy : a font yet remains in the 
chapel. Read the inscription concern- 
ing the self-replenishing of water every 
Thursday in the Semana Santa ; con- 
sult the quarto Sohre la milagrosa 
fuente, by tfosef Santa Maria, Sev. 1630, 
and the Esp. Sag., ix. 117. Strabo, 
however (iii. 261), points out among 
the marvels of Bsetica certain weUs and 
fountains which ebbed and flowed spon- 
taneously. Observe the Setahlo, with 
pictures by CastUlo, which originally 
existed in the San Juan de la Palma. 
The panorama of Seville, from the 
convent parapet, is charming. On the 
opposite side of the river is the fine 
Naranjal or orange-grove of the house 
of Beck, which is worth riding to. 
" Seville," -says Byron, and truly, " is 
a pleasant city, famous for oranges and 
women." There are two sorts of the 
former, the sweet and the hitter (Ara- 
bic^ Narang, unde Naranja), of which 
Scotch marmalade is made and Dutch 
Cura9oa flavoured. The trees begin to 
bear finit about the sixth year after 
they are planted, and the quality con- 
tinues to improve for 16 to 20 years, 
after which the orange degenerates, 
the rind gets thick, and it becomes 
unfit for the foreign market, which 
always takes the best. The trees flower 
in March, and perfume the air of Seville 
with the almost sickening odour which 
retains its Arabic name Azahar ; from 
the blossoms sweetmeats are made, and 

delicious orange-flower water; buy it 
at Aquilar's, Plaza San Vicente ; nice 
sweetmeats are made of them by the 
nuns ; to eat the orange in perfection, 
it should not be gathered until the new 
blossom appears. The oranges begin 
to turn yellow in October, and are 
then picked, as they never increase in 
size after changing colour; they are 
wrapped in Catalan paper, and packed 
in chests, which contain from 700 to 
1000 each, and may be worth to the 
exporter from 25*. to 30*. They ripen 
on the voyage, but the rind gets tough, 
and the freshness of the newly-gathered 
fruit is lost. The natives are very fan- 
ciful about eating them : they do not 
think them good before March, and 
poison if eaten after sunset. The 
vendors in the street cry them as mas 
dulces que almibar, sweeter than syrup, 
like the "Honey, oh! oranges honey" 
of the Cairo chapmen. 

Toma, niila, esa naranja. 

Que la cogi de mi huerta ; 
No la partas con navaja 

Que estft mi corazon deatro. 

The village below the hill of Alfa- 
rache, being exempt from the odious 
Derecho de pu^rtas, and being a plea- 
sant walk, is frequented on hoHdays 
by the Sevilhans, who love cheap drink, 
&c. Those who remember what pre- 
ceded the birth of El Picaro G-uzman 
de Alfarache — a novel so well trans- 
lated by Le Sage — may rest assured 
that matters are not much changed. 
Gelves, Gelduba, Ues lower down the 
river. This village gives the title of 
Count to the descendants of Colum- 
bus : the fimuly sepulchre is left in 
disgraceful neglect. 


The oHves and oU of Bsetica were 
celebrated in antiquity, and stiU form 
a staple and increasing commodity of 
Andalucia. The districts between Se- 
ville and Alcaic, and in the Ajarafe, 
are among the richest in Spain: an 
exciursion should be made to some 
large Macienda in order to examine 
the process of the culture and the ma* 
nufacture, which are almost identical 




with thos« described by Varro, Colu- 
mella, and Pliny. Formerly Seville 
was surrounded with splendid Hacien- 
daSy which combined at once a country- 
house, a village, and oil-manufactory : 
the fiestas, y convites de campo, kept 
here by the wealthy proprietors, were 
celebrated before the ruin entailed by 
Buonaparte's invasion, as few have been 
able to restore their ravaged esta- 
blishments. Whole plantations of 
olives were burnt down by Soult' s troops, 
while OUT Duke issued strict orders 
forbidding this ruinous practice ; mat- 
ters are, however, mending, thanks to 
the great exports of oil to England. 

San JBartolom^, a farm belonging to 
the Patema family, may be visited as 
a fine specimen of a first-rate Haci- 
enda; it contains about 20,000 trees, 
each of which will yield from 2 to 3 
bushels of olives ; the whole produce 
averages 5000 arrobas (of 25 lb.), which 
vary in price from 2 to 5 dollars. The 
olive-tree, however classical, is very 
unpicturesque ; its ashy leaf on a pol- 
larded trunk reminds one of a second- 
rate wHlow-tree, while it affords neither 
shade, shelter, nor colour. 

GDhe trees are usually planted in 
formal rows : a branch is cut from the 
parent in January ; the end is opened 
into 4 shts, into which a stone is 
placed; it is then planted, banked, 
and watered for 2 years, and as it 
grows is pruned into 4 or 5 upright 
branches: they begin to pay the ex- 
pense about the lOth year, but do not 
attain their prime before the 30th. 
The best soils are indicated by the 
wild-olive (oleaster, acc6«cAe), on which 
cuttings are grafted, and produce the 
finest crops (VirgU, G. ii. 182). The 
Spaniards often sow com in their 
ohve grounds, contrary to the rule of 
Columella, for it exhausts the soil, 
chupa la tierra. 

The berry is picked in the autumn, 
when it is purple-coloured and shining, 
baccee splendentis divse : then the scene 
is busy and picturesque ; the peasant, 
clad in sheep-skins, is up in the trees 
like a satyr, beating off the fruit, while 
his children pick them up, and his 

wife and sisters drive the laden donkeys 
to the mill. The ancients never heat 
the trees (Plin. Nat. Hist. xv. 3). The 
berries are emptied into a vat, SI 
trujal, and are not picked and sorted, 
as Columella (xii. 50) enjoined. The 
careless Spaniard is rude and un- 
scientific in this, as in his wine-making ; 
he looks to quantity, not quality. The 
berries are then placed on a circular 
hollowed stone, over which another is 
moved by a mule ; the crushed mass, 
horwfOy horvjOy is shovelled on to roimd 
mats, capuchos, made of esparto, and 
taken to the press, el trujal, which is 
forced down by a very long and 
weighty beam (the precise Bi^fa, Tra- 
petum, iXeita rfiUtov), composed of 6 or 
7 pine-trees, like a ship's bowsprit, 
over which, in order to resist the 
strain, a heavy tower of masonry is 
built ; a score of frails of the horugo 
is placed under the screw, moistened 
with hot water, which is apt to make 
the oil rancid. The hquor as it 
flows out is passed into a reservoir 
below ; the residuum comes forth 
like a damson-cheese, and is used for 
fuel and for fattening pigs; the oil 
as it rises on the water is skimmed 
off, and poured into big-bellied earthen 
jars, tinajas, and then removed into 
still larger, which are sunk into the 
ground. Qliese amphoree, made chiefly 
at Coria, near Seville, recall the jars of 
the forty thieves ; some will hold from 
200 to 300 arrobas, i. e. from 800 to 
1200 gallons. 

The oil, aceite (Arabic^ azzait), is 
strong and unctuous, and the real juice 
of the berry, and not equal perhaps in 
delicacy to the purer, finer produce of 
Lucca, but the Spaniards, from habit, 
think the Italian oil insipid. The 
second-class oils are coarse, thick, and 
green-coloured, and are exported for 
soap-making or used for lamps. Can- 
dles are rare in Spain, where the an< 
cient lamp, el velon or candil (Arabic^ 
kandeel), prevail, and are exactly such 
as are found at Pompeii ; the growers of 
oil petitioned against hghting Spanish 
towns with gas, " lamps being prefer- 
able to this thing of the foreigner." A 



Sect. IT. 

large farm ia a little colony ; the la- 
bourers, fed by the proprietor, are 
allowed bread, garlic, salt, oil, vin^ar, 
and pimientos, which they make into 
migas and oriental gazpacho (Arabic^, 
soaked bread), without which, in the 
burning summers, their " souls would 
be dried away" (Numb. xi. 6). Bread, 
oil, and water was a lover's gift (Hosea 
ii. 5). Xhe oil and vinegar are kept 
in cow-horns (" the horn of oil," 1 Sam. 
xyi. 13), which hang at their cart sides. 
This daily allowance, 'E.<rtw9m *H^m«- 
T^a^iSt ChcemXf corresponds minutely 
with theusages of antiquity as described 
by Cato (B. B. 56), and Stuckius 
(Antiq. Conviv. i. 22 ; ed. 1695). The 
use of oil is of the greatest antiquity 
(Job xxiv. 2) : it supplies the want of 
fikt in the lean meats of hot climates. 

The olive forms the food of the 
poorer classes. GDhe ancient distinc- 
tions remain unchanged. The first 
class, SegicB, MajorincBy are still called 
las Meynaa, leu Fadronas. The finest 
are made from the gordaly wliich only 
grows in a circuit of 5 L. round 
Seville: the berry is gathered before 
quite ripe, in order to preserve the 
green colour : it is pickled for 6 days 
in a Salmuera^ or brine, made of 
water, salt, thyme, bay-laurel, and 
garlic; without this, the olive would 
putrefy, as it throws out a mould, 
nata. The middling, or second classes, 
are called las MedianaSf also las Mo- 
radas, from their purple colour ; these 
are often mixed in a strong pickle, and 
then are called Alihadas: the worst 
sort are the Sebusco, Recuses, or the 
refuse ; these, well begarlicked and be- 
pickled, form a staple article of food 
for the poor. The olive is nutritious, 
but heating; the better classes eat them 
sparingly, although a few are usually 
placed in saucers at their dinners; they 
have none of the ancient luxury, those 
Aselli Corinthii, or silver donkeys, 
laded with paiiriers of different co- 
loured olives (Petr. Arb. 31 ; Ovid, 
Met. viii. 664). 

The geologist may visit Villanueva 
del Mio, 7 L. from Seville, and examine 
♦he coal mines, which, long neglected. 

are now worked by the Reunion 

Route 8. — Seville to Rio Tinto 



Venta de Pl^anosa . . . 3i 

Algarrobo li 

Castillo de las Gnardias . . 3 

RioTinto 6 

Aracena 6 

Fuentes de Leon .... 5 

Segura de Leon 1 

Valencia 3 

Fuente de Cantos .... 1 

Llerena 4 

Guadalcanal 4 

Fuente Ovejuna .... 6 

Velalcazar 5 

Almaden 6 

Santa Eufemia 3 

Al vlso de los Pedroches . . 2 

Villanueva del Dnque. . . 2 

Villaharta or Villarta . . . 5 

Cordova 6 

This is a riding tour of bad roads 
and worse accommodations; attend, 
therefore, to the provend; and get 
letters of introduction to the superin- 
tendents of the mines. The distances 
must be taken approximately, as they 
are mountain leagues. The botany is 
highly interesting, and game abundant. 
A doublcbarrel gun is useful in more 
respects than one. For some remarks 
on mines in Spain and the most useful 
books, see Cartagena, and p. 839. 

Passing through Italica, the high 
road to Badajoz is continued to the 
Venta de Fajanosa, 4i L. ; then a rude 
track turns off to the I. over a waste of 
cistus and aromatic flowers to Algar- 
xoboy 1 L., a small hamlet, where bait. 
Hence 3 L. over a similar country to a 
mountain village, Castillo de las QvamT' 
diasy so called from its Moorish watch- 
fort : here we slept. 5 L., over a lonely 
dehesa, lead next day to Mio TintOy 
where there is a decent posada. The 
red naked sieves of the copper moun- 
tain, I/a Cabeza Coloraday with clouds 
of smoke curhng over dark pine- woods, 
announce from afar these celebrated 
mines. The immediate approach to 
the hamlet is like that to a minor in- 
fernal region; the road is made of 




burnt ashes and escoriaB, the walls are 
composed of lava-like dross, while hag- 
gard miners, with sallow faces and 
blackened dress, creep about, fit deni- 
zens of the place ; the green coppery 
stream which winds under the bank of 
firs is the tinged river, from whence 
the Tillage takes its name : flowing out 
of the bowels of ^he mountain, it is 
supposed to be connected with some 
internal undiscovered ancient conduit : 
the purest copper is obtained from it ; 
iron bars are placed in wooden troughs, 
which are immersed in the waters ; 
the cascara, or flake of metal, deposited 
on it is knocked off*; the bar is then 
subjected to the same process until 
completely eaten away. The water is 
deadly poisonous, and stains and cor- 
rodes everything that it touches. 

These mines were perfectly well 
known to the ancients, whose shafts 
and galleries are constantly being dis- 
covered. The Bomans and Moors 
appear chiefly to have worked on the 
N. side of the hill; the enormous 
accumulation of escoriales show to 
what an extent they carried on opera- 

The village is built about a mile 
from the mines, and was raised by one 
Liberto Wolters, a Swede, to whom 
Philip V. had granted a lease of the 
mines, which reverted to the orown in 
1783. Paralysed bv the French inva- 
sion, in 1829 it was farmed to Serior Re- 
misa for 20 years. It is principally oc- 
cupied by the miners, but the empleados 
and official people have a street to 
themselves. The view from above the 
church is striking ; below lies the 
town with its green stream and orange- 
groves J to the 1. rises the ragged copper- 
*hill, wrapped in sulphureous wreaths of 
smoke; while to the rt. the magnifi- 
cent flat fir bank, la mesa de los pinos, 
which supplies fuel to the furnaces, is 
backed by a boundless extent of dstus- 
clad hills, rising one over another. 

A proper officer will conduct the 
traveller over the mines, who thus fol- 
lows the ore through every stage of the 
process, until it becomes pure copper ; 
visit therefore the Castillo de Solomon 

Spain. — I. 

in the Caheza Colorada. Entering the 
shaft, you soon descend by a well, or 
pozo, down a ladder, to an under gal- 
lery: the heat increases with the depth, 
as there is no ventilation; at the bottom 
the thermometer stands at 80 Fahr., 
and the stout miners, who drive iron 
wedges into the rock previously to 
blasting, work almost naked, and the 
few clothes they have on are perfectly 
drenched with perspiration ; the scene 
is gloomy, the air close and poisonous, 
the twinkling flicker of the miners' 
tapers blue and unearthly ; here and 
there figures, with lamps at their breasts, 
flit about like the tenants of the halls 
of Eblis, and disappear by ladders into 
the deeper depths. Melancholy is the 
sound of the pick of the solitary work- 
man, who, alone in his stone niche, is 
hammering at his rocky prison, like 
some confined demon endeavouring to 
force his way to hght and liberty. 

The copper is found in an iron 
pyrites, and yields about five per cent. 
The stalactites are very beautiful ; for 
wherever the water trickles through 
the roof of the gallery, it forms icicles, 
as it were, of emeralds and amethysts ; 
but these bright colours' oxidize in the 
open air, and are soon changed to a 
dun brown. When the Zafra, or 
rough ore, is extracted, it is taken to 
the Caicinacionf on the brow of the 
hill, and is there burnt three times in 
the open air ; the sulphur is sublimated 
and lost, as it passes off in clouds of 
smoke ; the rough metal, which looks 
like a sort of iron coke, is next carried 
to be smelted at houses placed near the 
stream, by whose water-power the 
bellows are set in action. The metal 
is first mixed with equal parts of char- 
coal and escoriales, the ancient ones 
being preferred, and is then fused with 
brezo, a sort of fael composed of cistus 
and rosemaiy. The iron flows away 
Uke lava, and the copper is precipitated 
into a pan or copeUa below. It is then 
refined in ovens, or reverberos, and 
loses about a third of its weight ; the 
scum and impurities as they rise to the 
surface are scraped ofi* with a wooden 
hoe. The pure copper is then sent 




Sect. II. 

either to Seville to the cannon-foundry, 
or to Segovia, to be coined. 

There is a direct cross-ride over the 
wild mountains to Quadalcanal and 
Almaden. Attend to the provend and 
take a local guide. It is lar better to 
make a detour and visit Aracena, 5 L. 
and 6 hours' ride, over trackless, life- 
less, aromatic ^ide wastes of green hills 
and blue skies : afber Compo FHo, 2 L., 
the countiy improves and becomes 
quite park-hke and English. Aracena 
is seen &om afar crowning a mountain 
ridge : here is a good poaada ; popu- 
lation about 5000, which is swelled in 
the summer, when the cool breezes 
tempt the wealthy £rom Seville to this 
Corte de la Sierra, Ascend to the 
ruined Moorish castle and church, 
which commands a splendid moimtain 
panorama. The Arabesque belfry has 
been capped with an incongruous mo- 
dem top. It was to Aracena that the 
learned Arias Montana retired after 
his return from the Council of Trent. 
IVom hence there is a direct bridle- 
route to Llerena^ 12 L., turning off to 
the rt. to Arroyo MoHnos, 4i L., and 
crossing the great Badajoz and Seville 
road at Monasterio 3, thence on to 
Montemolin 2, Llerena 3. There is a 
direct road from Aracena to Badajoz, 
through Xerez de los Cahalleros, a pic- 
turesque old town with Moorish walls 
and a grand tower ; remembering, on 
passing Fre^fenaljto observe at Higuera 
la Eealy ^ L., the 6 pictures by Morales 
in the parish church. 

Let us first mention the route on to 
Zqfra. ' The country is charming. 
Leaving Aracena, 5 L. of iniquitous 
l*oad lead to Fuenfes de Leon: the 
country resembles the oak districts of 
Sussex, near Petersfield ; in these En" 
cinares vast herds of swine are fattened. 
At CarhoneraSy 1 L., the route enters a 
lovely defile, with a clear torrent; all 
now is verdure and vegetation, fruit 
and flower. The green grass is most 
refreshing, while the air is perfumed 
with wild flowers, and gladdened by 
songs of nightingales. How doubly 
beautiful, as reminding one of dear 
England 1 These districts once be- 

longed to the rich convent of San 
Marcos of Leon. Thence to Segv/ra de 
Leon, 1 L., which is approached through 
a grove of pine-trees, above which the 
fine old castle soars, commanding a 
noble view. It is in perfect repair, 
and belonged to the Infante Don Carlos. 
Valencia de Leon has also another well- 
preserved castle, with a square torre 
mochaf or keep : observe the brick belfry 
of the parish church, with its machico- 
lations and fringe of Gothic circles. In 
these vicinities occurred one of those 
authentic miracles so frequent in Spa- 
nish history, and so rare elsewhere. In 
the year 1247 Don Pelayo Perez Correa 
was skirmishing with some Moors, 
when he implored the Virgin to detain 
the day, promising her a temple, as 
Ceesar did at Pharsalia, to vow a temple 
Tji yivfiru^ify to Venus Q-enetrix, App. 
B. C. ii. 492. The sun was instantly 
arrested in its course (compare Oran at 
Toledo). The chapel built by Correa, 
which marks the site, is still called 
Santa Maria-Tudia-Tendudia, a corrup- 
tion of his exclamation, Deten tu el 
dia ! Thus the immutable order of the 
heavens was disarranged, in order that 
^guerillero might complete a butchery, 
by which the grand results of the Seville 
campaign were scarcely even influenced. 
This was a true miracle of Spain, that 
country of localism, for no change in 
the solar system ever was observed by 
the Gfalileos and Newtons of other parts 
of the world. Correa on the same 
day struck a rock, whence water issued 
for his thirsty troops. See Espinosa^ 
^ Hist, de Sevilla,* iv. 156. Accord- 
ingly, in the * Memorias de San Fer- 
naiidoy iii. 116, Madrid, 1800, this won- 
der working partisan is justly termed 
the Moses a'nd Joshua of Spain. 

Crossing the Badajoz road, we now 
turn to the rt^, to Llerena, Begiana, 
an old walled agricultural town of 
some 5000 souls, and of little interest 
save to the lover of miraculous tauro- 
machia. Here, on the vigU of San 
Marcos, and it occurred in other neigh- 
bouring villages, the parish priest, 
dressed in fiiU canonicals, and at- 
tended by his flock, proceeded to a 

AndcUucia, route 8. — llerena — ^toro of ban marcos. 


herd of cattle, and selected a bull, and 
christened him bj the name of Mark, 
the ox being the symbol of that apostle. 
The proselyte then followed his leader 
to mass, entering the church and be- 
haying quite correctly all that day; 
but he took small benefit either in beef 
or morals, for on the morrow he re- 
lapsed into his former bullhood and 
brutality. After mass he paraded the 
Tillage, decorated with flowers and 
ribands, a sort of Baeuf Chras^ and be- 
haying like a lamb ; and as he was 
miraculously tame, sine fomo in comUy 
the women caressed him, as MarquitOy 
dear little Mark. Such was the 
Egyptian adoration of Apis, such the 
Elean idolatiy, where the females wor- 
shipped Bacchus under a tauriform in- 
carnation (Plut. Q. R. ; Keiske, yii. 
196). If the selected bull ran restiye, 
and declined the honour of ephemeral 
sainthood, as John Bull sometimes does 
knighthood, the blame was laid on the 

Eriest, and the miracle was supposed to 
aye failed in consequence of his un- 
worthiness: he was held to be in a 
state of peccado mortcUt and was re- 
garded with an evil eye by the sus- 
picious husbands of the best-looking 
Fasiphaes. If Marquito stopped before 
any house, the inhabitants were sus- 
pected of heresy or Judaism, which 
was nosed by the bull, as truffles are by 
poodle dogs. It will easily be guessed 
what a powerful engine in the hands 
of the priest this pointing proboscis 
jnust have been, and how eSectuaUy 
it secured the payment of church-rates 
and Easter offerings. The learned 
Feyjoo, in his * Teatro CriUcOt yi, 
205, dedicates a paper to this miracle, 
and devotes 26 pages to its theological 

Near Llerena^ April 11, 1812, Lord 
Combermere, with his cavalry, put to 
indescribable rout 2600 French horse, 
supported by 10,000 infantry, the rear- 
guard of Soult, under Drouet, who 
was retiring, baffled by the capture of 
Badajoz. Few charges were more "bril- 
liant and successful " than this. (Disp., 
April 16, 1812.) They rode down the 
flying foe like stubble in the plains. 

On leaving Llerenay the road runs 
for 4 L. over wide com tracts, studded 
with conical hiUs, to Cfuadalcanal, 
said to have been the Celtic Tereses, 
The silver and lead mines are situated 
about a mile to the N.E. The river 
Genalija divides Estremadura from 
Andalucia. These mines were disco- 
vered in 1509 by a peasant named 
Delgado, who ploughed up some ore. 
In 1698 they were leased to the bro- 
thers Mark and Christopher Fugger, 
the celebrated merchants of Augsburg, 
who also rented the quicksilver mines 
at Almaden ; and they, keeping their 
own secret, extracted from the Pozo 
rioo such wealth as rendered them 
proverbial, and Serrico comounFucar 
meant in the time of Cervantes being 
as rich as Croesus, or, as we should say, 
a Bothschild. Tliey built a street in 
Madrid after their name. Their de- 
scendants, in 1635, were forced to give 
the mines up ; but previously, and in 
spite, they turned in a stream of water. 
Yet the fame of their acquisitions sur- 
vived, and tempted other speculators, 
with " dreams of worlds qf gold^^ and 
in 1726 Lady Mary Herbert and Mr. 
Gtige endeavoured to drain the mines : 
these are Pope's 

**Ck)ngenial soulfi! whose life one avarice 
And one fate buries in th' Aiturian mines ;" 

a sHght mistake, by the way, in the 
poet, both as to metal and geography. 
The scheme ended in nothing, as 
the English workmen were pillaged 
by the Spaniards, who resented seeing 
" heretics and foreigners " coming to 
carry off Spanish bulHon. In 1768 
one T)iomas Sutton made another effort 
to rework them. Thence crossing the 
JBembezar to Fuente de Ooejunay pop. 
6500; it stands on the crest of a 
conical hill, with the CoUgiata on the 
apex, like an acropolis. The " sheep- 
fountain," Fons Malaria — some say the 
right name is Ahejaray alluding to the 
bees and honey — is at the bottom to 
the W.: coal-seams occur here, and 
extend to T^llaharta, The direct road 
to Almaden runs through Belalcazary 
20i L., by La Oranja 5i, Valsequillo 




Sect. II. 

4, Belalcazar 5, Almctden 6 : not inte- 
resting, it is very devoid of accommo- 
dation : sleep at VaUequillo, pop. about 
8000, placed in a hilly locality near the 
OnadiatOf once famed for the wines 
grown on its banks. Belalcazar, pop. 
2500, stands in a well-watered plain. 
It is a tidy dull town, so called from 
its foinner most magnificent palatial 
fortress, Sello Alcazar, built in 144)5, 
by Q-utierre Sotomayor, and once one 
of the grandest in Spain, but since 
used as a quarry by the boors. It 
belongs to the Duke of Osuna. The 
Pozo del pilar is a fine work j hence 
crossing the GhiadcMnatilla over a 
broken bridge to Santa Eufemia and 

The better route, perhaps, although 
equally wearisome, is by Espiel, which 
is reached following for five hours the 
Gxiadiato. Espiel, pop. 1000, has a 
hBAposada, About 4 L. on the road to 
Cordova is a fine ruin, the Castle de 
mano de hierro, of the iron hand. 

A tiresome ride leads to " Almaden 
del Azogue^* two Arabic words which 
signify "the Mine of Quicksilver," 
and show whence the science was 
learnt. As the posada is miserable, 
lodge in some private house. The long 
narrow street which constitutes this 
town is placed on a scarped ridge : 
pop. about 8000. Walk to the Glo- 
rieta, at the jimction of three roads, 
and also to the Retamar : look at this 
sunburnt, wind-blown town, which is 
built on the confines of La Mancha, 
Andalncia, and Estremadura. The 
Sisapona Cetobrix of Pliny (N. H., 
xxxiii. 7) was somewhere in this loca- 
lity. The mine is apparentlj^ inex- 
haustible, becoming richer in propor- 
tion as the shafts deepen. The vein of 
cinnabar, about 25 feet thick, traverses 
rocks of quartz and slate, and runs 
towards AVmadenejos. Virgin quick- 
silver occurs also in pyrites and horn- 
stein, and in a greyish conglomerate 
called here Fraylesca, from the colour 
of a monk's frock. Gfenerally the mer- 
cury of Almaden is not found in 
veins, but seems to have impregnated 
^hree vertical strata of a quurtzose 

sandstone, associated to slates rather 
carbonaceous. About 4000 men are 
thus engaged during the winter, the 
heat and want of ventilation ren- 
dering the mercurial exhalations dan* 
gerous in summer. The gangs work 
day and night, about 6 hours at a 
time, and hew the hard rock almost 
naked. There are three veins, called 
after the saints Nicolas, Francisco, and 
Diego ; the adit lies outside the town \ 
the descent is by steep ladders ; the 
deepest shaft ia said to be 1000 feet, 
and the lode improves the deeper it is 
worked. The wells, elsewhere called 
Pozos, are here termed Tomos, and the 
shafts, or Ramales, Canas : they extend 
under the town ; hence the cracks in 
the parish church. The mineral is 
raised by a splendid mule-worked 
atahona. The arched stone galleries are 
superb : the furnaces of the smelting- 
ovens, in which the ore is sublimed, 
are heated with sweet-smelling hrezo* 
The men thus employed are much more 
healthy than the miners, who suffix 
from salivation and paralysis. The 
mercury is distilled by two processes ; 
either by that used at Idria, which is 
the best, or from certain ovens or 
Buitrones, Somos de Meverhero, in- 
vented by Juan Alonso de Bustamente. 
An original engine made by Watt is 
still in use ; elsewhere it would be put 
in a museum as a curious antique. 

The quantity of mercury now ob- 
tained is enormous. The Fuggers only 
extracted 4500 quintals annually ; now 
between 20,000 and 25,000 are pro- 
cured. The price has also lately risen 
from 34 to 84 dollars the quintal. 
Almaden produces some 250,000^. a 
year profit to government, and is one of 
the few real sources of income. The 
quicksilver always has been a royal 
monopoly, and as its possession con- 
verted the ore of the new world into 
bullion, has led to indescribable jobbing 
and robbing : the management latterly, 
since the pecuniary importance has 
increased, has been given to a gefe of 
scientific attainments, and schools are 
instituted. For all details consult 
Minas de Almaden^ Casiano Prado; 




Widdrington, ch.vii. ; the Ajmntes/hj 
Joaquim Erguerra del Bayo ; and ditto, 
by Lucas de Alduna; see also the 
scientific details of Kafael Cabanillas, 
Madoz, ii. 21. (See also p. 339.) 

Those who do not wish to visit Al' 
maden may return to Seville from Gua- 
dalcanal by Constantinai Laconimurgi, 
a charming fresh mountain town, 
whence Seville is supplied with fruit 
and snow : thence to picturesque 
Cazalla, 3 L. Equidistant from these 
two towns is a lead and silver mine, 
called La Reyna. The iron-mines at 
iEl Pedroso deserve a visit : this busy 
establishment is the creation of Col. 
Elorza, an intelligent Basque, who 
made himself master of the system of 
machinery used in England, which he 
has here adopted, and by so doing has 
infused life and wealth into this Sierra, 
which elsewhere is left almost aban- 
doned, roadless, and unpeopled. Gl-ame 
of eveiy kind abounds. The botany is 
also very interesting. At CanUllana, 
mia^ 6 £., the mining district finishes, 
and everywhere the escoruB show how 
much it once was worked. Cantillana, 
according to Don Quixote, ii. 49, is the 
Lincoln of Spain, over which the devil 
looks. Vamanos por otra parte, que 
estd el diablo en Cantillana — ^why he 
should be there particularly none can 
teU but himself. The ro&da are infa- 
mous, the ferry boats bad, in spite of 
the great traffic between Almaden and 
SeviUe. Hence to Seville, by Alcald 
del Rio, 5 L., over an excellent snipe and 
woodcock country, but without any 
accommodation for horse, wheel, or 
man, except at . the miserable el Bo- 
degon. From Cazalla a route passes 
on to the coal-mines of VilloMueva del 
Rio, long, in spite of the facility of 
water-carriage,allowed to remain almost 
lost : now they are in work, and the 
mine of Col. Elorza was by far the most 
scientifically conducted. The coal is 
well adapted for steam-engiaes. The 
river may be either crossed at Alcolea 
del Rio, or the land route through 
Santi Ponce regained. 

The geologist and botanist, when 
once at Almaden, may either join the 

Madrid road oX Tnijillo, having visited 
Logrosan and Q-uadalupe, or strike 
down to Cordova by a wild bridle-road 
of 18 L. This ride occupies 3 days : 
the first is the shortest, baiting at Santa 
Eufemia and sleeping at Viso. Santa 
Eufemia domineers over the fertile 
plain of Pedroohes, which separates 
the table-land of Almaden from the 
range of the - Sierra Morena : here 
mica slate occurs, followed by granite, 
which commences at Vho, an agricul- 
tural town of some 2500 inhab., and 
distant 12 L. from Cordova. The second 
day the country is tolerably well cul- 
tivated until, after a wild dehesa, you 
ascend the Sierra Morena .\ the coun- 
try becomes now most romantic and 
full of deep defiles, leading into the 
central chains. The hills are round- 
backed, and of moderate elevation, cO!- 
vered with jaras and aromatic shrubs, 
but utterly uninhabited, Villaharta, 
where sleep, is a picturesque village 
on a slope of the Solana, The last 
day's ride continues through the sierra, 
amid pine-forests, with traces of seams 
of coal, which extend W. to JEspiel and 
Valmez, to a venta, from whence you 
look down on the plains of Andalucia, 
and descend in about 3 h. to Cordova. 
This hne is of the highest interest to 
the geologist and botanist. From 
Almaden to Ciudad'R^Bi are 16 L., and 
it is in contemplation to construct a 
regular road. 

Route 9. — Setille to Madeid. 

AlcaU de Guadaira 
Mairena . . 
Cannona. . 
La Portuguesa 
La Luisiana. 
Ec^. . . 
LaCarlota , 
Mapgo Negro 
Coniova . . 
Casa Blanca, 
Carpio . . 
Aldea del Rio 
SaDta Cecilia 
AndT:^r . . 
Caoa del Rey 
Bailen . . 
Guarroman . 
La Carolina . 
Santa Elena. 
Ya. de Cardenas 


2 .. 4 

2 .. 6 

2i .. 84 

3i .. 12 

3 ..16 

4 .. 19 


» _• 

, 25 
2* .. 2ti 
2+ .. 30 
3* .. 33* 
2i .. 36 
2i .. 38i 
2i .. 41 
2 ..43] 
2 ..46 
2 .. 47 
2 ..49 
2 .. 51 



Sect. II. 

Almnradiel .... 
Santa Cruz . . . . 
Yaldepeilas .... 
Consolacion. . . . 
Manzanares. . . . 
Ya. de Quesada . . . 


Puerto Lapiche. . . 
Madride:jos .... 
Canada de la Higuera . 
Tembleque .... 
La Quanlia .... 


Aranjnez .... 
Espartinas .... 



2 ..63 
2i .. 55i 
2 .. 6H 
2 .. 59i 
2i .. 62 
2 .. 64 

2i .. eei 

2 .. 68i 

.. Hi 

.. 1H 

.. n* 

3* .. 81 

2 ..83 
2i .. 86i 

3 .. 88i 
2i .. 91 


When ladies are in the case it will 
he prudent to write beforehand to some 
firiend in Madrid to secure quarters at 
an hotel. This wearisome journey is 
now (1854) shortened by the rail, which 
is opened from Tembleque to Madrid ; 
this high road is in very bad order j 
the accommodations are indifferent; 
the diligence inns are the best. 

After leaving the basin of the Gua- 
dalquivir the road crosses the Sierra 
Moreno^ ascending to the dreary cen- 
tral table-lands. Cordova is almost 
the only object worth visiting on the 
whole Ime. There is some talk of a 
railroad to connect that city with 
Cadiz by the level line of the Guadal- 
quivir, to be made and paid for by 
Britons bold. 

For Alcaldy its fine castle, bread, and 
water-springs, see p. 159. Maprena 
del Alcor^ was once celebrated for 
its 3 days' horse-fair, held April 25th, 
26th, and 27th. It was a singular 
scene of gipsies, legs chalanes, and pic- 
turesque blackguards : here the Majo 
and Mqfa shone in all their glory. 
The company returned to Seville at 
sunset, when all the world was seated 
near the Canos de Carmona to behold 
them. The correct thing for a Mafo 
fino used to be to appear every day on 
a different horse, and in a different 
costume. Such a majo rode through 
a gauntlet of smiles, waving fans and 
handkerchiefs : thus his face was 
whitened, saU6 muy Iwcido. The Maja 
always, on these occasions, wore the 
Caramhay or riband fo'nged with silver, 
and fastened to the MoiiOf or knot of 

her hair. She ought also to have the 
portrait of her Querido round her 
neck. The Majo always had 2 em- 
broidered handkerchiefs — ^her work — 
with the comers emerging firom his 
jacket pockets; but all tMs picturesque 
nationality is getting obsolete, and is 
voted uncivilized. 

Cresting an aromatic uncultivated 
tract, the clean white town of Carmona 
rises on the E. extremity of the ridge, 
commanding the plains both ways. 
The prefix car indicates this " height." 
The old coins found here are inscribed 
" Carmo,*' Elorez, *M.' i. 289. Csesar 
fortified the city, " the strongest in the 
province," which remained faithful to 
the Goths imtil betrayed to the Moors 
by the traitor Julian : St. Ferdinand 
recovered it Sept. 21, 1247, and his 
standard is borne every anniversary to 
the Hermitage Sn. Mateo, founded by 
him. He gave the city for arms, a 
star with an orle of lions and castles, 
and the device " Sicut Lucifer lucet in 
AurorA, sic in WandaH§. Carmona." 
Don Pedro added largely to this castle, 
which he made, as regarded Seville, 
what Edward III. did of Windsor, in 
reference to London : here, in 1368, 
he kept his jewels, money, mistresses, 
and children. After his defeat at 
Montiel, his governor, Mateos Fer- 
nandez, surrendered to Enrique on 
solemn conditions of amnesty, all of 
which were immediately violated, and 
himself and many brave soldiers exe- 
cuted. The site is still called el Bio 
del CuchiUo ; but Spaniards say that 
capitulations make good paper to light 
cigars with. 

CarmofMf the Moorish Karmunah, 
with its Oriental walls, castle, and po- 
sition, is very picturesque : pop. 15,000. 
Fonda de las Diligendas good : and a 
Posada on the suburban plaza. Ob- 
serve the tower of San Pedro, which 
is an imitation of the metropolitan 
Giralda ; remark the massy walls and 
arched Moorish city-entrance. The 
patio of the university is Moorish ; 
the church is of excellent Gt)thic, and 
built by Anton. Gallego, obt. 1518. 
The " Descent of the Cross" is by Pa- 




checo; a Yenetian-like San Cnstobal 
has been repainted. The Alameda 
with its fountain, between a dip of the 
hills, is pleasant ; by starting half an 
hour before the diligence, all this may 
be seen, and the coach caught up at 
the bottom of the hill. The striking 
gate leading to Cordova is built on 
Koman foundations, with an Herrera 
elevation of Doric and Ionic ; the alca- 
z&r, towering above it, is a superb run. 
Don Pedro and the CathoKo kings 
were its chief decorators, as their 
badges and arms show. The view 
over the vast plains below is magnifi- 
cent ; the Bonda and even G-ranada 
chains may be seen : it is somewhat 
like the panorama of the Grampians 
^m Stirling Castle, on a tropical and 
gigantic scale. Consult ' Antiguedades 
de Ca/nmxynay Juan Salvador Bautista 
de Arellano, 8vo., Sevilla, 1618. 

Descending into the plains, the road 
continues over aromatic uninhabited 
uncultivated wastes : soon after Mim- 
cloa, with its palms, a bridge is crossed, 
formerly the lair of a gang of robbers, 
called Los Ninos de JEcifa; although 
now extinct, these " Boys " are im- 
mortal in the fears and tales of Spanish 
muleteers. The miserable post-houses 
La Portuffuesa and Im Lidsiana^ called 
after Spanish queens, are almost the 
only abodes of man in this tract of 
rich but neglected country. 

JEcija, Astigi (of Greek origin, and 
the dty par excellence), in the time of 
the Bomans, was equal to Cordova and 
Seville (PUn. * N. H.' iii. 1 ; Pomp. 
Mela, ii. 6) : it rises amid its gardens 
on the Grenil, the great tributary of 
the Guadalquivir, just where it was 
navigable: pop. 24,000: the inn, la 
Posta^ is decent. Ecija is a well-built, 
gay-looking, improving town, but still 
socially very dull. Some of the Moorish 
gates and massy towers remain. From 
the extreme heat it is called the Sarie- 
nilla de Andahiciay and the produce of 
com and oil is consequently very great. 
This roasted and toasted town bears 
for arms the sun, with this modest 
motto, Una sola sera llamada la (Xu- 
dad del Sol ; thus Boetican frying-pans 

assume the titles and decorations of an 

JEdja boasts to have been visited by 
St. Paul, whose gilt statue surmounts 
the triunfOf placed here in honour of 
bis having converted his hostess, Santa 
Xantippa, wife of one Prohus (these 
shrew grey mares always have good^ 
husbands). See for authentic details 
* Eap. Sag.' iii. 14, Ap, viii., and Bibad. 
ii. 284. One of the earhest bishops of 
Ecija was St. Crispin, but that was 
before neighbouring Cordova was so 
famous for its Morocco leather, 

Observe the Plasma Major, with its 
pretty acacias and Amazon fountain, 
and the^i«^'o studded church-towers : 
the columns in those of Santa Barbara 
and Santa Maria are Boman, and were 
brought from a destroyed temple, once 
in the Calle de los Marmoles, The house 
of the Marquis de Cortes is painted 
in the Genoese style : |here the king 
is always lodged. Of other finely 
balconied and decorated mansions ob- 
serve those of Penaflor, Benameji, and 
Villaseca. The cloisters of San Fran- 
cisco and San Domingo may be visited. 
There is a fine but narrow bridge 
over the Gtemi : the edifice at its head 
is called el Bollo, SI Bollo mkmt 
the gallows, usually built of stone and 
outside of the town; and from the 
steps being worn rotmd by walkers sit- 
ting down, rollo in time obtained the 
secondary meaning of a promenade, 
a pretty one that ends in a gibbet* 
Ecija has also a charming alameda 
outside the town, near the river, with 
statues and fountains representing the 
seasons, and a new and magnificent 
Plaza de Toros, built on the site of 
a Bqpan amphitheatre. For local 
details consult ^ Edja y sus Santos,' 
Martin de Boa, 4to., Sevilla, 1629; 
and the Adicion of Andres Florindo, 
4to., Sev. 1631. 

10 L. over a waste lead to Cordova. 
Carlota is one of the neuvas pobla- 
clones, or the newly-founded towns, of 
which more anon (p. 236). Cordova, 
over which so many associations hover, 
seen from the distance, amid its oHves 
and palm-trees, and backed by the 



Sect. II. 

conyent- crowned sierra, has a truly 
Oriental look : inside all is decay. The 
diligence inn is at the other end of the 
to\*Ti. Those only passing through 
Cordova should get out at the bridge, 
look at the Alcazar and Mosque, then 
thread the one long street and take up 
the coach ; and as roost of them usually 
breakfast or sleep here, stopping in the 
first case about 2 h., ample time is 
thus given to see the Mezquita. Those 
going to ride to Granada will find the 
Posada del Sol, or del Puente, humble, 
although truly Spanish, more conve- 
niently situated, as being close to the 
mosque and bridge ; it is the resort of 
muleteers. N.B. Drink Montillaynne. 
Cordova retains its time-honoured 
name. Cor is a common Iberian pre- 
fix, and tuha is said to mean important, 
Karta tuba, Bochart, however, reads 
Coteha, the Syrian coteb, "oil-press;" 
the frapeta (Mart. vii. 28) for which 
this locality has long been renowned. 
Corduba, under the Carthaginians, was 
the "gem of the South." It sided 
with Pomp^, and was therefore half 
destroyed by Csesar: 23,000 inhabit- 
ants were put to death in terrorem. His 
lieutenant Marcellus (Hirt. * B. A.' 57) 
rebuilt the city, which was repeopled 
by the pauper patricians of Bome; 
hence its epithet, ^^ Patricia;" and 
pride of birth still is the boast of this 
poor and servile city. La cepa de Cor- 
dova is the aristocratic " stock," like the 
ceti of Cortona in Italy. The Qreat 
Captain, who was bom near Cordova, 
used to say that " other towns might bo 
better to live iji, but none were better 
to be bom in,** As the Cordpvese 
barbs were of the best blood, so the 
nobles protested theirs to be^of the 
bluest. This sangre azul or sangre su, 
the azure ichor of this ^te of the earth, 
is so called in contradistinction to 
common red blood, the puddle which 
flows in plebeian veins ; while the blood 
of heretics, Lutherans, Protestants, and 
political enemies, is held by Spanish 
sangrados and heralds to be black, 
pitchy, and therefore combustible. 
The blood of Jews especially is thought 
to be both sable and to stink; and it 

has been said that the Jews were called 
Putos, quia putant ; certainly, as at Gib- 
raltar, an unsavoury odour seems genti- 
htious in the Hebrew, but not more 
so than in the orthodox Spanish monk. 

Boetica, besides blood, was renowned 
for brains ; and the genius and imar 
gination of the Cordovese authors asto- 
nished ancient Eome. Seneca (De 
Suas. 6 sub fin.), quoting Cicero, speaks 
of the "pingue quiddson atque pere- 
grinum*' as the characteristic of the 
style of Sextilius Ena, one of the poets 
oifacunda Cordoba, the birthplace of 
himself, the unique Lucan, the two 
Senecas, and of other Spaniards who, 
writing even in Latin, sustained the 
decline of Soman poetry and hte- 
rature ; not but what the turgid Lucans 
of Spain corrupted the pure Augustan 
style of Italy of old, as the Cordovese 
(Angora did in modem times. In 
these older works must be sought the 
real diagnostics of Iberian style. The 
Andalucians exhibited a marvellous 
(for Spaniards) love of foreign litera- 
ture. Pliny, jun. (ii. 3), mentions an 
inhabitant of Cadiz who went from 
thence, then the end of the world, to 
Rome,, on purpose to see Livy; and 
having feasted his eyes, returned imme- 
diately ; St. Jerome names another An- 
dalucian, one Lacrinus Licinius, who 
offered Pliny 400,000 nnmmi for his 
theil unfinished note-books. Ces beaux 
jours sont passes, for now no Anda- 
lucian would lose one bull-fight for all 
the lost Decades of twenty Livys. 

Cordova, under the Goths, was 
termed "holy and learned." Osius, 
the counsellor of Constantiue and the 
friend of St. Athanasius, who pimningly 
called him vrxtov^teg, was its bishop from 
294 to 357 : he presided at the Council 
of Nice, which was the first to condemn 
prohibited books to the fire. Under 
the Moors, Cordova became the Athens 
of the West, or, in the words of Basis, 
the "nurse of science, the cradle of 
captains.'* It produced Avenzoar, or, 
to write more correctly, Abdel Malek 
Ibn Zohr, and Averroes, whose proper 
name is Abu Abdallah Ibn Boshd ; he 
it was who introduced Aristotle to 




Europe, and, in the words of Dante, 
" il gran oommento feo." The wealth, 
luxury, and civilization of Cordova, 
under the Beni-TJmmeyah dynasty, 
almost seems an Aladdin tale; yet 
Gayangos - has demonstrated its his- 
torical accuracy. All was swept away 
by the Berbers, true Barbarians, who 
burnt palace and library. 

Spanish Cordova for some time pro- 
duced sons worthy of its ancient 
renown. Juan de Mena, the Chaucer, 
the morning star of Spanish poetry, 
was bom here in 1412; as was Am- 
brosio Morales, the Heame, the Leland 
of the Peninsula, in 1513, at No. 10, 
Calle del Cabildo Viefo ; so also Tomas 
Sanchez, the Jesuit, and author of the 
celebrated treatise I)e Matrimonio, que 
le sapeva mas del Demonio. The 
abominations of the modem Dens are 
blank cartridges to this cloaca of 
casuistic filth ; yet the author was 
innocent of any obscene intentions, and 
treated the case simply as a surgeon 
dissects a subject. The best and 
uncastrated edit, is that of Antwerp, 3 
vols. fol. 1607. Here, in 1538, was 
bom Pablo de Cespedea, the painter 
and poet, overrated by Spaniards ; and 
in 1561, Luis de GI-ongora,theEuphuist; 
here, in San NicolaSy G-onzalo de Cor- 
dova, the great (and truly great) Captain 
of Spain was baptised. Well, therefore, 
might Juan de Mena follow Basis in 
addressing his birthplace as '* the 
flower of knowledge and knighthood." 

Cordova was always celebrated for 
its silversmiths, who came originally 
from Damascus, and continue to this 
day to work in that chased filigree 
style. Juan Ruiz, M VandolinOy is the 
Cellini of Cordova. The Joy as — ^Ara- 
hio6 jauhaTy brilliant — and earrings of 
the peasantry deserve notice, and eveiy 
now and then some curious antique eme- 
rald-studded jewellerymaybepickedup. 

Homan Cordova resisted the Goths 
until 572, but Gothic Cordova was 
taken by the Moors at once by 
Mugueith el Bumi, -the Mogued of 
Spanish writers ; at first it became an 
appanage of the Khalifa of Damascus. 
Q^e successor and representative of 

Mahomet, the Smir at Mumenin, the 
Commander of the Faithful ; the diss- 
tant kingdom in 756 declared itself 
independent, and rose to be the capital 
of the Moorish empire of Spain, under 
Abderahman (Abdu-^r-rahman, the ser- 
vant of the compassionate). He was 
the head and last remaining heir of his 
dynasty, the Ummeyah, which had been 
expelled from the East by the Abasside 
usurpers. No fiction of romance ever 
surpassed the truth of his eventful life. 
Under him Cordova became the Kali- 
fete of the West, and the rival of 
Baghdad and Damascus, and was the 
centre of power and civilization in 
the West, and this at a time when 
weakness, ignorance, and barbarism 
shrouded over the rest of Europe. 
This revolt in Spain dealt th@ death- 
blow to the Kalifate of the East, and 
was followed by the loss of Africa. 
From the 9th to the 12th century 
Baghdad was eclipsed by Cordova, 
which contained in the tenth century 
nearly a million inhabitants, 300 
mosques, 900 baths, and 600 inns. It 
withered imder the Spaniard ; and, rich 
and learned under Boman and Moor, 
is now a dirty, benighted, ill-provided, 
decaying place, with a popiilatipn about 

The most flourishing period was A.p, 
1009. The Moorish dynasties are 
usually divided into four periods; — 
The^r*^ extended from 711 to 756. 
Then the newly-conquered peninsuU 
was called the Islandy Gezirahy and 
those portions which were not under 
the Moslem Velad Arrum, thp land 
of the Bomans, as the Goths were 
termed. During the first period Spain 
was governed by Amirs, deputed by 
the Kalif of Damascus. The second 
period commenced when Abdu-r-rah- 
man declared his independence, and 
made Cordova his capital, whence he 
was called jLl-daJchely " the enterer," 
the conqueror. This period extended 
from 756 to 1036, and its dynasty 
declined about 1031, under Hisbiba 
III., having given 17 sultans. The 
Moorish power in Spain, which wa? 
founded by the Ummeyahs, fell wi^ 

L 3 



Sect. II. 

them. Now, in the third period, two 
factions took the lead in the divided 
house ; first, the Almoravides-Mura- 
bitins (Itdbitos, or men consecrated to 
the service of G^od, the types of the 
Christian knights of Santiago), and 
secondly, their rivals, and by whom 
they were put down in 1146, viz. the 
Almohades, or Unitarian Dissenters, 
or fanatics (Al Muevahedun) ; they 
were headed by Ibn- Abdallah, a Berber 
lamphghter, who persuaded the mob 
to believe that he was the Mehedi, or 
*' only director," in the paths of virtue. 
There was no tyranny, no Vandalism, 
which this JacK Cade in a turban did 
not commit. This degrading domina- 
tion ceased about 1227, when the whole 
Moorish system was shivered to pieces 
like the fragments of the exploding 
shell, or (like those moUuscsD, which, 
when divided, have such vitality, that 
each portion becomes a new living 
creature) became independent, " Quot 
urbes tot reges ;" each portion becom- 
ing the prey of some petty ruler, who 
being atl rival upstarts, never acted 
cordially together. They were sheiks, 
however, rather than hingsy and such 
as those of which Joshua in the East, 
and the Cid in the West, overcame so 
many. This, in reading the early 
history of Spain, must always be re- 
membered. The misapplication, or 
mistranslation of our- more extensive 
term, king, for the lesser title of a 
powerful baron, as in the case of Lear, 
gives an air of disproportion to the 
narrative. The divided and weakened 
Moorish principalities gradually fell 
before the united Spaniards, and Cor- 
dova was easily taken, June 30, 1235, 
by St. Ferdinand — a king, aye every 
inch a king. 

Then it was that Ibnu-1-ahmar, ^ 
vassal of St. Ferdinand, founded, in 
1238, 1492, the fourth and last dynasty, 
that of Ghranada, which after two cen- 
turies and a half, was in its turn 
undermined by internal dissensions, 
until the union of Aragon and Castile 
under Ferd, and Isab., taking place at 
the period of the greatest Granadian 
'visions, completed the final con> 

quest, and terminated the Mohamedan 
dynasties in Spain. The Cordovese 
power rose with the master-minded 
Abderahmans, and was maintained by 
Al Mansur, the mighty captain-minister 
of Hisham. Even then a germ of 
weakness existed, for the Kalif of 
Damascus never forgave the casting 
off his allegiance: he made treaties 
with the French against the Cordovese, 
while the Cordovese allied themselves 
with the emperor of Constantinople, 
as the rival of the Eastern kalif. Both 
parties occasionally used the services 
of the Jews, renegades, mongrels, Mu^ 
wallads (disbelievers), and especially 
the Berbers, deadly foes to the Cordo- 
vese Moors, whom they abhorred as 
descendants of Yemen and Damascus, 
and as their dispossessors, for they 
claimed Spain as theirs in right of 
their Carthaginian ancestors, who had 
fled to the mountains of the Atlas 
from the Bomans. These highlanders, 
although Pagans, and utterly ha/rha' 
rous, thought themselves alone to be 
the salt of the earth, and assumed the 
epithet amarzeegh, or nobles. At once 
the strength and weakness of the Moors, 
first' they aided in conquering the 
Goths, and then turning against their 
allies, upset the most elegant and 
accomplished dynasty that Spain has 
ever witnessed. 

For Cordova consult ^ Antiguedades 
de Sspana, Morales, Alcaic de He- 
nares, 1575, chap, 31 : ' AlmaJcJcari^ 
translated by the learned P. Q-ayangos. 
The third book records what Cordova 
was in aU its glory. Southey, in art. i. 
' Foreign Quarterly Review,' has given 
a portion of the 10th and 11th vols, of 
Florez, ^ JEsp, 8ag.;^ ^ Los Santos de 
Cordova,^ M. de Roa, 4to., Sev. 16X5, 
Lyons, 1617, or 4to., Cordova, 1627 ; 
De Cordova in Hispanid, and ditto, 
4to., Lyons, 1617 ; * Antigiiedades de 
Cordova, Pedro Diaz de Bivas, 4to., 
1624 ; and * Antiguo Principado de 
Cordova^ M. de Boa, 4to., Cordova, 
1636 J * Palestra Sagrada^ Bart«- San- 
chez Feria, 4 vols. 4to., Madrid, 1772 ; 
* Catalogo de los Obispos de Cordova,* 
Juan Gomez Bravo, 9 vols., fol., 1778, 




and the Indicadory by Luis Maria 
!Ramirez de las Casas Deza ; and the 
MoMualito de Cordova ; read also Le- 
brecht's essay in Ashur's ' JBer^'amin de 
Tudela, ii. 318. 

Cordoya, this Athens under the 
Idoor, is now a poor Boeotian place, 
the residence of local authorities, with 
a liceo, theatre, a casa de esposUos, 
plaza de toros, and a national museo 
with some rubbish in San PablOf and 
a library of no particular consequence; 
a day will amply suffice for 'everything. 
The city arms are " a bridge placed on 
water," allusive to that over the river ; 
the foundations of it are Boman ; the 
present irregular arches were built in 
719 by the governor Assamh. At the 
town entrance is a classical Doric gate 
erected by Herrera for Philip II. on 
the site of the Moorish Babu-1-Kante- 
rah, "the gate of the bridge." The 
relievos on it are said to be by Torri- 
giano. Near this is SI triunfOf a 
triumph of superstition and churri- 
guerism, which was erected by the 
Bishop Martin de Barcia. On the 
top is the Cordovese tutelar saint, 
Bafael, who clearly is unconnected 
with his namesake of Urbino. The 
Alcazar rises to the 1., and was built 
on the site of the Balatt JJudheric, 
the Castle of Boderick, the last of the 
Goths, whose father, Theofred, was 
duke of Cordova ; formerly it was the 
residence of the Inqxiisition, and then, 
as at Seville, that of miserable invalid 
soldiers. The lower portions were con- 
verted into stables by Juan de Minjares 
in 1584, for the royal stallions : near 
Cordova and Alcolea were the principal 
breeding-ground for Andalucian barbs, 
until the estabhshment was broken up 
by the invaders, who carried off the 
best mares and staUions. Here, under 
the Moors, were the Alharag (imde 
Haras), the mounted guard of the 
king, and they were either Christians, 
Mamelukes, or Sclavonians, /or«^««r*, 
with whom suspicious despots like to 
surround themselves. 

The bishop's palace, close by, was 
built in 1745, and is in a bad rococo 
ntyle : the inside is all dirt, decay, and 

gUding, marble and whitewash; osten- 
tatious poverty. In the Sala de la 
Audiencia are a series of bad portraits 
of prelates. Here Ferdinand VII. was 
confined in 1823, and attempted to 
escape through the garden, in which 
observe the gigantic lemons, Arabic^ 
la^moon. The artist must not fail to 
walk below the bridge to some most 
picturesque Moorish mills and pleasant 
fresh plantations. 

The cathedral or the^mosque. La 
Mezqmta as it is still called (mesgad 
from, masegad, Arabic^ to worship 
prostrate), stands isolated, and hajs 
served as the chief temple to many 
creeds, each in their turn. The exterior 
is forbidding, being enclosed by waUs 
from 30 to 60 feet high, and averaging 
6 feet in thickness : walk round them, 
and observe the square buttress towers 
with fire-shaped or bearded parapets ; 
it is the type of that which was ai 
Seville. Examine the rich Moorish 
spandrils and latticed openings of the 
different entrances. Enter the Court 
of Oranges at the Fuerta del Perdon, 
of which the type is truly Oriental 
(1 Chr. xxviii. 6). The cistern was 
erected in 945-6, by Abdu-r-rahman. 
In this once sacred rt/isvas and " Grove," 
this ^^ court ef the House of God," 
importunate beggars, although bearded, 
cloaked, Homeric, and patriarchal, 
worry the stranger and dispel the illu- 
sion. Ascend the belfry tower, which, 
like the Giralda, was shattered by a 
hurricane in 1593 ; it was recased and 
repaired the same year by Feman Buiz, 
a native of this city. The courtyard 
was bmlt by Said Ben Ayub in 937 ; 
it is 430 feet by 210. The 19 entrances 
into the mosque are now closed, save 
that of the centre. Observe the miliary 
columns found in the middle of the 
mosque during the repairs of 1532: 
the inscriptions (re-engraved in 1732 !) 
record the distance, 114 miles, to Cadiz, 
from the Temple of Janus, on the site 
of which the mosque was bmlt. The 
interior of the cathedral is like a 
basilicum, for the Moors introduced a 
new style of building in Spain, n* 
rather ppQverted the basilicum tc 



mosque, as they had adapted the Bible 
to the Koran. This specimen offers 
the finest type in Europe of the true 
temple of Islam. The labyrinth, a 
forest or quincunx of pillars, was chiefly 
constructed out of the materials of a 
temple of Janus, consecrated to St. 
George by the aoths. Out of the 1200 
monolithic columns — now reduced to 
about 850 — ^which once supported its 
low roof, 115 came from Nismes and 
Narbonne, in.France ; 60 fix)m Senile 
and Tarragona, in Syain ; while 140 
were presented by Leo, Emperor of 
Constantinople; the remainder were 
detached &om the temples at Carthage 
and other cities of Afirica ; the columns 
are in no way uniform — some are of 
jasper, porphyry, verd-antique, and 
other choice marbles : neither are their 
diameters equal throughout, the shafts 
of some which were too long having 
been either sawed off or sunk into the 
floor to a depth of four and even five 
and six feet ; while in those too short, 
the deficiency was supphed by means 
of a huge and disproportionate Corin- 
thian capital, thus destroying all har- 
mony and uniformity. The Moslem 
was the thief of antiquity. This pas- 
sion of the Arabs for appropriating 
Boman remains has always been and 
is general, wherever they settled ; the 
materials of their buildings were seldom 
extracted from the quarry. From the 
Tigris to the Orontes, from the Nile 
to the G^uadalquiver, the cities of the 
first settlers are entirely built fr^m 
the wreck of former ones. Ctesiphon 
and Babylon furnished materials for 
the private and public buildings of 
Baghdad ; Misr was transformed into 
the modem Cairo : Tunis rose out of 
the ruins of Carthage ; and in Spain 
few are the Koman cities whose site 
was not changed by the conquerors, 
by transporting their materials to a 
distance of two, three, and even more 
miles, from the original spot whereon 
they stood ; this being principally the 
case whenever the deserted city occu^ 
pied the centre of a plain or vaUey ; 
" ir the Arabs, from habit, as weU as 
an instinct of self-preservation, 

always chose to locate themselves on 
high ground, as most calciJilated for 
defence. The old sites are to be traced 
by the distinguishing epithet Im Vte^'a, 
which is equivalent to the Qreek. ra 
vretXeuK^ the Moorish JBaleea, the Turk- 
ish Esky Kallu Our Old Sarum is 
an apt illustration, where the ancient 
city was absorbed by more modem 
Salisbury, and used up, serving in its 
decay to elevate its rival. 

Abdu-r-rahman began the present 
mosque, July 2, 786, copying that of 
Damascus ; dying June 10, 788, it was 
finished by ms son Hixem in 793-4, 
and was called Ceca, Zeca^ the house 
of purification, the old Epyptian Sekos 
(fntcaSi adytum). In sanctity it ranked 
as the third of mosques, equal to the 
Alaksa of Jerusalem, and second only 
to the Caaba of Mecca. Conde, i. 226, 
details its magnificence and ceremo- 
nials. A pilgrimage to this Ceca was 
held to be equivalent in the Spanish 
Moslem to that of Mecca, where he 
could not go : hence andar de zeca en 
meca became a provwb for wanderings, 
and is used by Sancho Fanza when 
soured by blanket-tossings. The area 
is about 394 feet E. to W. ; 356 feet 
N. to S. The pillars divide it into 19 
longitudinal and 29 transverse aisles; 
the laterals are converted into chapels. 
Observe the singular double arches 
and those which spring over pillars, 
which are one of the earHest deviations 
from the Basilica form : the columns, 
as at Peestum, have no plinths, which 
would be inconvenient to pedestrians. 
Some of the upper arches are beauti- 
fully interlaced like ribands. The roof 
is about 35 feet high, and originally 
was fiftt before the modem cupolas 
were substituted by one VaUe Le- 
desma in 1713. The real lowness is 
increased by the width of the interior, 
just as the height of the gothic is 
increased by the narrowness' of the 
aisles. The alerce wood of which it is 
formed remained as sound as when 
placed there nearly eleven centuries ago; 
and, when taken down, the planks 
were much sought after by the .guitar 
makers. This tree, caUad in the 




Arabic dialect of Granada, Erza, Src 
the Sreg of the Hebrew, the Laris of 
Barbary (the root of Larix^ larch), is 
the Thuja, the Thus articijilata, or arbor 
yitse, which in the time of the Moors 
grew plentifully near the Ghtmiel, as it 
still does in the Berber mountains, 
beyond Tetuan, from whence it was 
brought here (Morales, ' Ant. de Esp.' 
123). Spain was always celebrated for 
the durabihty of its tunber and excel- 
lence of its workmanship. The Phoe- 
nicians were the great carpenters of 
antiquity, and selected as such by 
Solomon for the temple at Jerusalem 
(1 Kings v.). Pliny, * N. H.» (xvi. 40) 
speaks of the antiquity of the beams of 
the temple of Saguntum, which were 
durable like those of Hercules at Cadiz 
(Sil. Ital. iii. 18). 

Visit the Capilla de yUlaviciosa, 
once the Maksurah^ or seat of the kalif. 
Observe the Mih-raby the elaborately 
ornamented cabinet or recess in which 
the Alcoran was placed, and where the 
kalif performed his Chotbd, or public 
prayer, at the window looking to the 
Cfeca, or sanctum sanctorum. Observe 
the quaint lions, like those in the Al- 
hambra, and the Azidejos^ and the 
arabesque stucco, once painted in blue 
and red, and gilded. The inscriptions 
are in Cuphic. This spot has been 
sadly disfigured by Spanish alterations. 
Visit the Calle San FedrOy once the 
Cella, the "Ceca," the Holiest of Ho- 
lies, and the kiblaJiy or point turned to 
Mecca, which lies to the E. from Spain, 
but to the S. from Asia ; observe the 
glorious Mosaic exterior unequalled in 
Europe, and of truly Byzantine rich- 
ness. The Greeks soon made Mends 
with the dynasty of Cordova as the 
natural enemy of their eastern anta- 
gonist the kalif of Damascus. Accord- 
ing to Edrisi, this splendid Mosaic was 
sent to Cordova irom. Constantinople 
by the Emperor Komanus 11. It was 
their '4'nfvffis, which the Moors pro- 
nounced Tsefysa, Sofezaba. There is 
nothing finer in this kind at Palermo 
or Monreale. A paltry refa rails off 
the tomb of the constable Conde de 
Oropesa, by whom, in 1368, Cordova 

was saved from Don Pedro and the 
Moors. Its Spartan simplicity con- 
trasts with the surroimding gorgeous- 
ness. This chapel the Spaniards call 
Del ZancarroUy in derision of the foot- 
bone of Mahomet; the chapel is an 
octaeon of 15 ft. ; the roof, made in 
the mrm of a shell, is wrought out of 
a single piece of marble. The pilgrim 
compassed this Ceca seven times, as 
was done at Mecca; hence the foot- 
worn pavement. 

The lateral chapels of the cathedral 
are not very interesting. Pablo de 
Cespedes, ob. 1608, is buried in front 
of that of San Pablo: by him are the 
paintings of St. John, St. Andrew, and 
a neglected " Last Supper," once his 
masterpiece. In the Calle San Nicolas 
is a Berruguete Betablo, and paintings 
by Cesar Arbasia, of no merit. In the 
Capilla de los Reyes was buried Alonso 
XI., one of the most chivalrous of 
Spanish kings — the hero of Tarifa and 
Algeciras : his ashes have been moved 
to Sn, JlipoUto, but his ungrateful 
country has not even raised a poor slab 
to his memory. In the Capilla del 
Cardenal is the rich tomb of Cardinal 
Pedro de Salazar, ob. 1706. It is 
churrigueresque ; the statues are by 
Jos^ de Mora. In the Panteon below 
are some fine marbles. The two bad 
pictures in the Sacristia, and ascribed 
to Alonso Cano, are only copies. The 
church plate once was splendid ; the 
empty cases and shelves remain from 
whence Dupont and his plunderers 
carried off many waggon loads. A few 
cinque-cento crosses and chalices were 
secreted, and thus escaped, like the 
Custodia. This is a noble Gothic sU- 
ver-gilt work of Henrique de Arphe, 
1517. It was injured in 1735 by the 
injudicious additions of one Bemab^ 
Garcia de los Eeyes. The marvel, 
however, of the verger, the great and 
absorbing local lion, is a rude cross 
scratched on a pillar, and, according to 
an inscription, by a Christian captive 
with his nail (? a nail) — Hizo el Can- 
tibo con la Una. 

So much for the Mosque. The mo- 
dem addition is the Coro; this w 



Sect, II. 

done in 1523 bj the Bishop Alonso 
Maniique. The city corporation, with a 
taste and judgment rare in such bodies, 
protested against this "improTement;" 
but Charles V., unacquainted with the 
locaUty, upheld the prelate. When he 
passed through in 1526, and saw the 
mischief, he thus reproved the chap- 
ter ; — " You have built here what vou, 
or any one, might have built anywhere 
else ; but you have destroyed what was 
unique in the world. You have pulled 
down what was complete, and you have 
begun what you cannot finish." And 
yet this man, who could see so clearly 
the motes in corporate eyes, was the 
Yandal who disfigured the Alcazar of 
SeviQe, and tore down portions of the 
Albambra, to commence a palace, which 
even now is unfinished ; oh ! fit ruler 
of Spaniards, whose poor performance 
ever shames their mighty promise ! 

The Coro was commenced by Feman 
Buiz in 1523, and completed in 1593, 
The cinque-cento ornaments and roof 
are picked out in white and gold. The 
Silleria, by Pedro D. Comejo, is chur- 
rigueresque ; he died in 1758, set. 80, 
and is buried near the Capilla Mayor. 
The excellent Eetahlo wi^ designed, in 
1614, by Alonso Matias ; the paiating 
is by Palomino, and is no better than 
his writings ; the tomb, Al lado de la 
Bpistolay is that of the beneficent 
Bishop Diego de Mardones, ob. 1624. 
Lope de Eueda lies buried enire los 
dos coros. For other details consult 
the Descri^ciarty &c., of Casus Deza, 
D'*^ Cordoba, 1847. 

The walk round the lonely walls is 
picturesque. They are Moorish, and 
buUt of ta,pia; with their gates and 
towers they must have been nearly 
similar to that original circumvaUation 
as described by Csesar (B. C. ii. 19). 
Observe the palms overtopping the wall 
&om a convent garden near the Puterta 
de Plasenda. The first pakn ever 

Elanted in Cordova was by the royal 
and of Abdu-r-rahman, who desired 
to have a memorial of his much-loved 
and always regretted Damascus ; his 
nlaintive sonnet is still extant. The 
'^9gon tower, near this Fu0rta» La 

Mala Muertey was erected in 1406 by 
Enrique III. 

The Moors and Spaniards have com« 
bined to destroy all the Soman anti- 
quities of Cordova. The aqueduct was 
taken down to build the convent of 
San Jeronimo. In 1730 an amphi- 
theatre was discovered during some 
accidental diggings near San Pablo, and 
reinterred. In making the prisons of 
the Inqxusition some statues, mosaics, 
and inscriptions were found, all of 
which were covered again by the holy 
tribunal as being Pagan. Formerly 
there were 35 convents, besides 13 
parish churches, in this priest-ridden 
city ; most of these are overloaded with 
barbaric churrigueresque and gilding. 
Ambrosio Morales was buried in Ijos 
Martyresy where his friend the Arch- 
bishop of Toledo, Kojas Sandoval, 
placed a tomb and wrote an epitaph ; 
the ashes were moved in 1844 to the 
Colegiata de San HipoUto, The Plaza^ 
with its wooden galleries, and the Calle 
de la Feria, abound with Prout-like 
bits. Observe a common-place modem 
portico of 6 Composite pillars, by Ven- 
tura Bodriguez, much admired here. 
Some 250 bad pictures were got to- 
gether in the Colegio de la Asuncwn, 
The sword of the Rey Chico and the 
Arabic bell of Samson maybe inquired 
after. Medieval Cordova totters and 
every day disappears : the fine old 
houses of the ruined nobihty and ab- 
sentees are either converted to vile 
purposes or pulled down. The con- 
vents shared the same fate. The tra- 
veller may visit La Correderay once 
the plaza for tournaments and bull- 
fights. A grand new arena has been 
raised at the Paseo Grand Capitan. 
The Moorish house I/a Cuadra, on 
the Plazuela San NicolaSy deserves 
notice. Commerce has fled with arts 
and arms. The peculiar leather, called 
from, the town Cordwainy Cordovan, 
was once celebrated, but the Moors 
carried their art and industry to Mo- 
rocco: a few miserable tanpits near 
the river mark the difference between 
the present and former proprietors. 
The chief manu&ctures at present ar^ 




olives and tubs for them. Cordova 
was always most servile and priest- 
ridden; the theatre in Ferd. VII.' s 
time was closed, because some nuns 
saw the devil dancing on the roof. 
Thus, in ancient times, the brazen tree 
of Apollo remonstrated when a dancer 
came near it, who was torn to pieces 
by the priests (Athen. xiii. 605). Cor- 
dova is now dying of atrophy : it has 
neither arms nor men, leather nor pru- 
nella J the first blow was dealt by the bar- 
barian Berbers, the last by the French. 
A morning's excursion may be made 
to the Val ParaisOy and the hermitages 
in the Sierra Morena ; the path ascends 
through gardens. At Scm Francisco 
de la Arrizafa was the fairy villa, the 
Bizzifah of Abdu-r-rahman, i. e. " the 
pavement " — ^unde Arricife ; Conde and 
the accurate Q-ayangos have detailed 
from Arabic authorities the historical 
but almost incredible luxuries of this 
Aladdin pa^ce. This museum of Ori- 
ental art, like the viUa of Hadrian, near 
Tivoli, was eittirely destroyed, Feb. 18, 
1009. The chief leaders, says the histo- 
rian Ibnu-r-rakik, were only " ten men, 
who were either sellers of charcoal {car- 
honeros), butchers, or dung-carriers" 
(Moh. D. ii. 228 and 488). The inha- 
bitants made no resistance ; now, even 
the traces of these palaces cannot be 
made out — etiam periere rmnsB. A 
scheme has recently been set on foot 
to make excavations and researches. 

The hermitages on the Sierra above 
were to Andalucia what Monserrat was 
to Catalonia: desecrated andsuppressed, 
they now are hardly worth going up to ; 
the excursion, however, affords a true 
notion of Andalucian vegetation, and 
the views from above are extensive. 

The hermitages on the Sierra — a 
Thebais, a Laura, a Moimt Athos — 
never wanted a tenant of the bravest 
and best bom; in the Iberian tem- 
perament, as in the Onental-^inedia 
et labor — ^violent action and repose are 
inherent. The half monk, half soldier 
crusader, after a youth of warfare and 
bloodshed, retired with grey hairs to 
cleanse with holy water his blood- 
stained hands. This was the cold fit, 

the reaction after the fever ; some ex- 
citement, too, was necessary, and as the 
physical forces decayed, a moral stimu- 
lant was resorted to (see Monserrat, 
p. 419.) 

Cordova has never recovered the 
fatal June, 1808, when it was entered 
by Ghen. Bupont : although no resist- 
ance was made, the populace was 
massacred, and the city, Mezquita, 
and churches were plimdered (Foy, 
iii. 231) ; every one, says Maldo- 
nado (i. 291), from, the general to the 
fraction of a drummer-boy, giving 
themselves up to pillage. The officers 
vied with the rank and file (Madoz, vi. 
658). The "plunder exceeded ten 
millions of reals:" 8000 ounces, or 
25,000^., were found in Dupont's lug- 
gage alone ; see Maldonado (i. 335) ; 
who, with Toreno (iv,), gives all the 
scandalous details. 

Q-eneral ViUoutreys, who was sent to 
Paris with the news, although travel- 
ling express, halted a day at Bayonne, 
to convert his illgotten Spanish gold 
into lighter French billets de banque 
(Maldonado, i. 333) : compare Biod. 
Sic. (v. 305) and his character of the 
" excessive love for buUion " of the old 
Gbul. Well may Bory exclaim (La- 
borde, iii. 201) that " Le souvenir du 
Varus Fran9ais est demeure odieux 
aux citoyens de Cordoue." Even Foy, 
in spite of his " generous patriotism," 
does not dare to hide the notorious 
truth : he tells the sad details (iii. 231), 
the sack of the mosque, the inex- 
cusable butchery of peaceful, defence- 
less midtitudes. In the words of even 
Thiers it was "«»« veritable brigan- 
dage?^ Our Napier (i. 8), notwith- 
standing, asserts that, "as the inha- 
bitants took no part in the contest, 
and received the French without any 
signs of aversion " (thus far he is cor- 
rect), " the town was protected from 
pillage!" Buonaparte, however, who 
knew the real facts, told Savary that 
he could only account for the " un- 
usual cowardice and subsequent defeat 
of Dupont's troops at Bailen, fiwn a 
fear of losing their plunder," — anc? 
was right. Those who rob, as 



Duke told so often the Spaninrds and ' 
Belgians, are worth nothing when 
iaoed against the enemy. 

There is a bridle cross-road from 
Cordova to Granada, 22^ L. (see K. 
14), and a new road is contemplated to 
Malaga, vi4 Feman Nunez, Monte- 
mayor, Montilla, Aguilar, Benamegi, 
and Antiquera, which, if finished, will 
bring Malaga in land and carriage 
communication with Madrid, Seville, 
and Cadiz. Meantime the roads of this ! 
rich province are most disgraoefid. 

Quitting Cordova at 2 L, the G-iia- 
dalquivir is Crossed by the noble bridge 
of dark marble, built by Charles III., 
at Alcolea, This is so fine that the 
Spaniards say that the French, when 
they saw it, asked if it were not made 
in France. Alcolea is a common name 
in Spain, being the Alcalahy the for- 
tress, the outpost of the Moors. Here, 
June 7, 1808, Pedro Echavarri, a ** re- 
turned convict, half madman and entire 
coward" (Schep. i. 280), who had pro- 
moted himself to the rank of lieut.- 
general (thus Morillo and others rose 
to rank), with some thousand men, 
ought to have stopped Dupont, but at 
the first French advance this general 
turned and fled,'never halting until he 
reached Ecija, 40 m. off; others ran 
even to Seville, and were the first 
messengers of their own disgrace (Foy 
iii. 229) ; then had Dupont pushed on, 
insteadof thinking of plunder, he would 
have won Andalucia without firing a 
shot. Ferdinand VII., however, in 
1814, instituted an order of honour 
for the prodi^ios de valor exhibited at 
Alcolea, and gave Echavarri the only 
grand cross. All this is omitted by 
Madoz (i. 456). Again, in 1836, the 
dastardly citizens of Cordova yielded 
to a handful of men under Gk)mez, 

Near Alcolea is the great stable La 

Megalada^ for the onee celebrated 

breeding-grounds of Cordovese barbs : 

the establishment has never recovered 

since the best stallions were carried off 

by the invaders. At Carpio, with its 

^,J|[oorish tower, built in 1325, the 

■^me begins to change, the women 

g green serge gayas^ and hand- 

kerchiefs and shawls instead of man- 
tillas. Passing through fertile tracts 
of com and oUves is Andujar, Andura, 
a dull unwholesome town on the G-ua- 
dalquivir of 9000 souls, with an old 
dilapidated bridge : the dihgence inn 
is decent. For history consult Vida de 
Santa JEufratia y Oirigen de And/nyar, 
Antonio Terrenes de Kobres, 4to. Gran. 
1657. Here are made the porous 
cooling clay drinking- vessels, alcarra- 
zas, Arabic^ Karaset, which, filled 
with water and arranged in stands or 
tallaSf are seized upon by thirsty 
Spaniards on entering every venta. 
The I*arroquia 8a/nta Marina was a 
mosque : the monies in the neighbour- 
hood abound in game. At Andujar 
were signed two memorable docu- 
ments ; first, July 23, 1808, the con- 
vention of Bailen, and secondly, Aug. 
8, 1823, the decree of the Duke of 
Angouldme, whereby superiority was 
assumed by the French over all Spanish 
authorities. This was resented by the 
whole Peninsula, for it touched the 
national Sspanoligmo, or impatience 
under foreign dictation ; it converted 
every Mend, nay, even the recently 
deHvered Ferdinand YII., into a foe 
to the knife. 

From Andujar there is a carriage- 
able road to Jaen, 6 Xi., and thence to 
Grranada, Bte. 16. 

Continuing on to Madrid the road 
soon ascends the hills, over a broken 
country, down which the Bumblar 
boils. The memorable battle of Bailen 
took place between the post-houses La 
Casa del Bey And JBailen. BAILEN! 
This great name, which first, which 
last is repeated by Spaniards, is the 
one victory, the hapworth of triumph 
which covers a multitude of intolerable 
defeats, such as in no history can be 
paralleled except by that of themselves. 
BAILEN, where " Nosotros crushed 
the veterans of Austerlitz and Ma- 
rengo," [Dupont's troops being, in 
fact, raw conscripts and " des soldats 
novices" Foy, iv. 109,] " and thereby 
saved, not Spain alone, but Europe !" 
As the road to Madrid offers little to 
look at or write about, the real truth 




may at onoe amuse the English and 
instruct the Spanish reader while jour- 
neying over dreary and dull La Mancha. 

When Cuesta had, by being beaten 
at Bioseco, opened Madrid to the 
French, Buonaparte and Murat con- 
sidered the conquest of Andalucia 
to be merely a promenade militaire. 
Dupont accordingly was sent from 
Toledo, May 24, 1808, with 10,000 
men, and boasted that on the 21 st 
of June he should be at Cadiz : his 
forces were next increased by 12,950 
more men under Vedel j but Dupont 
mismanaged the whole campaign : he 
arrived, without obstacles, at Andujar, 
and then neither pushed on to Cadiz, 
nor fell back on Madrid while the 
mountains were open. Meanwhile Cas- 
tanos was enabled to move his hitouos 
from Algeciras, by the help of a loan 
advanced by the merchants of G-ibraltar, 
and marched towards Andujar with 
25,000 men : his army, both in men and 
generals, was little more than nomin- 
ally Spanish, although Madoz, iu. 303, 
says they were casi todos Andaluces ! 
The 1st division was Swiss, and com- 
manded by Beding, a Swiss ; the 2nd 
was commanded by De Coupigny, a 
Frenchman ; the 3rd by Jones, an 
Irishman, and the best troops were 
Walloons. The 4th division, which 
really consisted of Spaniards, who now 
claim all the glory, never fired a shot, 
and Castanos, their chief, only arrived 
after the battle was gained ; previously 
Dupont had so mismanoeuvred and 
scattered his forces, that Castanos, by 
marching Keding to the r., got between 
him and Vedel. The positions were 
singular, each being placed in these 
hilly defiles between two fires : Dupont 
between Castanos and Beding, Beding 
between Dupont and Vedel. 

July 18, Dupont quitted Andujar 
like a thief in the night. So careless 
was the Spanish look-out, that the 
enemy had marched five hours before 
Castanos even knew that he was gone. 
Dupont was met at daybreak of the 
19th by Beding and Coupigny, drawn 
up in a strong hill position. The 
battle was of short duration, for the 

Fi'ench had become demoralized by 
indulgence in pillage ; more than 1500 
men were actually employed in guard- 
ing the " impedimenta," or waggons of 
plunder j thus, as at Victoria, the 
crime entailed its own punishment. 
But according to Justin (xxxii. 2) such 
defeat is no unusual consequence of 
G^allic plunder, and especially when 
sacrilegious; hence the classical prO" 
verb Aurum Tolosanvm^ the curse- 
entailing pillage of Delphos, which 
haunted the French of Toulouse, and 
the comrades of Brennus. Such was 
the just retribution of Nemesis, Ultor 
SaorcB peounuB. And some high offi- 
cers, says Foy (iv. 100), " anxious to 
secure their butin infame, were ready 
to listen to dishonour;" the uneven 
country was also in fiivour of Beding, 
as it rendered all scientific manoeuvring 
impossible; in short it was a Bon- 

The report of the firing during the 
contest brought up La Pena with the 
4th Spanish brigade, and Vedel with 
his division ; thus Beding was attacked 
in front and rear by Dupont and Vedel, 
while Dupont was exposed in the same 
manner to Beding and La Fefia ; but 
the Spaniards arrived first, for Vedel 
had halted some hours to permit his 
troops to convert into soup a flock of 
goats which they had caught: thus 
nearly 20,000 Frenchmen were sold 
for a mess of pottage : " La destin^ 
des nations depend de la mani^re dont 
elles se nourrissent," says Brillat Sa- 
varin. This ought to be a warning to 
so truly great a gastronomic nation, 
how they meddle with the cuisine of 
the rude Iberians, who were sad goat- 
eaters, according to Strabo (iii. 155, 

All parties were anxious to come to 
some terms, particularly the chiefs, Du- 
pont and Castanos; indeed the latter, 
on his arrival, after all the fighting 
was over, would have readily granted a 
convention of Cintra had he not been 
prevented by Count Tilli, a sort of 
commissioner of the Seville junta. 

Every moment's delay rendered the 
position of the French more desperate 



Sect II. 

The burning Andalucian sim, and the 
want of water, were more formidable 
than the Spaniards. Bead Livj (xxxiv. 
47) to see a former example of these 
effects on a French army. When the 
troops ventured down to the stream 
below, they were shot by hornet swarms 
of armed peasants. Eventually, on 
the 23rd, 17,635 Frenchmen laid down 
their arms. The panic spread far and 
wide: whole detachments of French 
along the road to Madrid volun- 
teered their own submission. Joseph 
Buonaparte fled £rom Madrid in- 
stantly, having first pillaged every- 
thing J but the invaders ran away 
from the coming shadows of only their 
own fears, for Castanos, so far from 
advancing on the foe, more amazed at 
his victory, than even the French at 
their defeat, actually marched back to 
Seville to dedicate flags to St. Ferdi- 
nand : nor did he reach Madrid until 
Aug. 23, when he proceeded to kneel 
before the Atocha image of the Virgin, 
and thank her for her interference 
(Sohep. i. 458). Meanwhile Buona- 
parte was silently preparing his great 
revenge unmolested by the Spaniards, 
who quietly reposed under their laurels, 
not taking the smallest steps even to 
dislodge the French runaways from the 
line of the Ebro ; they thought the war 
concluded by one blow ; and even the 
sober English caught the infection, 
and imagined Bailen to be a tragedv 
to be repeated whenever the French 
appeared, until further notice. The 
rewards given to Castanos, this con- 
queror by deputy, were as slow as his 
military movements ; he was not made 
Duque de Bailen until nearly a quarter 
of a centiuy afterwards, and then 
simply and solely because Christina 
was anxious to create a liberal party 
•for her own ends. To his praise be it 
said that he was free from mean jea- 
lousies, and cheerfully served under 
the Duke of Wellington, and of all his 
countrymen was b^t liked by their 
allies. He was fully aware of his own 
utter military incapacity, and being a 
true JPillo Andaluz, cut his joke on 
himself and on everything else. Thus, 

when Dupont on delivering his sword, 
made a grandiloquent speech in the 
Honneur et Patrie style : " this is the 
first time mon ^p^e has witnessed de- 
feat." "Ma foi," replied Castanos, 
" what is odder still, this is the first 
time mine has witnessed a victory." 

Castaflos, who trimmed and wea« 
thered all the storms of Spanish poli- 
tics, died liked by all Sept. 2drd, 1852, 
aged 95. On the 14th of that month, 
also full of years and honours, our great 
Duke had led the way, as he was wont. 
They indeed justly represent the shares 
of the real work done in the war of in- 
dependence by England and Spain. 

Castanos was a gentleman, and to 
his honour opposed the Punic manner 
in which the convention of Bailen was 
broken on some quibble about the 
impossibility of sending the French 
home in ** Spanish ships." Thus retalia- 
tion and poetical justice were satisfied 
rather than good faith. The French, 
who had sowed in the storm, nowreaped 
in the whirlwind. "They were treated,*' 
says Southey (ch. viii.), " as criminals 
rather than soldiers ; as men who had 
laid down their arms, but could not lay 
down their crimes." "On leur re- 
clamait avec menaces et injures lea 
vases sacr^s des ^lises," (Foy, iv, 
107). Many were massacred in cold 
blood on the road, others were starved 
in the Cadiz hulks, the rest were ex- 
posed on the desolate island of Cabrera, 
without food or clothing, to feed on 
each other like howling wild beasts, in 
spite of the indignant remonstrances of 
English officers, who are now charged 
by some French! with the guilt of 
the very crimes, which they did every 
thing in their power to prevent. 

Buonaparte concealed Bailen and the 
truth from his slaves : " Les Fran9ais,** 
says Foy, " n'en eurent m^me pae con- 
naissance." When the retreat from 
Madrid could no longer be kept back, 
he only hinted in the * Moniteur,' Sept. 
6, that the heat of the weather and tlie 
superiority of the Ebro water were 
the causes ; just as at Trafalgar he 
ascribed the accidental disaster to 
the elements. Barring this femfaron- 




nade, his militaiy genius fully compre- 
hended how Utile Spanish strategies 
had caused the victory ; and, writing 
immediately after the disaster, he re- 
marked, " Les Espagnols ne sont pas 
h craindre, toutes les forces Espagnoles 
ne sont pas capables de culbut^ 25,000 
Fran^aiB dans une position raison- 
nable ;" and subsequent events showed 
how true was this opinion. He never 
again lost any great battle with the 
Spaniards, and in a few months routed 
these very heroes of Bailen, who dis- 
played everywhere the most incredible 
cowardice and incapacity. Even Sche- 
peler observes, "Le son de ce mot 
Bailen produisitimvertigede triomphe, 
et livra d Buana/parte mainte armee 
Sspa^nole" This victory of an acci- 
dent really proved to Spaniards a dis- 
aster, for they now took the exception 
for the rule, and imagined that their 
raw levies, wanting in evCTything, and 
led by incapable officers, coidd beat 
the h^hly organised veterans of France 
led by good commanders ; in vain the 
Duke urged them to keep to their hiUs, 
and wage a Fabian defensive warfiu«, 
which history, the nature of the broken 
country, and the adn^rable guerilla 
qualities of the Spanish people pointed 
out. " I am afiratid,'* said the Duke, 
" that the wtmost we can hope for is, 
to teach them how to avoid being heat. 
li we can e£Eect that object, I hope we 
might do the rest" (Disp. Aug. 18, 
1812). But their Eepanolismo took 
huff; they were not to be taught ; 
and these " children in the art of war" 
were naughty enough to quarrel with 
their kind nurse and well-meaning 
instructor. Bailen always interfered ; 
they were always fighting it over again, 
planning how to catch all the French 
' at once in one trap. This idea led them 
to quit the mountains and descend into 
the ffttalplains, theretoextendtheirUnes, 
in order to surround the enemy and 
catch him in a trap, when these Tartars, 
by one cha/rge of cavalry ^ generally put 
them to rout. 

Meanwhile the effect of Bailen was 
electrical; for the truth could not be 
quite stifled, even in France. Europe 

aroused from her moral subjection \ 
Spain retook her place among nations j 
and England, thinking her now worthy 
of her friendship, rushed to her final 

After nearly forty years, a monument 
was talked about being erected on thifl 
glorious site ; and even this, a thing of 
accident, was not got up to honour 
Castanos or his troops, but to express 
by a side wind the national disgust at 
the marriage of the Spanish In&nta 
with the French Due de Montpensier. 

A more curious monum^it will be the 
official Spanish book that is to be 
written on the battle, in order to confute 
the statements in Thiers' ** historical 
romance;" just as Marliani was em- 
ployed as the mouthpiece of Castilian 
indignation, to rebut the same lively 
gentleman's version of Trafalgar. Mean- 
time the name Dupona was long given 
to "a croptailed rip," in coarse and 
horse parhmce in central Spain. 

The town of Bailen or BayUn, Be- 
tula, is most wretched, and is no bad 
sample of those of the dreary localities 
which we are approaching ; pop. under 
3000 : the diligence Parador de la Paz 
is a poor inn. There is a ruined castle 
here, with a machicolated tower belong- 
ing to the Benavente family, now to 
the Osuna; observe the palm-tree. 
Those who are going N. may now bid 
adieu to the vegetation of the tierra 
caliente, while those who are coming 
S. will welcome this harbinger of the 
land of promise. Now commences the 
pano pardo, the brown cloth, and the 
alpargata^ or the hempen sandal of the 
poverty-stricken Manchegos. 

Leaving Bailen the road enters the 
Sierra barrier, which rises between the 
central table-lands and the maritime 
strips ; and striking is the change of 
vegetation, the best test of climate, 
when this frontier is passed. The hilly 
road is admirably planned, having been 
executed by Charles Le Maur, a French 
engineer in the service of Charles III. 
These localities at the gorge of the 
mountains have naturally been the 
theatre of battle : in these parts Pub- 
lius Scipio defeated Asdrubal, and hr^ 



Sect. II. 

in modem times the Spaniards have 
twice worsted their most inveterate 
foes. About 2 L. to the rt. of Carolhia 
are IJas Navas de Tolosa. Navas is a 
Sasque word, and like the Ibman 
term Nav^ enters into names connected 
with " plains," — Navia, Navarra. This 
is the scene of a former Sailen, called 
de las Navas de Tolosa by the Spaniai'ds, 
and by Moorish annalists that of 
Al-'akab. Here, Monday July 16, 
1212, Alonso VIII. defeated Moham- 
med Ibn Abdallah, sumamed Annassir 
Ledin- Allah — the Defender of the Re- 
ligion of God — King of Morocco. 
The conquest of Toledo by the Chris- 
tians had led to a fresh invasion of 
Spain from Barbary : the news spread 
dismay over Christendom, and Inno- 
cent III. proclaimed a general crusade. 
It is said that no less than 110,000 
foreign crusaders came to assist the 
Spaniards from all parts of Europe, 
although the Spaniards claim all the 
glory for themselves, as in the Penin- 
sular war ; and, as scarcelv any n^en- 
tion is made of the Duke and the 
EngUsh, who did that deed, and all the 
glory taken to Nosotros, and this while 
thousands are alive who know the real 
truth, some doubts may be raised as 
to this former statement and exclusive 
claim, but no doubt that foreign auxili- 
aries bore at least their share in the bur- 
den of the fight. The allies left Toledo 
June 21, to meet the invaders. They 
found the passes guarded by the Moors, 
and despaired, when a shepherd, since 
ascertained to have been San Isidro 
himself (see Madrid), appeared miracu- 
lously and pointed out a by-path : so 
at Marathon, where a stranger, like 
San Isidro, in a rustic dress, assisted 
the Greeks, and then disappeared, the 
oracles afterwards declared him to be 
Hercules (Paus. i. 32). The Christians 
opened the attack; the Andalucian 
Moors, true to their old unwarlike cha- 
racter, were the first to turn and run 
(Conde, ii. 423). The remainder fol- 
lowed their example ; 200,000 infidels 
were killed, while scarcely 25 Christians 
fell ; so writes the pious and fighting 
archbishop Bodrigo, who was present : 

by birth a Frenchman, and fired with 
all the military spirit of his gallant na- 
tion, this eye-witness was a better hand 
probably at guess-work than arithmetic. 
He vouches also for the fact that no 
wood was burnt in the victor camp, 
except the spears, arrows, and (long) 
bows of the Moors. See, abo, p. 97, 
Annates Sec. de Jaen. Jurado. Those 
who have read any Spanish general's 
or junta's accounts of their victories ! 
during the Peninsular and recent wars, 
will see how little changed are these 
unchangeable romancers. The victory 
could not be folio wed up; the Spaniards, 
as usual, in want of everything, were 
unable to move; they therefore re- 
turned to Toledo, to thank San Hde- 
fonso, instead of marching on Seville; 
just as Castanos returned aftor Bailen 
to Seville, to thank St. Ferdinand, in- 
step of marching on Toledo. 

Carolina. Diligence Parador good. 
This is the chief place of the Nuevas 
Pohladones, or the new towns of this 
district: pop. 2800: it is tidy and 
clean, laid out by hne and rule, and 
in academical rectangular and common- 
place; perfectly uninteresting and un- 
Spanish, it is much admired by the 
natives, because so European and civi- 
lized. The fair skins of the people, 
and the roads planted with tre^, are 
more German than Iberian. These wild 
hills were formerly left to the robber 
and the wolf, without roads or villages. 
Spain, after colonizing the new world 
and expelling her rich Jews and indus- 
trious Moors, was compelled to re- 
people the Despoblados with foreign 
settlers. In 1767, Don Pablo Ola- 
vide, a Peruvian by birth, planned the 
immigration of Germans and Swiss to 
what they were told was a " mountain 
paradise," by a bribe of pecimiary as- 
sistance and promise of immunities; all 
these pledges were broken, and most of 
the poor foreigners died broken-hearted 
of the maladie du pays, execrating 
Punic Spain, and remembering their 
sweet Aj*gos. Olavide himself, this 
modem Cadmus or Deucalion, who had 
infused life into the silent mountains, 
and one of the few enlightened Assis- 




tontes Seville ever had, fell in his turn 
a victim to bigotry and ingratitude. 
One stipulation had been the non- 
admission of monkish drones into these 
new hives: k capuchin, named Ro- 
muald, thereupon denounced him to 
the Inquisition ; he was arrested in 
1776, his property confiscated, and he 
himself confined in a convent in La 
Mancha, subject to such a penance as 
the monks should inflict. He escaped 
into France, shaking Spanish dust off 
his feet for ever. 

The road made by Charles III. 
winds through a mountain gorge, with 
toppling crags above and around, some 
of which are called here los organos, 
from representing the pipes of a gigan- 
tic organ, and soon passes by Las Cor- 
rederas and the magnificent narrow 
gorge Despena-perros — " throw over 
dogs," meaning the " infidel houndes*" 
This is the natural gateway to dreary 
Jja Mancha, as Pancorbo is to Castile. 
Adieu now gay Andalucia and the tro- 
pical v^etation. Those who advance 
N. exchange an Eden for a desert, 
while those who turn their backs on 
the capital, at every step advance into 
a more genial climate and a kindlier 
soil. In the war of independence the 
Seville Junta only talked of fortifying 
this natural Thermopyl®, this Bolan 
pass J nothing was over done except on 
paper ; and after the rout of Ocana the 
runaways dared not even stand behind 
the rocks, where 100 old Q-reeks would 
have checked the advance and saved 
Andalucia. Jan. 20, 1810, the French, 
under DessolleSj forced the pass in spite 
of the heroes of Bailen and their ten 
thousand men, who dispersed "every 
man to his own home ;" and this on the 
plains of Tolosa ! yet the country is a 
natural fortress, and well did the Duke 
know its value. It might have been 
made the Torres Vedras of Andalucia. 
His plan, when he contemplated de- 
fending Andalucia, which failed from 
the Junta's suspicions regarding Cadiz, 
was to make Carolina his head-quarters. 
" I think," said he, " while I am there 
the French will not venture to pass the 
Sierra." Now, when he wa« not there, 

in two days, they forced 50 m. of almost 
impregnable passes. 

The province of La Mancha, into 
which we now enter, contains about 
7500 square m., with a scanty popula- 
tion of 250,000. It is chiefly table- 
land, elevated at a mean height of 2000 
feet above the sea-level. Although ap- 
parently a plain, it is very undulating j 
in the dips, occasionally, a streamlet 
creates a partial verdure and fertility. 
but water is the great want ; indeed, 
some see the origin of the name Mancha 
in the Arab Manxa — dry land. De- 
nuded of trees, it is exposed to the 
cutting wintry blasts, and scorched by 
the calcining summer heat : tawny and 
arid is the earth, while the dust, im- 
pregnated with saltpetre, and the fierce 
glare of the sun blmd the eye, wearied 
with prospects of imiform misery and a 
grievous want of anything worth notice, 
either in man or his works, or in the 
nature with which he is surrounded j 
the traveller is sickened with the wide 
expanse of monotonous steppes, and 
over which nought but the genius of a 
Cervantes could have thrown any 
charm, gilding, as it were, its unen- 
durable misery and dulness. 

The towns are few, poverty-stricken, 
and without a particle of comfort or 
interest: the mud-built villages, the 
abodes, of under-fed, ill-clothed la- 
bourers : besides the want of water, 
fuel is so scarce that dry dimg is sub- 
stituted, as in the East. These ham- 
lets, wretched enough before, were so 
sacked by the Duponts and Soults, 
that they never have recovered. The 
plains produce much com, safiroUj and 
in some places rich wines : the mules are 
celebrated. The Mamchego is honest, 
patient, and hard-working when there 
is any one to hire him ; his affections 
are more developed than his reason. 
Temperate, brave, and moral, he is 
attached and confiding when kindly 
used and honestly dealt with ; reserved 
and stem when he suspects ill-treat- 
ment and injustice. He is plainly 
clad in pano pardo, with a montera 
— the Iberian f/ur^a — on his head, a 
most inconvenient cap, which neithe** 



Sect. II. 

defends the head from the sun, the 
rain, or cold ; yet, in spite of all these 
untoward circumstances in man and 
his coimtry, this is the province of the 
song and dance, the Seauidillatxid Man- 
chega. Honest, homely Sancho Fanza is 
a reed Manchegan peasant. He is the true 
Juan JEspanoly the simple gaffer goosy, 
the John Bull of Spain. Dos Juanes con 
un PedrOy hacen un asnon entero. 

After passing the gorge of Despenor 
perros, to the rt. is the Venta de Car- 
denas ; here we think of Don Quixote, 
Gardenio, and Dorothea, for these fic- 
tions rank as reahti^. In the imme- 
diate Sierra to the 1. is the scene of 
the knight's penance. Near Torre 
Nueva he Uberated the galleyslayes. 
As we are now m Don Quixote's coun- 
try, and as it has heen our £site to pass 
no less than six times over this dreary 
road of bore, we entreat the traveller 
to arm himself beforehand with a Don 
Quixote: some intellectual provender 
is no less needful for the mind than 
** vivers and provend " are for the body 
in the hungry barrenness of La Mancha, 
so a few remarks on Cervantes may not 
be out of place here. 

According to M. Montesquieu, the 
sayer of smart things, " this, the one 
and only good book of Spain, is em- 
ployed in exposing the ridicule of all 
others." Certainly, for Don Quixote's 
sake, a vast tribe of Spanish sins in 
print may be spared, which, to no loss 
of mankmd, might be condemned to 
the fire of the Don's niece or the fiir- 
nace of the inquisition of Ximenez; 
but we must not suppose that it was 
written to put down knight*errantry ; 
that exponent of a peculiar age had 
passed with its age, and had Don 
Quixote been a mere satire on it, both 
the conqueror and conquered would 
long ago have been buried in the same 
grave and forgotten. Those who say 
that Cervantes "laughed Spain's chi* 
vahy away," forget that it had expired 
at least a century before his birth. It 
is impossible not to see that it is " Cer* 
vantes loquitur " all through, and that 
the tale is made the vehicle for his 
own chivalrous temperament, and for 

his philosophical comment on human 
life, his criticisms on manners, institu-> 
tions, and Uterature. The actors in the 
narrative — the " Cttra,^* for instance, 
the Canon, and Don Quixote himself 
— are the mouthpiece of the author, 
as the " Cautivo " is the hero of some 
of his real adventures when captive in 
Algiers. Don Quixote is a delmeation 
of the old high-bred CastUian, a hater 
of injustice and lover of virtue ; he ia 
indeed a monomaniac, but that one 
point is not one which is unbecoming 
to an hidalgo ; although the sweet bells 
of his intellect are jangled and out of 
tune, he is always the gentleman, al- 
ways disinterested, generous, elevated, 
and beneficent; he gradually recovers 
his senses in the second part, when our 
feelings of pity and sympathy, always 
strong in his favour, increase. Cer- 
vantes probably did not intend or anti- 
cipate the spirit of ridicule which he 
excited against this sentiment of " the 
chivalrous ;" accordingly the tone and 
character of his hero rise in the second 
part J he is exposed to somewhat fewer 
rude and less personal mishaps. Un- 
doubtedly Cervantes contributed to in- 
jure the heroical and energetic character 
of the old Castilian, for one cannot 
laugh at books of chivalry without in 
some wise affecting the principle ; but 
his real and avowed object was to put 
an end to the absurd I'omances wMch 
it was then all the fashion to read. 

The second part was produced fi^m 
an author imder the name of Alonzo 
Fernandez de AveUanada having put 
forth a spurious continuation, pub- 
lished at Tarragona, 1614. This called 
up the hitherto careless Cervantes, who 
has transfixed the plagiarist by the ban- 
derillas of his wit. He then became so 
chary of his hero that he killed him, in 
order, as Addison said of Sir Roger de 
Coverley, that no one else might mur- 
der him; then, as he says with honest 
pride, " did Cid Hamet BenEngeli lay 
down his pen, and place it up so high 
that none since have ever been able to 
take it down." This " canting " name 
of Ben Engel, is thought by Conde to 
shadow out in Arabic the Spanish word 




" Cervantes" the " son of the stag," 
Ciervo ; the final ez being in Basque no- 
menclature equivalent to our son, Juan- 
Juones, John- Johnson. The prefix, Ben- 
Ibn meaning " son " in the Arabic, is the 
French Fitz-fils, and Eggel-Agl is a stag. 

It is a mistake to consider Sancho 
Fanza (JPatmcK) to be a yulgar down j 
he is the homely, shrewd, natural native 
of La Mancha, and may be com- 
pared with the grave-diggers in " Ham- 
let," or the ^nfMs in Aristophanes. 
Kotwithstanding his preferring his 
belly to honour, and his hota to truth, 
his constant and truly Spanish refer- 
ence to self and his own interests, we 
love him for the true affection which 
he bears to his master, for his Boswell- 
like admiration, which hopes every- 
thing, believes everything, in spite of 
his hero's eccentricities, which he can- 
not help notickig and condemning. 

But none who have ridden far and 
long with a single humble Spanish 
attendant, will think either his cre- 
dulitv or confidence in theleast forced. 
The mfluence of the mcuter spirit over 
the moM is unbounded ; nor is it any 
exaggeration to say, that these squires 
end in beUeving their English " amo " 
to be invincible and infcQlible, if not 
supernatural, although not perhaps 
owing to a very orthodox spiritual con- 
nexion. Hence the Spanish troops, 
composed of such materials, enter- 
tained, said the Duke (Disp. May 6, 
1812), an opinion that our soldiers 
were invincible, and that it was only 
necessary for them to appear (like 
Santiago) to secure success. The at- 
tachment of these fine fellows becomes 
devotion, and they will follow their 
new master to the end of the world 
like a dog, leaving their own home, 
and kith and kin. Neither is the ad- 
mirable and decorous conduct of San- 
cho, when made a governor, at all in 
variance with Catholic Spanish or Ori- 
ental usages. There the serf is the 
raw matenal for the Pasha and Begent. 
" Dehajo de ser hombre puedo venir a 
ser Papa^* says Sancho. In Spain, as 
in the East, the veriest jack in office, 
ajrmed with authority, becomes in his 

petty locality the representative of the 
absolute king ; he suffices for the wel- 
fare of the many, or, it may be, their 
oppression, as the jawbone of an ass 
did in the hands of a Samson. Again, 
where laws and habits of ceremonial 
manner are so well defined, and the 
bearing of the lower classes so natu- 
rally mgh bred, every one on his pro- 
motion falls, like the Oriental, into his 
place, without effort or imcertaiaty. 

The spirit of wit which pervades 
Don Quixote is enhanced by the happy 
and original idea of bringing the sub- 
lime into a constant contact with 
the ridiculous ; hence the never-failing 
charm of the conversations of master 
and man, loa graciosos razonamientos, 
the well-compounded salad of prac- 
tical, utilitarian, all-for-the-main- 
chance, common sense, with the most 
elevated abstract romance of chivalrous 

fityaktypf^x**'^ * J^^ ^^^ opposition, how- 
ever marked, is always natural. The 
Hidalgo, tall, spare, and pimctilious, 
clad in armour and mounted on a steed 
worthy of the burden, is balanced by 
the short, round, fat, and familiar 
squire, clad in lus pano pardoy and 
straddling his ignoble "rucio" The 
one brave, temperate, and vigilant, the 
other cowardly, greedy, and somno- 
lescent: never was the tel maitre tel 
valet doctrine more contradicted. The 
master, always reasoning well and 
actiag absurdly ; the servant, like the 
Spaniard in general, seeing clearly and 
distinctly what is brought closely to 
him, but with no wider grasp than his 
own petty profit and locality. Both, 
however, are always and equally se- 
rious, and intensely in earnest; the 
knight never losing sight of his high 
caUmg, the squire of his own eating, 
inta:^t, and island, and, to make per- 
fection perfect, both speaking Spanish, 
that magnificent and ceremonious 
idiom, and yet so capable of expressing 
the proverbial mother wit of the lower 
classes. This state-paper language of 
big promise, and b^garly, not to say 
ridiculous, performance, has long been, 
and long wul be, the natural and ap- 
propriate yemacular of juntas and 



Sect. II. 

generals, and the multitudinous Quix- 
otes and Queeadas of the Peninsula. 

This truth to Spanish nature, and 
the constant contrast of the suhlime 
and the ridiculous, of grandeur and 
poverty, runs like a vein of gold 
throughout the whole novel. If true 
-wit consist in bringing together things 
-which have no apparent connexion, 
then all books must yield to this. The 
high is always being brought alongside 
the low by the master, and the low 
raised up to the high by the servant, by 
Don Quixote in ventas, and by Sancho 
among dukes and duchesses. It is the 
true Mock Heroic, and another charm 
is the propriety of the story : every- 
thing is possible, nay probable, to hap- 
pen to any one whose head was turned 
by knight - errantry, and who set 
forth in search of adventures at that 
period and in that country. The 
simple-spokffli villager, thus transported 
into new society, delights mankind by 
his earnestness, his absence of all pre- 
tension to be saying good things, and 
his utter imconsciousness of the merri- 
ment which they produce. He never 
laughs at his own jokes, which others 
do all the more, for although he never 
read a word of his coimtryman Quinc- 
tihan, he fiilly acts on his principle : — 
" Quam plurimimi dictis severitas af- 
fert, sitque ridiculum id ipsum quia qui 
dicit non ridet." (Inst. vi. 3.) So 
Sancho, like Falstaff, is not only droll 
himself, but the cause of wit in others. 
The happy idea of juxta-position of 
this novel is one reason why all nations 
love it; however ill translated, there 
is no mistaking the rich racy wit of 
sayings, doings, and situations ; from 
our delight in this well-conoeived plot, 
and in our eagerness to get on with the 
story, to the master and his man, we 
skim over the episodes, the beautiful 
descriptions, the rural and poetical dis- 
quisitions. The delicate Spanisl^ " Bor- 
r4icha" is, however, untranslatable; 
like Burgundy, it must be quaffed on 
the spot; the aroma is too fine for 
transportation. The proverbs of San- 
cho are comparatively misplaced out 
of Spain. To English ears they con- 

vey a sort of vulgarity, which they 
neither do, nor were intended to do, 
with Spaniards. Cervantes, like Shak- 
spere, is honourably distinguished from 
his contemporaries, by an avoidance of 
those coarse, dirty, and indecent allu- 
sions, which were then so prevalent in 
the picaresque and fSashionable Utera- 
ture, insomuch that he was condemned 
as austere: he felt that a want of 
decency is a want of sense. His 
moral is always high, he shuns and 
abhors the low, — odit profSa.num vulgus 
et aroet. With him repressed thought 
took refuge in light burlesque, in hidden 
irony, and side-wind assaults. His 
critical taste led him equally to eschew 
the affected euphuisms of the day ; his 
tact and judgment alwags kept his wit 
and ridicule in its proper place, while 
a rich air of poetry, and a dramatic 
delineation of character, which are 
breathed over the whole, show that he 
was not merely a writ-er of novels, but 
of tragedy almost reaching the epic. 
Never let Don Quixote be out of our 
readers* alforjas. Let it be one of the 
" little hooke " which Dr. Johnson said 
no man ought ever " not to have in his 
pocket." It is the best HAim-BOOE for 
La Mancha, moral and geographical: 
there is nothing in it imaginary except ^ 
the hero's monomania. It is the best 
comment on Spaniards, who themselves 
form the most explanatory notes on 
the work, which reflects the form and 
pressure of them and their country. 

One word on the different and the 
best editions of this Shakspeare of 
Spain.* Happy the man whose eve 
can glance on a goodly set of the 

* Cervantes and Shakspeare died nominally 
on the same day — Pellicer says, 23rd April, 
1616 ; but it must always be remembered, in 
comparing Spanish dates with English, that 
dates apparently the same are not so in reality. 
The Gregorian calendar was adopted in Spain 
in 1682, in England in 1751. We must there- 
fore make an allowance between the old style 
and the new style, and add to the English date, 
in order to obtain the true corresponding Spanish 
date previously to 1761, 10 days up to 1699, and 
11 afterwards. Cervantes lived and died poor. 
Spain, ever ungratefiil to those who serve her 
best, raised no monument to his memory. It 
is only the other day that she has given him a 
stone, to whom living she denied bread. 

Andcducia. route 9. — don quixote — best editions. 


earliest, worthily arrayed in fawn, olive, 
and tender-tinted old morocco! and 
such as may be seen in the Grenville 
collection ot the British Museum. The 
first edition of the first part, Juan de 
la Cuesta, Mad. 1605 ; the first edition 
of the same, as amended by the author, 
Juan de la Cuesta, Mad. 1608: the 
first edition of the second part, Juan 
de la Cuesta, Mad. 1615 ; and consult 
Brunet, " Manuel du Libraire" (i. 370^ 
and " Nouvelles Eecherchee" (i. 295). 
Of the reprints of the original text the 
first really fine one was published in 
London by Tonson, 4 toIb. 4to. 1737, 
as the first really critical one was that 
of John Bowles, 6 vols. 4to. 1781, and 
from which every subsequent commen- 
tator has borrowed largely. Of mo- 
dem Spanish editions the finest, that 
" de lujo" was published for the Aca- 
demy of Madrid, by Ibarra, 4 vols. fo. 
1780. That of Juan Ant°- Pellicer, 
6 vols. 8vo. Mad. 1797, contains many 
valuable notes. The last, and not the 
least, is that of Don Diego Clemencin, 
the author of the " Memoirs of Queen 
Isabella," 6 vols. 4to. 1833-39. 

Don Quixote has been translated 
into most languages ; but England, 
whose practical genius had anticipated 
this travestie of the knight-errant in the 
Sir Topaz of Chaucer, — England, the 
real nation for wit and genuine cari- 
cature, the land of Butler, Fielding, 
and Hogarth, — has published fistr more 
splendid translations of Don Quixote 
than the rest of the continent. The 
best, in some respects, is the earliest, 
that of Thomas Skelton, 1612-1620, 
which breathes the spirit of the age 
and quaint manners. Of those by 
Smollett, Jarvis, and Motteux, the last 
is the very worst. It is, however, a 
peccado mortal — a heresy — to read Don 
Quixote except in his own language. 
Such authors, like Dante, fix a language ; 
from the feeling that they cannot be 
adequately translated we learn the ori- 
giniQ. What idea can be formed of 
Shakspere, when curled and powdered 
by Monsieur Ducis? Even Schiller 
and Schlegel, translating into a cognate 
idiom a cognate work, have often 

Sjpain, — I, 

missed the charm, and turned English 
gold into German silver. 

Cervantes, like Velazquez, was not 
merely a portrait-painter of the Hidal- 
go, but a poet — a critic of poets, and 
somewhat too true a one to be very po- 
pular — ^an author of comedy, tragedy, 
satire, and light novels. To him was 
granted that rarest gift of the Deity, in- 
vention, that spark of the Creator's own 
prerogative. The popularity of Don 
Quixote has eclipsed, and justly, the 
other works of Cervantes, and his taste 
and style in the drama approached too 
nearly to the Greek theatre to succeed 
with Spaniards, whose Sspanolismo 
prefers the particular nature by which 
it is surrounded. His ^^Numantia" 
and " Trato de Argel" have been com- 
pared to the "Persae" and "Prome- 
theus." This Iberian -^schylus gave 
way before the rising sim of Lope de 
Vega ; he retired as Walter Scott did 
before Byfbn, to immortalise himself 
by hia novels. Lope de Vega was also 
imitated by the elegant and poetical 
Calderon and the soft harmonious Guil- 
len de Castro. These three illustrious 
authors were as nearly contemporaries 
as ^schylus, Sophocles, and Euripides 
among tlie Greeks; Shakspere, Ben 
Jonson, and Ford among the English. 
They elevated their stage to the highest 
pitch of excellence, from whence it 
soon declined, for such is the condition 
of human greatness. The first edition 
of the theatrical works of Cervantes, 
" Oeho Comeditts y Ocho Sntremeses" 
was published at Mad. by theViuda 
de ^onzo Martin, in 1615. It was 
republished at Mad. in 2 vols., 1749. 

The amusing little satire in verse of 
Cervantes, " El Vtcye al Pamcuo,^^ has 
not been sufficiently estimated out of 
Spain. The first edition is that of 
Aionzo Martin, Mad. 1614; Sancha 
republished it at Mad. in 1784. 
^ The first edition of his other novels, 
" Noveku exemplaresy" that of Juan de 
Cuesta, Mad. 1613, is rare : in default 
of which the collector must be con- 
tented with the Mad. edition of Sancha, 
2 vols. 1788 ; "Los trahafos de Persiles^* 
were first published at Mad. in 1617. 



One word now for honest Sancho 
Panza's proverbs, Refraiiea, which are 
peculiarly classical, Oriental, and 
Spanish. These ethical maxims, Tvtt- 
fMi, these wise saws and instances, are 
in the mouth of every Solomon or 
Sancho of the Peninsula ; they are the 
"refrain," the chorus and burden of 
their song : they are the philosophy of 
the many, the condensed experience and 
knowle^e of ages, when the wit of one 
man becomes the wisdom of thousands. 
The constant use of a refran gives the 
Spaniard his sententious, dogmatical 
admixture of humour, truism, twaddle, 
and common sense ; a proverb well in- 
troduced — magnas secat res : it is as de- 
cisive of an argument in Spain as a bet 
is in England. This shotting a dis- 
course always is greeted with a smile 
from high or low : it is essential, na- 
tional, and peculiar, like the pitched 
skin borracha to Spanish wines, and 
garhc in their stews : therefore we have 
sometimes larded our humble pages 
with this flavouring TK>ndiment. 

Collectors of Spanish proverbs may 
purchase JProverbzos, Lopez de Mendo- 
s(a, fol. Sevilla, 1509 ; JRefraneg, Her- 
nan Nunez el comendador, fol. Sala- 
manca, 1555 ; or the 4to. ed., Lerida, 
1621, which has the curious work of 
Mallara reprinted with it, the original 
edition of which, entitled Xa PhUoso- 
phia Vulgar^ by Joan de Mallara, is 
a folio, Sevilla, 1568, and absolutely 
necessary to curious collectors. There 
is also Lugarea commo/nesy 4to., printed 
at Madrid, 1613, by Juan de la Cuesta, 
the publisher of Cervantes. The mo- 
dem collection by BepuUes, in 6 duo. 
volumes, is use^. 

Scmta Cruz de Mudela is a dull, un- 
wholesome town: pop^ 5500,, It is cele- 
brated for its gurters, whi<^ the women 
offer for sale to the passengers ; some 
are gaily emlm>idered and enlivened 
with apposite mottos, e, g, 

** n digan ettat ligat 
Mispenas yfat^as." 

Soy de mi dueno ; FeUz quien las 
Ojparta; intrepido es amor, de todo sale 
vencidor; and so forth; but "Honi 
flpit qui mal y pense." Those epigram- 

mata are truly antique, and none wrote 
them neater than the Spaniard Mar- 
tial. Of such class was the inscription 
on the girdle of Hermione — ^iku ft$ *at 
f»n Xtnrthf *}f rif i^u ft,* trt^os : compare 
them with the devices on the Spanish 
cuchillos of Albeoete, the " cutler's 

Hence to ValdepenaSj a straggling 
mud-built place of some 11,000 souls, 
with an indifferent inn. The red blood 
of the grape issues from this valley of 
stones, and is the produce of the Bur- 
gundy vine, transplanted into Spain. 
The liquor is kept in caves and in huge 
tinajas or jars; when removed it i9 
put into goat and pig-skins, cueros, 
such as Don Quixote attacked. The 
wine, when taken to distant places, is 
generally adulterated; and, however 
much is pretended to be sold in Lon- 
don, '*neat as imported," nothing is 
more difficult than to get it there pure 
and genuine. When pure, it is rich, 
fruity, full-bodied, high-coloured, and 
will keep well, and improve for 10 
yeara. The best Sodegas are those 
which belonged to Don Carlos, Juan 
Puente, and the Marques de Santa 
Cruz, who has a mansion here. The 
wine is worth on the spot about 4Z. 
the pipe; the land-carriage is, how- 
ever, expensive, and it is apt, when 
conveyed in skins, to be tapped and 
watered by the muleteers, whence vino 
moro — ^that is, wine which has never 
been thus baptized — is proverbially 
popular: Yaldepenas sometimes goes 
wrong during the sea voyage ; the best 
plan is to send up double quarter sherry 
casks, which then must be conveyed to 
Cadiz or Santander. 

The town of Yaldepenas was sacked 
by the invaders, June 6, 1808, under 
Liger Bellair; 80 houses were burnt, 
and the unresisting, unarmed popula- 
tion, butchered in the cellars in drunken 
sport (Toreno, iv.). 

Yaldepenas lies about half-way be- 
tween Granada and Madrid; those 
who wish to go to Estremadura will 
turn off to the rt. through 8aceruela» 
The geologist and botanist, proceeding 
to Seville, may make a riding detour, 




viBiting Oiudad !Real and Almaden 
(see p. 247), and thence to Cordova, 
avoiding thereby the unintepesting 
angle of Bailen and Andujar; the 
route will be found at p. 221. 

After living Yaldepenas the misery 
of villages and villagers increases to 
Manzana/res. Pop. 9000. Ta/radordel 
CarrUlo* The men get browner and 
poorer, the women more ugly, country 
and cloaks more rusty and threadbare. 
Hemp is a luxury for shoes, and the 
rare stocking is made like that of Va- 
lencia, without feet, an emblem of a 
student's purse, open' and containing 
nothing. The cloaked peasants grouped 
around their mud cabins seem to be 
statues of silence and poverty, yet the 
soil is fertile in com and wine. At the 
Venta de Qaesada Don Quixote {que- 
gada, lantern-jawed) was knighted, and 
Cervantes must have sketched the actual 
inn, and its still existing well. The 
water communicateswith the Guadiana, 
the under-groimd Mole of Spanish 
rivers. Indeed, the ancient name, Anas, 
is derived from this " hide and seek " 
propensity ; Hcmcu in the Punic, and 
Sanaaa in the Arabic, signifying " to 
appear and disappear." It is called the 
lAtcalee by the Spanish Gitanos. The 
Wadi- Anas, like ^le Guadalquivir, eats 
its dull way through loomy IB^ks — a 
subterranean not a submarine Alpheus : 
it rises in the swamps, or Laguncts de 
Buidera, and loses itself again 15 miles 
from its source, at TomeUoso ; it reap- 
pears, after flowing 7 L. underground 
at Daymiel. The lakes which it throws 
up are called the eyes, Los qjos de la 
Guadiana, and the ground above is 
called the bridge. This and the eyes 
lead to trivial witticisms, in regard to 
the dark glancine Manchegas, and this 
bridge's superiority over the Pont Neuf 
at Paris. The disappearance is not 
sudden, like that of the Bhone, which 
descends into a gulf, as here it is sucked 
up into unpicturesque marshes. Their 
chief interest arises firom Don Quixote. 
The Cueva de Montesinos, into which 
the knight descended, although the 
name savours of romance and the 
peerage of Charlemagne, really exists in 

the Campo de MonUel. This site was 
the last scene of the fratricidal warfare 
between Pedro the Cruel and Henry of 
Trastamara, who here butchered his 
king and brother, aided by French 
knights, by whom the monarch was 
held unfairly down in the death- 
struggle. The decisive battle of Mori' 
tiel was fought Wednesday, March 14, 
1369. The dilatory Spaniard Pedro 
was surprised before his forces joined, 
by the rapid Frenchman Mosen Bel- 
tran de Claquin, the " hero " Du Ques- 
lin of the French, un ml traidor 
according to the Spaniards. (See Cro- 
nica del Rey Don Pedro, c. vi.). An 
indifferent history of this king has been 
written by P. Merim^. The cave lies 
about 1 L. from the village of Osa de 
Montiel ; it is near the JSrmita de Sae- 
lices, and one of the lacunas, of which 
by the way there are 11, and not 7, as 
Cervantes says. They are full of fish ; 
each has its own name, that of La Col' 
gada being the largest, deepest, and 
most interesting, because its cool waters 
are guarded by the rock-built ruined 
casj^ of Mochqfrida, in which lived 
Boca Florida, to whom Montesinos 
was married. 

Al Castillo llaman Rocha, 
Y a la fuente Frida. 

These lakes, these eyes of the Gua- 
diana, which, according to the Don, 
were fed to overflowing, as the Nile was 
by the tears of Isis (Pans. x. 32, 18), 
firom the tears of Belerma, with her 7 
daughters and 2 maidens weeping for 
her Durandante, slain at BoncevaUes, 
are really formed by the a^M^umulation 
of waters which flow down from the 
Sierra de Alcaraz. The Cueva de 
Montesinos (Don Quix. ii. 23) itself is 
about 40 yards wide and 60 deep, and 
is used as a refuge in storms by hunters 
and shepherds. The entrance is blocked 
up with underwood. As in the Don's 
time, it is the haunt of bats and birds, 
who have deposited a bed of guano 
nearly a foot thick. The cave probably 
was part of an ancient mine, as a laby- 
rinth of shafts have been traced, and 
heaps of metaUic rubbish, escoriales, 
found. There is a lake at the bottom. 

H 2 



Sect. IT. 

Perhaps Madridejos is the most 
convenient place to start from on a 
trip into Don Quixote's country, as JEl 
Tohoso lies about 7 L. distant, through 
Guero 4, and Osa de Montiel; and 
only 8 L., through Solatia 1, Alhambra 
3, and thence 4 more. A pleasant 
tour might be made by following the 
Don's route, which commentators have 
laid down, or rather attempted, for 
Cervantes wrote with the ^atest geo- 
graphical carelessness and inaccuracy. 
See, however the map of his route in 
the 2nd vol. of Pelliser's Madrid edi- 
tion, 1798. 

El Tohoso is a poor place on a plain, 
althoiagh €rf a European reputation; 
the name is derived from the tohasy or 
sort of porous stones, which still, as in 
the time of Cervantes, are much used in 
making water-jars. According to Pel- 
licer and Cervantic commentators, the 
original of the Don's sweetheart Dul- 
cinea, Aldonza Lorenzo Corchuelo, was 
a Miss Aldonza (a word which means 
sweet) Zarco de Morales, and she lived 
in the still existing Casa de Torredlla. 
El Toboso was moreover foundei^by 
Don Perez Correa, for whom the sun 
stood still (see Detentudia, p. 218). 

Continuing the high road to Madrid 
is Puerto Lapiche, a poor place, where 
the Don informed Sancho that they 
might get elbow-deep in adventures. 
The "Pass" is placed between two 
oliv6-clad gentle slopes, with sundry 
groups of windmills, which, being 
smaller than ours, are really not un- 
like giants at a distance; they are 
very numerous, for this is a country of 
much com to grind, and little water- 
power. The crack-brained knight 
might well be puzzled by these mills, 
for they were novelties at that time, 
having only been introduced into 
Spain in 1575, and had just before 
perplexed even Cardan, the wise man 
of his age, who describes one as if it 
had been a steam-engine : " Nor can I 
pass over in silence what is so won- 
derful, that before I saw it I could 
neither believe nor relate it without 
incurring the imputation of credulity ; 

t a thirst for science overcomes 

bashfulness " (De Ber. Var. i. 10). A 
new road is in contemplation from 
Puerto Lapiche to Almaden, and hence 
into Estremadura. 

Four it. from Manzanares to the rt. 
is Ar^amasilla de Alba, in the prison 
of which Cervantes is said to have 
written his Don Quixote. According 
to a tradition in the village he was 
confined in the Casa de Medrano. 
But free and immortal have been the 
works composed in durance vQe : the 
Bible was translated by Luther in the 
Castle of Wartburg ; the prison-engen- 
dered poem of Tasso, and the pilgrimage 
of Bunyan, roam over the world fresh, 
and unconfined ns the air we breathe. 

Near Villarta the province of New 
Castile is entered, which here resembles 
La Mancha. Madridejos, pop. 7000, 
has a nice, cool, refreshing inn. The 
bread is exquisite, although the water 
is bad, and the cheese not much better, 
however well it did for the Alfofy'as of 
honest, hungry Sancho, and his mule- 
teer digestion. The railroad w];^ch runs 
in 3 h. to Madrid commences at Tern- 
hleque, a cold, stony, wretched place. La 
Gruardia, rising on a ridge of rocks, was 
once an outpost gua/rd against the 
Moors. This hamlet was the birthplace 
oiJuan Passamowte, el Nino de Ghiardia, 
the theiSe of many a pen and pencil of 
Spam. The Toledan clergy in 1490 
accused the rich Jews of crucifying a 
Christian boy at thdr Passovers, and 
putting his heart into a Hostia^ and 
for the pretended sacrifice of this Juan, 
the wealthiest Israelites were burnt 
and their chattels confiscated. This 
accusation was very prevalent, e. g» 
our St. William of Norwich, and 
the boy Hugh of Lincoln. Consult, 
on this legend, and miracles of el Nino 
de OuardiafWorks by Rodrigo de Yepes, 
.4to. Madrid, 1583 ; by Juan Marieta, 
8vo., Mad, 1604; by Sebastian de 
Nieva; by Ant. Guzman, 1720, and 
also by Pisa. The orthodox account 
is painted in the parish church of La 
Gf^uardia, and -in the hermitage Jesus 
the actual cave is shown in which the 
martyred boy was kept and scourged 
three months before the Jews crucified 




him : credat Judeeus. Here, and indeed 
generally in these corn-growing central 
plains, the traveller should remark the 
eras, the common Spanish and Oriental 
threshing-floors in the open air, and 
the driving the trillo over the com, 
with horses, after a most Homeric 
fashion (see Gatherings, p. 115). The 
females hereabouts look half Swiss, half 
Dutch, with their blue and green petti- 
coats and handkerchiefs i6ider their 
chins. The miserable population, whofe 
houses were burnt by the invaders, bur- 
row Hke rabbits in troglodyte excava- 
tions, whence they emerge to beg of the 
dihgences as they ascend the hill. 

Thence to Ocaiia, between which and 
Los Ba/rrios the Spaniards, Nov. 19, 
1809, suflfered a defeat, one of the 
greatest of these many feats. In that 
year the Junta of Seville, urged by 
intriguers who sighed to get back to 
Madrid, and by others who wished to 
do without the English assistance, de- 
termined, in defiance of the Duke's 
warnings and entreaties, to assume the 
offensive. His letters seem really to 
have been written after the events, and 
not before them, so completely, with 
the inttiition of strong sense, did he 
understand the Spaniards ; and so truly 
4iid he prophesy their certain discom- 
fiture, the loss of Andalucia, and his 
own compulsory retreat into Portugal. 
The Junta prepared an army of 60,000 
men, armed and equipped by English 
monies. The leader, one Juan Carlos 
de Areizaga, advanced from the defiles, 
giving out that the English were with 
him ; and such fear thereupon prevailed 
at Madrid, where the report was be- 
heved, that the enemy thought at once 
of retreating vdthout a fight ; and had 
Areizaga advanced, he must have sur- 
prised and overwhelmed the handful of 
French at Aranjuez (Belmas, i. 99) : 
having, however, by his delay given 
Soult the means of collecting troops, he 
then, as if infatuated, risked a battle in 
the plain. There two short hours more 
than sufficed for 25,000 brave French to 
put 55,000 Spaniards to an indescribable 
rout, during which Areizaga placed 
himself on a belfry in Ocana, a mute 

spectator of his own disgrace, giving 
no directions whatever, except to order 
his reserve, a body of 15,000 men, 
who had not fired a shot, to retreat. 
He then, and Freire, the hero of San 
Mardal! set the example of flight; 
nor did either even attempt to make a 
stand behind the impregnable rocks of 
Despeiia-perros or Alcald la Meal. 
Their unhappy troops, deserted by 
their chiefs, could but follow their 
leaders. La Mancha was covered with 
runaways. Soult took 42 cannon, 
26,000 prisoners, and killed 5000, 
while his loss barely reached 1600. 
The Spanish army disappeared from 
the face of the earth: after the Oriental 
fashion, every man fled to his city and 
country. But Ocana is but a thing of 
Spain, past and present, where mis- 
fortime is no school. Compare Me- 
dellin, Ciudad Real, &c. Ocana was 
forthwith sacked, and the precious 
archives of the Ayimtamiento burnt. 

Buonaparte, who, jealous that it 
could be supposed in France that any 
one could do great things except him- 
self (Foy, i. 159), scarcely noticed the 
event. " Le Moniteur fit h. peine men- 
tion de cette memorable affaire, dont 
celui qui Tavait conduite eut pu comme 
Cesar rendre compte en trois mots, 
veni, vidi, vici." Yet as a victory it 
was most important, since it fixed 
Joseph on the tottering throne, gave 
Granada to Sebastiani, Seville to Soult, 
and placed the treasures and supphes 
of rich unpillaged Andalucia in their 
clutches. " Alas !" said the Duke, whose 
great planis were thus frustrated, " that 
a cause which promised so well a few 
weeks ago shoiild have been so com- 
pletely lost by the ignorance, pre- 
sumption, and mismanagement of those 
to whose direction it was confided" 
(Disp. Dec. 6, 1809). "Nothing would 
do but fighting great battles in plains, 
in which their defeat is as certain as 
is the commencement of the battle.'* 
Ferdinand VII., a prisoner atValen^ay, 
was mean or false enough, probably 
both, to write to congratulate Joseph 
on this victory (Schep. i. 69) ; while 
this incompetent Areizaga — Sonradis- 



Sect. II. 

simo nulUar ! repeats Madoz now-a- 
days, xii. 210 — who lost it, instead of 
being cashiered, was presented by the 
Junto with a fine horse, and was after- 
wards made Captain General of Biscay 
by this very Ferdinand in 1814 : Cos<u 
de Mspaiia, 

The diligence Pcurador and Posada 
de los Catalanes are decent ; Oeana is 
an uninteresting place, with some di- 
lapidated barracks : pop. 5000. As 
the roads from Valencia, Murcia, and 
Andalucia meet here, there is a con- 
stant passage of carriages, carts, and 
muleteers ; members of the temperance 
society will find the water here, which 
is so scarce and bad in La Mancha, most 
abundant and deUcious. Thid Juente 
vieja, with its aqueduct, has been attri- 
buted to the Bomans. The pubUc 
lavadero is worth the artist's attention 
for picturesque groups of garrulous 
particoloured washerwomen. Alonso 
de Ercilla, the author of the * Aran- 
cana,^ the epic of Spanish Uterature, 
was buried in the convent of CarmeUta^ 
Descalzas, His ashes were scattered 
to the dust by Soult*s troops ; yet 
Ercilla was a soldier, and soldiers have 
been the best poets and novelists of 
the Peninsula. At Ocafia the natural 
son of Philip IV., Don Juan of Aus- 
tria, who played such a distinguished 
part in the minority of Charles II., 
was brought up. The natural children 
of the Spanish kings never were allowed 
to enter Madrid during their father's 
life, from the grandees disputing their 
taking precedence over them. 

Emerging through a rocky gorge of 
volcanic hiUs, we reach Aranjuez (for 
details consult Index) ; and on pass- 
ing the palace, and the Plaza de San 
Antonio, the Tagus is crossed by an 
iron suspension bridge. Driving up 
the verdurous calle larffa, a noble stone 
bridge, built by Charles III., is carried 
across the Jarama. After ascending 
the C-aesta de la Rema^ the descent 
recommences, and the oasis Aranjuez, 
with its green meadows, gardens, night- 
ingales, and watersprings, disappears, 
while its remembrance becomes doubly 
ightful from, the contrast with tawny 

nakedness. A raUroad, opened Nov. 
13, 1850, runs from the portal of the 
palace to Madrid. 

Continuing by the road soon after 
passing Valdemoro, which, why and 
wherefore we know not, is coupled with 
Pinto, to express a "half tipsy, half- 
seas-over man " in Spain, is the cajstle 
of Pinto, in which the Princess of Eboli 
was confined by Philip II. The 
Hermitage and Telegraph of Pinto is 
considered to be the central point of 
the Peninsula. Soon Madrid is per- 
ceived, rising on a broken eminence 
out of an apparent plain. Only a 

Sortion being seen, it looks small, mo- 
em, and un-Spanish, from its low 
domes and extinguisher-shaped spires : 
the last relay is at Los Angeles, " The 
Angels," where devils would not live 
could they help it. Approaching the 
bed of the Manzanares the scene im- 
proves, especially when there is any 
water in it. The dip is crossed by a 
superb viaduct. The diligence usually 
winds round the mean mud walls to the 
rt., enters the Puerta de Atocha, and 
then passes through the Prado and 
Calle de Alcald; thus offering, for the 
first sight, the best promenade and 
finest street of the capital. For Madrid, 
see Sect, xi., New Castile. 

Route 10. — ^ValdepeSas to 

Moral 2 

Almagro 2 .. 4 

audadReal 3 .. 1 

Al Corral de Caraquel. . 3 .. 10 

CabezaradoB 3 .. 13 

Abenojar 1 .. 14 

Saceniela 4 .. 18 

Almaden 5 .. 23 

The road to Ciudad Beal is carriage- 
able. It is in contemplation to improve 
the whole route from Puerto Lapiche 
and thence on to AUnaden, and so on 
into Estremadura. Almagro is a well- 
built, agricultural town, with a fine 
convent of the Calatrava order of the 
16th century: observe the staircaise 
and cloisters. Much blond laoe is 
made here. At 1^ L. distant, on the 




road to Almodovar del Campo, is Ghra- 
natula, the Tillage ia which Baldomero 
Espartero was bom, in 1790. His 
&ther was an humble dealer in Esparto. 
The son, destined to be a monk, began 
life as a poor student, but, when the 
war of independence broke out, his 
martial turn led him to join el hatoMon 
tagrado. In 1816 he volunteered to 
serve in S. America. Haying, it is 
said, won money of Canterac and other 
generals, with whom pay was in a case 
of stagnation, he was paid by^promo- 
tion. He fought weU during the pre- 
vious campaigns against BoUvar. This 
war was endSi by the battle of Aya- 
cucho,* in Lower Peru, where Sucre 
(Dec. 8, 1825) completely defeated the 
royahsts. A drdra convention ensued, 
by which the beaten officers secured 
their safe transpoHcttion to Spain, and 
to new titles; hence the depreciatory 
apodo, or nickname, IJos Ayacttchos, of 
which Maroto, Yaldes, Eodil, Taoon, 
Seoane, and sundry other mediocrities 
were among the stsurs. Espartero hav- 
ing obtained the rank of a colonel, and 
being quartered at Logrono, there mar- 
ried Dona Jacinta de la Cruz, a most 
excellent lady of considerable fortune. 
The AyacuchoSf companions in dis- 
grace, clung afterwards together; the 
defeats by the Carlists of the blunder- 
ing Yaldes, Cordova, and Co., made 
way for Espartero, whose fortune was 
completed by the death of Zumulacar- 
regui, and his reUef of Bilbao by help 
of the English ; then he soon managed 
the Yergara convention with his brother 
Ayacucho Maroto, and thus rose to be 
the Duke of Yictory. Personally a 
very brave and honest man, he was 
timid and vacillating in authority, and 
therefore fell imder the intrigues of 
Christina and Louis Philippe ; as Re- 
gent he was disposed to govern accord- 
ing to constitutional law. Now-a-days 
— 1854 — ^he has a better chance. Ve- 

Ciudad Meal ; Posada de las More- 

* Ayacucho ia an Indian word, and signifies 
the "plain of the dead," as it was the site of 
one of AlmagTo's and Pizarro's early butcheries 
of the poor aborigines, whose manes were now 

ras: this royaZ ci^^, although Cervantes 
did call it " imperial and the seat of the 
god of smiles," is one of the poorest and 
dullest of the inland capitals of Spain, 
and one of the most atrasado, and that 
is saying something: pop. about 10,000. 
The capital of its province, one rich in 
mines and in neglected capabihties, it 
was built on a plain near the Ghia- 
dia^na by Alonso el Sahio^ <^<1 entitled 
Real by Juan II. in 1420 ; portions of 
the walls with towers remain. Before 
the final conquest of Granada it wa«> 
in fact, the frontier city and seat of 
the Court of Chancery for the south. 
Here Ferdinand and Isabella organised 
the H&rmandad^ a mounted brother- 
hood, a gendarmerie or guardia civile 
to protect the roads. Among the few 
objects at Ciudad B*eal, visit the noble 
pile of the hospital founded by Cardinal 
Lorenzana, converted into a barracks 
by Sebastiani; notice the curious strong 
semi moresque Ptierta de Toledo. The 
city is under the patronage of the Vir- 
gin del Prado ; her image, found in a 
meadow, is the palladium of the parish 
church ; the silver offerings disappeared 
mostly in the last war. This church 
has a magnificent single Gothic nave 
and a Betablo with subjects from the 
Passion, carved in 1616 by Giraldo de 
Merlo, and almost equal to Montanes : 
a lofty tower has recently been buHt. 

Near Ciudad Beal, on the 27th 
March, 1809, while Yictor was routing 
the *' old blockhead" Cuesta at Me- 
dellin, did Sebafitiani, with only 12,000 
men, by one charge ! put to instanta- 
neous flight 19,000 Spaniards, com- 
manded by Urbina, Conde de Cartoajal, 
This pobrecito had marched and coun- 
termarched his Bisonos almost to death 
for 48 hours, and for no object (Toreno, 
viii.). In the moment of attack he lost 
his head, and one regiment of Dutch 
hussars! scattered the whole Spanish 
army! 1500 were killed, 4000 taken 
prisoners. Cartoajal and the rest they 
ran away : then, as usual, were lost all 
the English arms and stores provided 
for the defence of the Sierra Morena, 
but which, entrusted to fools and 
cowards, became, in feet, so mu**^ 



Sect. II. 

assistance, as elsewhere, to the common 
enemy. Cartoajal, instead of being 
cashiered, was praised ! by the Cadiz 
regency, and was declared to have de- 
served well of his country! (Schep. 
ii. 671). 

The Spanish army disappeared from 
the faceof the earth j after the Oriental 
fashion, every man fled to his city and 
country. But all this is but a thing 
of Spain, past and present. What says 
Livy (xxi. 17), describing the victory 
of Manlius : " Turdetani (the Andalu- 
cians), freti tamen mulUtudine sud oh- 
viam ierunt agmini Bomano. JEques im- 
missus turbavit extemplo aciem eorum. 
Pedestre prseUum nuUius ferme certa- 
minis fuit. MiUtes veteres, perites hos- 
tium helUque^ baud dubiam pugnam 
fecere." Again, on another occasion, 
"Pulsi castris Hispani, aut qui ex 
prseUo effugerant sparsi primo per 
agros (see Talavera, &c.), deinde in 
suaaquisquecivitatesredienmt" (Livy, 
xxix. 2). 

Route 11. — Seville to Badajoz. 

Aracena 18 

Segura de Leon 6 


. 3 


. 3 

Fuente del Maestre . . 

. 3 

Santa Marta . . . . 



. . 3 



This, the mountain road, must be 
ridden : for the first 24 L. see p. 216. 
At Valencia, 3 L. from Segura de Leon, 
is another fine castle. Passing Medina 
de las Torres we reach Zafra, placed 
under a denuded ridge to the 1. : pop. 
some 5000. Posada de Pepe indif- 
ferent. This most ancient city was the 
Segeda of the Iberians and Julia Besti- 
tuta of the Bomans. It is full of 
buildings begun in better times and on 
a grand scale, but they have either re- 
mained unfinished, or have been de- 
stroyed by the invaders under Drouet, 
in 1811. 

The great lords of Zafra were the 
Figueroas, whose dukedom of Feria is 
now merged in that of the Medina Celi, 
Their shield, charged with canting fig- 

leaves, stiU appears on the chief edi- 
fices, although generally defaced by the 
French. First visit the ducal Falacio, 
passing out by the handsome granite 
Puerta del Acebuche: this Gk)thic Al' 
cazar was erected, as an inscription 
over the portal states, by Lorenzo 
Suarez de Figueroa, in 1437. Near 
the porch is one of the curious primi- 
tive iron-ribbed cannon, saved from 
the many others which the invaders 
destroyed when they plundered the 
once curious armoury and made a for- 
tress of the palace. The patio has been 
modernized in the Herrera style, and 
is handsome, with fine marbles, Ionic 
and Doric pillars, and a fountain. The 
interior, gutted by the enemy, has been 
degraded by the stewards of the duke, 
who have from time to time suited this 
once lordly dwelling to their base wants 
and tastes. The open arched galleries 
between the huge towers of the Alcazar 
command fine views over the gardens 
and olive-grounds of the environs. 

Adjoining to the Alcazar is the unfi- 
nished convent of Santa Marina, which 
was desecrated by the invaders. In 
the chapel observe the sepulchre of 
Margaret Harrington, daughter of Lord 
Exton, erected in 1601 by her cousin, 
the Duchess of Feria, also an English 
woman ; she was the Jane Dormer, the 
most trusted of Queen Mary's ladies of 
honour, and the wife of Phihp II.'s. 
ambassador in London at the important 
moment of Elizabeth's succession. Her 
body rests here, but, true to her country 
in death, she sent her heart to England. 
Her effigy kneels before a prie Dieu, 
with a mantle on her head ; it was once 
painted, but has been whitewashed : her 
portrait was destroyed by the French. 

Going out of the Puerta de Sevilla 
is a nice httle dlameda, with a dehcious 
water-spring, brought in on arches, and 
called La fuente del Duque. Among 
the GrsBco-Eomano buildings in Zafra- 
observe the magnificent marble Doric 
and Ionic patio of La Casa Qrande, 
built by the Daza MaJdonados, and the 
fine colonnades j notice also the Doric 
and Ionic brick tower of the Colegiata; 
neither of these edifices are finished, or 




ever vnil be : meantime the Plaza de 
Toros has been completed. 

Visit next the Santa Clara, founded 
by the Figueroas in 1428 (see date 
over portal) ; the invaders desecrated 
this convent and mutilated the recum- 
bent figures of the fouuder and his 
wife, and a Boman statue in a toga and 
sandals: observe the effigy of Ghi-rci- 
lazo de la Vega, killed before Q-ranada 
in the presence of Enrique IV. ; re*- 
mark his singular bonnet. The French 
made this gallant knight's statue, with 
others of the Figueroa femily, the butt 
of wanton outrage ; observe that with- 
out a head, called Dona Maria de Moya. 

The road at Z(ifra diverges, and 
passes either to Merida, 9'L., by dreary 
Almend/ralejo, where, Aug. 25, 1847, 
the great silver Disco of Theodosius 
was found, now at Madrid in the Acar 
demy of History, and then either by 
arid Torre Mejia, or by the high road 
through Albuera. 

Route 12. — Sbtiixe to Badajoz, 

Guillena . . 
Ronquillo . 
Santa Olalla 
Monasterio . 
Fuente de Cantos 





Los Santos 4 .. 22 

Santa Marta .... 5 .. 27 

Albuera 3 . . 30 

Bad^oz 4 .. 34 

A diligence, bad and dear, runs this 
line in firom 24 to 30 h. : the posadas 
are indifferent throughout. This ex- 
tremely uninteresting road winds over 
the Sierra Morena chain^ Fewtravellers 
are ever met with save the migratory 
caravans, which bring com down from 
Salamanca and take back salt from 
Cadiz. The carts, oxen, men, and dogs 
are made for artists, and their nightly 
bivouacs of sheep, folded or rather 
netted in enredelados with ropes of 
espartOy and clustering by the sides of 
the roads, in the glens and underwood, 
are very nomade, national, and pic- 
turesque. Ronquillo rejoices in having 
given birth to the famous Alcalde of 
Charles V., a Spanish Jeffries, whose 

Draco process has passed into a pro- 
verb; he convicted and executed all 
culprits — the old for what they had 
done, the young ones for what they 
would have done, had they been spared 
and grown up; he it was who hung 
up the Bishop of Zamora at Simancas. 

Above Santa Olalla is a ruined 
Moorish castle, whence enjoy a pano» 
rama of mountains. Soon we entar 
Estremadura (see Sect. vii.). At Mor 
nasterio, Posada del Montcmes, is thie 
point where the waters part, descends 
ing either into the Gxiadiana or Guar 
dalquivir. Fuente de Cantos is the 
birth-place of Zurbaran ; the lull towns 
are uninteresting and agricultural ; the 
natives seldom stray beyond their pa* 
rishes or are visited by strangers. Figs 
and game of all kinas thrive in these 
ranges of the Sierra Morena. 

Albuera — Parador del offua — an in* 
significant hamlet of itself, owes its 
European fame to its " glorious field of 
grief," and the murderous conflict, 
May 16, 1811, between Soult and Be* 
resford. Passing the bridge the town 
rises m front ; the battle took plaoe on 
the rid^e to the 1. After Massena^ in- 
stead of driving the English into the- 
sea, as he boasted, was himself driven 
by them from Santarem, the Duke ad- 
vanced on Estremadura to retake Ba- 
dajoz ; but his plans were marred, by 
Mahy's negligence in GkJUoia, which 
forced him to return. Now, rapid eir 
pedition was everything, as the fortress 
was to be pounced upon before the 
French could relieve it, yet Bepesford^s 
" unfortunate delay " gave Philippon 
the governor, ample time to provision 
and strengthen the place, besides eu" 
abling Soult to march from Seville to 
its relief. Blake and Castanos, glut- 
tons for fighting, then persuaded Be- 
resford to risk a general action when 
nothing could be gained by a victory, 
for the siege was virtually raised, while 
a reverse would have entirely paralysed 
the Duke, and neutralised the glories 
of Torres Vedras. Beresford had only 
about 7000 English, and, although he 
knew the ground well, " occupied it," 
says STapier, " in such a manner as tr 

K 8 



Sect. II. 

render defeat almoBt certain.*' He was 
the only man in the army who did not 
see that the hill to the rt. was his really 
vulnerable point, and where, to make 
bad worse, he placed the Spaniards. 
Boult, who saw the blot, attacked and 
drove them back without difficulty, and 
the " whole position was raked and com- 
manded." Then Houghton led up the 
67th, who saved the day, the Spaiuards 
remaining, ais at Barrosa, "quiet specta- 
tors." " Out of 1400 men 1050 were 
killed and wounded;" "the dead lay in 
their ranks, every man with a wound in 
the front." Their brave leader fell at 
their head, cheering them on to the 
bayonet charge, which, as usual, settled 
the affair. " Then 1500 unwounded men, 
the remnant of 7000, stood," writes 
Napier, " triumphant on the fatal hilL" 
" This little battalion," says the Duke, 
" alone held its ground against all the 
French colonnes en ma*se" Soult in 
vain pushed on with the reserves under 
Werle, who was killed, and his troops 
fled, throwing away their arms (Vict, et 
Oonq. XX. 242) : " Mais que pouvaient 
5000 bai'onettes contre un ennemi 
quatrefois plus nombreux ?" — for thus 
1600 men are converted into 20,000 
men in buckram by one dash of a 
French pen. 

Beresiord, who had actually ordered 
Halket to retreat, was saved, says If a- 
pier (xii 6), by Col. Hardinge, who, on 
his own responsibility, brought up Cole 
and Abercrombie; others, however, 
and Beresford's dispatch, assign this 
merit to Cole, who in fact was the su- 
perior officer. 

Both armies bivouacked on the 
ground ; and had Soult the next day, 
with his 15,000 Frenchmen, ventured 
to renew the attack against 1600 Fng- 
Ush, he must have succeeded; but, 
awed by their bold front, he retired, 
leaving nearly 1000 wounded to his 
repulser's mercy. His army, even in 
the words of Belmas (i. 184), his own 
author, "se d^banda dans le plus 
affreux d^ordre ; le moral se trouvait 
fort affects." The French real loss was 
between 8000 and 9000 men — even they 
" =»mit 2800 } that of the English was 

4158, of the Spaniards 1365. The Duke 
in public sluelded Beresford, whose 
great capabilities for drilling the Por- 
tuguese he justly appreciated. " Ano- 
ther such a battle, however," wrote he. 
privately, "would ruin us. I am 
working hard to set all to rights again." 
On the 21st he visited the field, and 
in a few weeks offered Soult another 
chance of another victory , which the 
Marshal, who knew that a better man 
was come in, politely declined; he, 
however, claimed the "complete vic- 
tory" as his ; and now his non-succ^ is 
ascribed to the numerical superiority of 
the English. Durosoir (Guide, 244) 
simply states that 20,000 French fought 
against 45,000 English or Spaniards j 
which Bory de St. Vincent (Guide, 109) 
makes out to be 22,000 against 50,000, 
Soult's real forces amounting to 19,000 
foot and 4000 horse ; thus history is 
written in France; for the truths read 
Napier (xii. 6), and his unanswerable 
and unanswered replies to Beresford, 
vol. vi. andtheDuke's 'Dispatches' (vol. 
vii.). The Portuguese also claim the 
fighting as theirs : " apres la bataille 
d'Albuera," relates Schepeler, "j'en- 
tendis moi-m^me un officier Portugais 
dire, 'Les Espagnols se sont battus 
comme des lions^ les Portugais comme 
des serpens, mais les Anglais Niente 
Niente r (not at all,) dit-il avec d€- 
dain ;" and the Spaniard Blake, in his 
letter thanking the Begency for making 
him a captain-general for his services 
on this day, never even alluded to 
the English ; and now-a-days, all the 
glory is claimed by Nosotros ; accord- 
ing to Madoz (i. 343), the English di- 
vision was saved by BaUasteros! and 
this signal instance of Spanish ineffi- 
ciency termed, " Una de las mas dignas 
glorias del Pueblo Espanol ! ! Becently, 
however, a sort of monument has been 
erected in which, credite posteri ! even 
the names of the English generals are 
inscribed — what a compliment to them 
— pari passu, with those of the Spa- 
niards! For Badajoz, see Sect. vii. 
Those who wish to avoid Badajoz can 
ride in one long day direct from Albuera 
to Merida, about 10 L. through Lohon, 

JRonda ^ Granada, 

( 251 ) 




The Serrania de Ronda ; Character of the Country and Natives ; Smuggling. 



Osona; Loja. 




ROUTE 17. — SEVILLE TO RONDA. . . 260 
Moron ; OlTera. 

ROUTE 18. — SEVILLE TO RONDA. . . 260 




ROUTE 20. — RONDA TO XEREZ • • • '263 
Grazalema; Aroos. 

Teba; Anteqn^ra. 

ROUTE 22. — RONDA TO MALAGA. . .^66' 


Gaucin ; San Boqne ; Gibraltar ; Trips to 
Africa; Centa; Tangiersi Tetoan. 

Fnengirola; Monda. 

MALAGA • 283 


Velez Malaga ; Alhama. 


ExcnrsionB near Granada ; Soto de 
Roma; Sierra Nevada; Quarries of San 
Juan; Ultimo Susptro. 

The Alpi:Jarra8 ; Laqjaron ; Beija. 

ROUTE 27.— ADRA TO MALAGA • • •332 


Almeria ; Cabo de Gata. 

ROUTE 30. — ALMERIA TO JAEN • • 335 
Macael ; Orcera ; Ul)eda ; Baeza ; Linares. 


No^ 1.. 



No. 2. 







The last of these two Routes is well suited 
for geological and botanical pursuits. The 
early summer and autumnal months are tlie 
best periods for these excurtdous. 

The Serrania de Ronda. 

The jumble of mountains of which Ronda is the centre and capital, lies to the 
1. of the basin of the Guadalquivir, and between the sea and the kingdom ' 


Granada. The districts both of Ronda and Granada are an Alpine inter- 
change of hill and valley : although only separated a few leagues from the 
plains and coasts of Seyille and Malaga, the difference of climate and geo- 
graphy is most striking ; thus, while the barley harvests are over in the tierra 
caliente about the middle of May, the crops in the Vega of Granada are green 
in June. These mountains form the barrier which divides the central zone 
from the southern, and are a sort of ofiPshoot from the great Sierra Morena 
chain. Temperate Ronda is consequently much resorted to in the summer 
by the parched inhabitants of the hotter districts. Ronda, elevated amidst 
its mountains, enjoys at once the fresh breezes from the sea and the open 
country ; the air is pure, rare, and bracing : thus, in summer the mornings 
and evenings are cool, although the thermometer in the shade reaches 80° at 
mid-day, when the prudent traveller, invalid or not, will restore his bodily 
vigour by an indoor siesta. 

The roads are steep, rugged, and bad : many are scarcely practicable even 
for mules. The Spanianls in olden times never wished to render their 
Seville frontier very accessible to the Moors, and now the fear of facilitating 
an invasion from Gibraltar prevented the Bourbon from improving the com- 
munications. The posadas are not much better than the roads, and suit the 
iron frames, and oil and garlic ilia and digestions of the smugglers and robbers, 
who delight, like the chamois, in hard fare and precipices. The traveller 
must attend to the provend or " proband," as the great authority Captain 
Dalgetty would say : a cabaUero visiting these hungry localities should " victual 
himself with vivers " for three days at least, as there is no knowing when and 
where he may get a tolerable meal. Ronda and Granada arc good central 
spots for excursions. Their snowy sierras are river sources for the tierras 
cMientes, and the fruits and vegetation in the fresh hills are those of Switzer- 
land ; thus to the botanist is offered a range from the hardiest lichen of the 
Alps, down to the orange and sugar-cane in the maritime strips. This serrania 
is best seen in the summer, for at other times either the cold is piercing, or 
the rains swell the torrents, which become impassable. 

The natural strength of this country has from time immemorial suggested 
sites for " hill-forts " (Hirt. * B.H.' 8), the type of which is clearly Oriental ; 
perched everywhere like eagles* nests on the heights, and exactly where a 
painter would have placed them for a picture, they are the homes of brave 
highlanders, to whom the chase and smuggling are daily bread. The French, 
during the Peninsular war, were so constantly beaten back by these sharp- 
shooters that they became very shy of attacking hornets* nests fuller of lead 
than gold. These partisans were true sons of the Iberians of old, those Spanish 
cohorts which defeated the Romans " sub jugo montis," in rocky defiles, the 
types of Roncesvalles and Bailen. " Adsuetoir montibus et ad concnrsandum 
inter saxa rupesque.'* (Livy, xxii. 18). The hills were their ** country ;" 
for Diod. Siculus has anticipated Rob Roy's designation of his wild domain. 
** The Gmrillero" said the Duke, " is the only useful arm ; he is better ac- 
quainted with his trsuie than what is called the ofl&cer of the regular Spanish 
army; he knows the country better, and is better known to the inhabitants, 
and above all he has no pretension to military character" (Disp. May 3d, 
1810). The raw material of the giierillero was in all times the bandit ; robbery 
was the stock on which this patriotism best sprouted. Compare Livy, xxviii. 
21 ; Floras, ii. 17, 15; Strabo, iii. 238, with the modern warwhoop, " Viva 
Fei^nando y vamos robando." The system of smuggling is the best organised 
one in this uncommercial land, where the contrabandista corrects the blunder- 
ing chancellors of exchequers and custom-house ofl&cers. Spain has an 
enormous frontier to watch, and is a land in which an honest official seldom 
rows ; all duties above 25 per cent, everywhere encourage the smuggler, and 

■^e the fiscal regulations are so ingeniously absurd, that the fair merchant ia 

Ronda ^ Granada, the smugglers of ronda. 253 

as much hampered thereby, as the irregular trader is favoured; the operation of 
prohibitory and excessive duties on articles which people must, and therefore 
will have, leads to breaches of the peace, injury to the fair dealer, and loss to 
the revenue ; the enormous profits tempt the ^asantry from honest occupa- 
tions, and render those idle, predatory, and ferocious, who under a wiser system 
would remain virtuous and industrious ; the fiscal is the curse of Spain and 
Spaniards, it fosters a body of reckless, active armed men, who know the country 
well, and are ready for any outbreak. They emerge, elements of disturb- 
ance, from their lairs, whenever the political horizon darkens, just as the stormy 
petrel comes forth from his hidden home to usher in the tempest. Smuggling 
habituates the already well-disposed Spaniard to breaches of the law, to a 
defiance of constituted authority; and a hatred to the e;rcise, which pinches his 
belly, is as natural to the heart of man, as a dislike to duties on dress is to the 
soul of woman. In Spain the evasion is not deemed a heinous crime, or a moral 
offence, but barely a conventional one ; a malum prohibitum, not a malum per se ; 
those who defraud the custom-house are only considered as attacking an odious 
administration by which the nation at large is robbed. The masses in Spain 
go heart and mind with the smuggler, as they do in England with the poacher. 
They shield a bold useful man who supplies them with a good article at a fair 
price. Nay, some of the mountain curates, whose flock are all in that line, 
just deal with the offence as a pecado venial, and readily absoWe those who 
pay for a very little detergent holy water. 

The Spanish smuggler, so far nt>m feeling himself to be a criminal or de- 
graded, enjoys in his country tlie brilliant reputation which attends daring 
personal adventure, among a people proud of individual prowess. He is the 
model of the popular sculptor and artist — the hero of the stage, its Macheath : 
he comes on dressed out in full Majo costume, with his retajo or blunderbuss 
in his hand, and sings the well-known Seguidilla: "Yo que soy contra- 
bandista, yo ho ! " to the delight of the old and young, from the Straits to the 
Bidasoa, tide-waiters not excepted. In his real character he is welcome in 
every village ; he brings sugar and gossip for the curate, money and cigars for 
the attorney, ribbons and cottons for the women. He is magnificently dressed, 
which has a great charm for all Moro-Iberian eyes, whose delight is Boato, or 
external ostentation. He is bold and resolute. " None but the brave deserve 
the fair.'' He is a good rider and shot, knows every inch of the intricate 
country, wood or water, hill or dale ; he swears and smokes like a man, and 
displays, in short, all those daring, active, and independent personal energies 
which a debasing misgovemment has elsewhere too often neutralized. 

The expensive preventive service of Resguardos, Carabineros, &c., which is 
everywhere established in order to put down the smuggler, in reality rather 
assists him, than otherwise. The empleados of all kinds receive a very small 
salary, and that is often ill-paid. It is impossible to resist the temptation of 
making in one evening more than a six-months' pay : practically the custom- 
house officers receive their emoluments from the smuggler, who can readily 
obtain all the official documents, legal certificates, &c., on false returns ; again 
on the frontier, where armed parties are stationed to intercept smugglers, a 
free passage is bargained for with those very guards who were placed there 
to prevent it ; quis custodes custodiet ? The commander, when duly bribed, 
pretends to receive information of smuggling in a distant quarter, withdraws 
his men, and thus leaves everything open for " running the cargo." These 
gentry, in fact, only worry inoffensive travellers, or, in a word, all who do not 
pay them hush money. 

The traveller near Gibraltar will see enough of the Contrabandista Fondeuo, 
and a fine fellow he is: a cigar and a bota of wine open his heart at the Venta 
fire-side, and he likes and trusts an EDglishman, not that he wont rob him *' 
in want of cash. The Contrabandista of Eonda is one of the most pictures' 
of his numerous class in a locality where " everybody smuggles.'* 



Sect. III. 

BocTE 13.— Seyilla to Granada, bt 


There are many wa^s of performing 
the journey from Seville to Granada ; 
1st, by steam to Cadiz and Malaga, and 
thence by Loja in the diligence ; 2ndly, 
by ridinff across the wild country 
through Osuna ; Srdly, by going in the 
diligence to Cordova, and then riding 
oyer the mountains by Alcald la Seal ; 
and 4thly, which perhaps is the best 
for ladies, by coach to Andujar, and 
then across to Jaen, or by the Madrid 
diligence up to Bailen, and thence tak- 
ing the down diligence to Granada. 

Gandol 3 

Arahal 4 .. 7 

LaPuebla 4 .. 11 

Osuna. . . • . . . 3 .. 14 

Pedrera ...*.. 3 .. It 

Roda 2 .. 19 

Alameda 2 .. 21 

Va. de Arcfaidona ... 4 .. 25 

LoJa 3 .. 28 

Va-deCacin 2 .. 30 

Granada 6 .. 36 

This direct road, between these im- 
portant cities, can scarcely be called 
one ; the line is, however, practicable 
for carriages during tl^e summer, and 
is taken by the galera, which performs 
the journey in 6 days ; in England a 
railroad would run it in 6 h. There is 
a talk of one to Osuna, Theposadas are 
bad; attend to the proyend. Well-girt 
riders may do the journey in 4 days. 

These districts, although the soil is 
fertile and the suns genial, have been 
abandoned by the Spaniard since the 
Moorish conquest. Corn-plains have 
become dehesas, overgrown with pal- 
mitos, and the lair of the wolf and 
robber; those travelling with ladies 
should scarcely venture on this route 
without an escort. 

At Gandul is a Moorish castle, amid 
palms and orange-groves, after which 
a wide level leads to Arahal, where the 
posada del Sol is tolerable ; Moron rises on 
its conical hill to the rt. Osuna, a large 
town of 1 5,000 souls, hot in summer, 
but healthy, domineers over its fer- 
tile plain. Although a central point 

is left in a most scandalous wantx>f 
"^on communications, and nearly 

inaccessible in wet weather and winter. 
Posada, Caballo Blanco, and del Bosario, 
at the« outside, coming from Seville. 
The apex of the triangular hill is 
crowned by a castle and the colegiata ; 
the streets are straggling; the build- 
ings are whitened with cal de Moron ; 
the carnation pinks, grown in pots 
imbedded in the houses, are superb. 

Osuna was called Gemina Urban- 
«mm, because 2 legions, and both of 
Rome, happened to be quartered there 
at the same time. The Spanish annalists 
prefer deriving the name from Osuna, 
daughter of Hispan, who married 
Pyrrhus, a killer of boars ; hence the 
arms of the city, a castle with 2 boars 
chained to a window. The early coins 
found here are numerous and curious 
(T^orez, * M.* ii. 625). Osuna was 
taken from the Moors in 1240 ; Philip 
II. granted it to Pedro Giron, whom 
Francois I. used to call Le bel Espagnol, 
For thifi noble family (doubtless de- 
scendants of the fabulous Geryon) con- 
sult the ' Compendio de los Girones,' 
Jer«. Gudiel, Alcala, 1577. TheGirons 
became the true patrons of Osuna; 
thus Juan Tellez, in 1534, founded the 
church, and his son, in 1549, the col- 
lege. Ajcend to the castle: the 
panorama is extensive. The colegiata, 
built in 1534, in the mixed Gothic 
and cinque-cento style,was converted 
by Soult into a citadel and magazine, 
for, as in olden times, Osuna is an im- 
portant military position, from its fine 
spring, water being wanting in the 
plain8(Hirt.*B.H.'41). TheMarshaVs 
soldiers amused themselves with mu-< 
tilating the terra cotta sacred subjects 
over the cinque-cento portal, and with 
firing at the grand Crucifixion by 
Ribera, which was afterwards restored 
by Joaquin Cortes. There also are 
other 4 gloomy pictures by Ribera in 
the Betc&lo, which were brought from, 
Naples by the celebrated Viceroy Duke. 
The marbles of the pavement are 
fine; Soult carried off more than 5 
cwt. of ancient church plate ; a gilt Cor- 
dovan cup has alone escaped. Visit 
the underground portions of this ch. 
The Patio del Seputcro is in Berruguete 
taste. In the Sacristia is a Christ, by 
Morales. The vaults are supported by 

Eonda^ Granada. boute 13. — loja. 


Moorish arches. The mortal remains 
of the Girons lie in a labyrinth of 
sepulchral passages. The presentDuke, 
12th of his family, scarcely attends 
sufficiently to the decorous condition 
of the ashes of his ancestors. 

Leaving Osuna, 2 short L. are AgiMs 
dalces, whose sweet waters create an 
oasis in these aromatic dehesas, Estepa 
lies' to the 1. about 2 L. from Roda^ on 
the road to Ecija' some traces of 
Astapa are yet visible o